The introduction of non-indigenous \
1.Botanists have generated attempts Jo remove the Japanese knotweed because______.(A)
A. it threatens the local biodiversity
B. it is regarded as exotic
C. it’s so vigorous as to spread everywhere
D. it checks other plants’ growth
2.In the author’s opinion, the attempt to eradicate the Japanese knotweed______.(D)
A. is worthy of praises
B. reflects people’s desire to protect ecological biodiversity
C. shows people’s passion to save endangered species and vulnerable ecosystems
D. is resulted from people’s prejudice
3.What does the word \(D)
A. The ecological disorders.
B. The passion to save the endangered ecosystem.
C. The ecological imperialism.
D. The fear for alien species.
解析：含义题。根据第一、二段中的信息，如The introduction of non-indigenous“exotic”species，another form of ecological imperialism和natural等多处线索可推测xenophobia意为：排外主义，仇外。故D项符合题意。
4.As for what to do about alien species, the author thinks______.(C)
A. who should make such decisions is open to doubt
B. the decisions should be based on scientists’ conclusions
C. decision making should involve more people other than scientists
D. it’ s morally unacceptable to eradicate all alien species
解析：细节题。文章第三、四段中，作者对如何对待外来物种提出了自己的看法。如在第三段中，作者指出谁应该做出这样的决定以及他们对这样的问题应该负责的程度也必须被重新认识(And who should make such decisions and to what degree they are accountable must also be up for review．)。第四段中作者更加明确地指出决策民主化的观点(Yet there is a growing feeling for the democratization of decisions concerning nonhuman life．)。故正确答案为C项。
5.Which of the following facts is true?(B)
A. To eliminate alien species for the sake of the indigenous ones is justifiable.
B. The feeling for human making democratic decisions on other species is increasing
C. People’s attitudes towards alien species involve economic considerations.
D. Human have to design nature to protect biodiversity.
解析：细节题。根据文章最后一段中Yet there is a growing feeling for the democratization of decisions concerning nonhuman life可知，B项正确。
Humans are having a hard enough time coping with the natural variability in our environment, which causes disasters such as heat waves, wildfires and floods. Waiting without actions makes all three of those problems—and many more—worse.
That was the serious warning from the world’s scientific community last week, in the latest report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The U.N.-chartered body produced its first comprehensive report since 2007 on the climate changes.
There are some things the scientists are very confident will happen in a warming world over the next century. Sea levels will rise, threatening coastal cities and low-lying nations. Island states could get hit very hard. There are probably going to be relatively more extremely hot days than extremely cold ones, and food-borne illnesses will probably increase.
But part of the risk of climate change is that scientists don’t have a crystal ball to foretell how, exactly, the environment will respond to rising temperatures, and they are trying to predict effects over the course of decades. The experts anticipate that forests could die off and that wetland and rain forest ecosystems could crumble. They anticipate effects on water systems just about everywhere: more flooding in many places, less water in dry areas, more humidity inhibiting human labor in wetter climes.
There could also be some positive effects for some, the experts note. They predict fewer deaths due to cold, but more due to heat. Some areas of the planet, particularly in higher latitudes, might become more fertile. But lower crop yields elsewhere will outweigh those benefits. Indeed, the planet’s green lands along the equator might be much worse off. The scientists, for example, predict that fish and other aquatic life will flee elsewhere as ocean temperatures change. And, of course, there could be effects, good and bad, that the experts aren’t anticipating. That shouldn’t be comforting.
The experts leave little doubt about the right response: Cut pollution to head off the worst possible consequences and prepare for the risks the world is unlikely to avoid, given its inability to slash emissions quickly. Delaying action, they note, reduces the world’s options and affords vulnerable people less time to cope. Isn’t it time we did something?
6.It can be learned from the first paragraph that______.(C)
A. climate change can cause only three types of disasters
B. we can wait until the climate become what it used to be
C. human beings have very limited power to deal with climate problems
D. climate change makes people feel that they must learn to meet challenges
解析：细节题。根据题干关键词定位到第一段。由Humans are having a hard enough time coping with the natural variability in our environment(人类正在艰难地应对环境中的自然变化)可知，人类在应对环境变化方面是很艰难的，故C项“人类解决气候问题的能力有限”为正确答案。其中的limited是对hard的改写。
7.Climate change may cause the following disasters EXCEPT that______.(A)
A. floods will erode highland soil
B. coastal cities will be threatened
C. low-lying nations will be affected by higher sea level
D. wetland and rain forest ecosystems could be in great danger
解析：细节题。根据第二段中的Sea levels will rise，threatening coastal cities and low-lying nations．及第五段中的Some areas of the planet，particularly in higher latitudes，might become more fertile可知，洪水并没有对地势高的地区造成危害，故A项描述错误，为题目要求的答案。
8.What positive result will climate change cause?(B)
A. There will be fewer deaths due to climate change.
B. Areas in higher latitudes may become more suitable for plants’ growth.
C. Plants in lower latitudes may grow even more luxuriant.
D. Cities in dry areas will have enough water resource.
解析：细节题。根据题干关键词定位到第五段。由Some areas of the planet，particularly in higher latitudes，might become more fertile可知，B项“高纬度地区将更适宜植物的生长”为正确答案。
9.What does the last paragraph imply?(D)
A. Human beings are vulnerable groups in the world.
B. Human beings have no ability to reduce emissions.
C. Human beings are preparing for the coming risks.
D. Pollutions may be the major cause of climate change.
解析：推断题。根据题干关键词定位到最后一段。根据…the right response：Cut pollution to head off the worst possible consequences可知，减少污染可以阻止最坏结果的发生，故可推断D项“污染可能是气候变化的主因”为正确答案。
10.What can be inferred from the text?(C)
A. Climate change has caused great damage to most countries in the world.
B. To stop climate change will greatly improve the development of the world.
C. It is urgent for human beings to take measures to prevent climate change.
D. Human beings should build man-made highlands to avoid floods.
A union-backed campaign conducted scattered protests and employee walkouts at fast-food chains in 60 cities in an effort to ramp up pressure for increased wages while organizers are quietly working to create unions to represent fast-food workers. The impact and size of Thursday’s protests was difficult to gauge. Spokesmen for the protests’ organizers estimated that they involved 1,000 fast-food outlets, and some other retailers, such as department stores, and claimed that walkouts shut down some restaurants.
McDonald’s Corp. and Wendy’s Co. said the protests had minimal effects on operations and that they were unaware of any shutdowns. At midday Thursday in downtown Chicago, one of the cities targeted, several outlets of both chains seemed undisturbed. People protested outside one Chicago McDonald’s for about 45 minutes; a restaurant employee reached by phone, who didn’t want to be identified, said none of the protesters were employed there. Burger King Worldwide Inc. didn’t respond to requests for comment.
Workers marching outside fast-food restaurants have called for the chains to increase wages to $15 an hour—wages now can be as low as the national minimum of $7.25 an hour and to allow a \
11.According to the spokesmen for the protests’ organizers, the walkouts______.(B)
A. make lots of restaurants suspend operations
B. involve many fast-food shops
C. cause significant disruptions
D. succeed in increasing pressure on the employers
12.It can be inferred from the third paragraph that______.(C)
A. the wages of workers are lower than national minimum wages
B. the protesters ask for the rights to take part in labor union freely
C. the employees and employers have different opinions on wages
D. the employers will cut stuff in the future
13.The momentum of demonstrations in fast-food industry is unusual because______.(D)
A. it’s difficult to organize employees
B. it’s difficult to strike at the same time
C. the scale of the strike is large
D. the employee turnover is high
14.The word \(A)
解析：含义题。根据题干关键词定位到第五段the union and community advocacy groups have been organizing fast-food strikes…，可见community advocacy groups和union(工会)所起的作用类似，都在组织罢工。advocacy意为“支持，拥护”，community advocacy groups直译是“社区拥护组织”，可灵活译为“社区宣传组织”，故A项为正确答案。
15.It can be concluded from the text that______.(D)
A. Unity is strength
B. Blood will have blood
C. Rome was not built in a day
D. Different standpoint decides different perspective
It is getting harder to go anywhere without stepping on a piece of Lego-related hype. The Lego Movie is number two at the American box office, after three weeks at number one. Model kits related to the film are piled high in the shops. They will add to the already gigantic heap of Lego bits: 86 for every person on the planet. The toymaker has enjoyed ten years of spectacular growth, almost quadrupling its revenue.
This is remarkable for many reasons. Lego’s home town, Billund in rural Denmark, is so small that the company had to provide it with a hotel—an elegant one, unsurprisingly. The toy business is one of the world’s trickiest: perennially faddish and, at the moment, convulsed by technological innovation. Children are growing up ever faster, and abandoning the physical world for the virtual. To cap it all, the company almost collapsed in 2003-2004, having drifted for years, diversifying into too many areas, producing too many products.
Lego’s decade of success began when it appointed Jorgen Vig Knudstorp as chief executive. Mr. Knudstorp decreed that the company must go back to the brick: focusing on its core products, forgetting about brand-stretching, and even selling its theme parks. He also brought in stricter management controls, for example reducing the number of different pieces that the company produced from 12,900 to 7,000.
Under Mr. Knudstorp Lego has struck a successful balance between innovation and tradition. The company has to generate new ideas to keep its sales growing: customers need a reason to expand their stock of bricks, and to buy them from Lego rather than cheaper rivals. Lego produces a stream of kits with ready-made designs, such as forts and spaceships, to provide children with templates. But it also insists that the pieces can be added to the child’s collection of bricks, and reused to make all sorts of other things.
Lego has got better at managing its relationships. The Lego Movie demonstrates how it can focus on the brick while venturing into the virtual world: Warner Bros, made the film while Lego provided the models. It has also got better at tapping its legion of fans—particularly adult fans of Lego, or AFOLs—for new ideas.
Lego is now at an inflection point, building its organisational capacity and embracing globalisation, to help it find new sources of growth. The aim is twofold: to replicate in the rapidly growing east Lego’s success in the west; and to transform a local company that happened to go global into a global company that happens to have its head office in Billund.
16.The first paragraph is used to demonstrate____.(D)
A. the pervasiveness of Lego-related hype
B. the popularity of The Lego Movie
C. the gigantic heap of Lego bits
D. the spectacular growth of Lego
17.Lego’s success is remarkable for the following reasons EXCEPT that_____.(C)
A. Lego originated from rural Denmark
B. it is difficult for a toy to prevail forever
C. children tend to embrace the physical world
D. Lego once lost its market direction
解析：细节题。根据题干关键词定位到第二段。本段讲了乐高取得的成绩如此引人注目的四个原因。C项“儿童倾向于拥抱现实世界”与原文不符，原文讲abandoning the physical world for the virtual(儿童正在放弃现实世界而走向虚拟世界)，这才是原文中的第三个原因，因此本题答案为C项。
18.Mr. Knudstorp’s idea about going back to the brick didn’t include______.(A)
A. bringing in looser management controls
B. putting emphasis upon core products
C. giving up brand-stretching
D. selling Lego’s theme parks
解析：细节题。根据题干关键词定位到第三段。本段讲乐高的成功始于其任命Knudstorp担任首席执行官，接着讲到了Mr．Knudstorp采取的一系列措施，包括“回到积木上来”的理念以及更严格的管理控制等。A项“引进更宽松的管理控制”与原文brought in stricter management controls相反，故A项为正确答案。
19.Which of the following does NOT contribute to Lego’s success?(B)
A. Lego produces new kits with ready-made designs.
B. Lego reuses the templates to make all sorts of new toys.
C. Lego focuses on the brick while venturing into the virtual world.
D. Lego taps its adult fans for new ideas.
解析：细节题。本题考查乐高取得成功的原因。文章从第三段开始讲其成功原因(Lego’s decade of success began when…)，包括任命Knudstorp担任首席执行官、在传统与创新之间取得平衡、管理关系的改善等等。B项“乐高重复利用模板来制造各种新玩具”与原文不符，第四段最后一句提到，乐高认为积木可以被重复使用来制作各种新玩具。因此B项为正确答案。
20.It can NOT be learned from the last paragraph that__.(D)
A. Lego tries to find new sources of growth
B. Lego aims to transform itself into a global company
C. Lego aims to achieve its success in the east
D. Lego fails to maintain sustainable growth in the west