考研英语(阅读)模拟试卷635附答案解析

考研英语(阅读)模拟试卷635

完型填空(含10小题)

词汇题

挑错题

语法

完型填空

阅读(常规阅读理解)

Across the western United States alone, trout (a kind of fish) fishing generates hundreds of millions of dollars annually. But trout habitat will likely be cut in half by 2080 due to warming rivers and altered patterns of flooding, according to a large study published online in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, \

1.What’s the prediction on the habitat of trout based on?(B)

A. The presence of fish in different habitats of trout.

B. A scientific simulation including various factors.

C. The field work of a team of scientists.

D. The characteristics of the west part of America.

解析:细节题。根据题干关键词定位到第二段第一句,由此可知,通过运行若干气候模型、嵌入栖息地特征的数据以及9 890处落基山脉和大盆地的鳟鱼出没情况,科学家们对美国西部超过100万平方公里范围的鳟鱼的栖息地做出了预测。由此可知,对鳟鱼栖息地的预测是建立在对若干因素进行模拟的方式上的,因此B项与原文意思相符,是正确答案。

2.What does the phrase \(C)

A. Dying in a large number due to shooting.

B. Escaping successfully from a hunter’s shooting.

C. Being lucky and escaping the fate of destruction.

D. Having the ability to run away from a bullet.

解析:含义题。根据题干提示定位到第三段。该段介绍虹鳟鱼的生存情况,指出虽然水温增高和冬季洪水会对其生存造成威胁,但幸运的是虹鳟鱼在春天产卵,因此受冬季洪水的影响较小,这使它可以逃过一劫。根据上下文的转折关系可判断,C项与原文意思相符,是正确答案。

3.Compared with cutthroat trout, rainbow trout______.(D)

A. lays more eggs when winter floods come

B. can better adapt to warm temperatures

C. has to retreat further to a restricted habitat

D. has shown stronger survival ability

解析:推断题。根据题干关键词cutthroat trout和rainbow trout定位到第五段第三句。该句指出来自虹鳟鱼的竞争等因素预计会使它们的栖息地再减少58%,由此可推断,虹鳟比山鳟具有更强的适应能力,因而生存能力比山鳟强。D项与原文意思相符,故为答案。

4.Brook trout adapts to new environments well, but it______.(C)

A. has to face the most serious problem arising from its overpopulation

B. cannot compete with rainbow trout in the skill of invasion

C. has to face the worst situation in the future since it lays eggs in the fall

D. cannot adjust well to warmer temperatures as well as winter flooding

解析:细节题。根据题干中的brook trout定位到第六段第二句,由此可知,冬季洪水会使河鳟的栖息地急剧减少,因为这种鱼是在秋季产卵。这使得河鳟与其他鳟鱼相比,在生存方面面临最严重的危险。因此C项与原文意思相符,故为答案。

5.What measures do people use to deal with the consequence of warm temperatures?(A)

A. People make their efforts to make the temperature down within trout’s habitats.

B. Fish managers build up an organization to persuade people to plant trees.

C. Scientists from universities invent advanced methods to cool down the habitats.

D. Experts have come up with good ideas to change the routes of winter floods.

解析:细节题。根据题干关键词measures定位到第七段最后一句,由该句可知,面对气温等变化对鳟鱼生存环境的影响,人们开始采取措施。该段最后一句指出人们对如何减少冬季洪水的影响几乎无能为力,但渔业经理们已经通过在溪流边种植树木、灌木的方式降低水温。因此,A项与原文意思相符,故为答案。

Who is the best manager in the world? This column’s nomination would go to an 82-year-old who does not rate a mention in the Thinkers 50 awards for the best business minds, is not an innovator, does not do leverage, thinks derivatives are financial weapons of mass destruction and runs a bunch of the most basic industries imaginable.

His name, of course, is Warren Buffett, chairman of Berkshire Hathaway, and he is perhaps the most successful business person ever. He does not write business bestsellers, but he conducts a masterclass via his annual letters to shareholders. Every aspect of Berkshire’s performance shows by opposition all that is wrong with contemporary capitalism.

Reading his letters, it dawns that what Buffett is describing is a version, refined and updated, of the inclusive capitalism that was the norm until the late 1970s. Continuing to retain and reinvest profits to fuel future growth to benefit all stakeholders, including investors, Berkshire is the last great standout against the \

6.The phrase \(A)

A. list

B. outstand

C. qualify

D. take

解析:含义题。根据题干关键词定位到第一段第二句。此句说的是“本专栏提名的人选是一位82岁的老人,他不……全球50大商业思想家榜单,不擅创新,不借助杠杆,认为衍生品是大规模杀伤性金融武器,经营的都是一些大家能想象得到的最基础的行业。”由此可知,A项“位于……之列”符合题意,为正确答案。

7.According to Paragraph 2, Warren Buffett______.(D)

A. is probably the most successful person in the world

B. is good at writing bestsellers

C. is a teacher of masterclass for shareholders

D. proves contemporary capitalism is wrong

解析:细节题。根据题干关键词定位到第二段。D项“证明当代资本主义是错误的”与第二段最后一句Every aspect of Berkshire’s performance shows by opposition all that is wrong with contemporary capitalism相符,故D项为正确答案。

8.It can be inferred from Buffett’s letters that______.(B)

A. Berkshire sticks to \

B. Buffett describes a refined and updated inclusive capitalism

C. readers learn how to judge which approach is more successful

D. many businessmen are in favor of \

解析:推断题。根据题干关键词定位到第三段第一句。Reading his letters,it dawns that what Buffett is describing is a version,refined and updated,of the inclusive capitalism that was the norm until the late 1970s.此句意为“读巴菲特的信能让人明白,巴菲特描述的是一种经过改进和更新的‘包容性资本主义’。在上世纪70年代末之前,包容性资本主义一直是资本主义的常态”。故B项“巴菲特描述的是一种经过改进和更新的‘包容性资本主义’”为正确答案。

9.Berkshire can deal with some mega-catastrophe because______.(C)

A. Buffett is the manager of Berkshire

B. Buffett is good at investment

C. it has so many streams of earnings

D. it hasn’t met an fatal crisis

解析:细节题。根据题干关键词定位到第四段最后一句:If the insurance industry was hit for $250 billion by some megacatastrophe three times larger than anything it has ever experienced–Berkshire would come through because it has so many streams of earnings,promises Buffett,此句意为“巴菲特承诺,即便一场超级灾难给保险行业带来2 500亿美元的损失,伯克希尔也能够渡过难关,因为它拥有非常多的利润来源”。故C项“它拥有非常多的利润来源”为正确答案。

10.Which of the following is NOT true according to the author?(C)

A. Buffett is not one of Thinkers 50 awards for the best business minds.

B. Buffett thinks derivatives are financial weapons of mass destruction.

C. Buffett is less wiser than quants and masters of the universe.

D. Buffett thinks stopping doing some bad existing things is more important.

解析:细节题。此类题目放在最后,是考查考生对全文的掌握程度,难度系数较高。C项“巴菲特不如数量分析专家和‘宇宙主宰者’聪明”是对A world with more Warren Buffetts and fewer quants and masters of the universe would be a wealthier and safer place这句话的误解,故C项为正确答案。

Guests arriving at the Aloft Hotel in Manhattan or one in Silicon Valley will soon be able to do something hotels have dreamed about offering for years: walk past the check-in desk and enter their rooms by using a smartphone as a room key. The boutique hotel brand from Starwood Hotels & Resorts Worldwide Inc. plans to offer this feature at two hotels, in the Harlem neighborhood and in Cupertino, Calif, before the end of the quarter.

Starwood officials are hoping this will be one of the biggest technological changes in the industry since free Wi-Fi. \

11.According to the first two paragraphs, which of the following is NOT true ?(B)

A. Aloft Hotel in Manhattan will allow guests to use a smartphone as a room key.

B. All Starwood Hotels plan to offer the new room key before the end of the quarter.

C. Hotel officials hope the new room key will be a great change in hotel industry.

D. The new room key may become a new standard of choosing a hotel.

解析:细节题。根据题干关键词定位到前两段。根据第一段第二句Tlle boutique hotel brand from Starwood Hotels& Resorts Worldwide Inc.plans to offer this feature at two hotels,in the Harlem neighborhood and in Cupertino,Calif.,before the end of the quarter.可知B项错误。因为原文是说位于Harlem neighborhood and in Cupertino,Calif.,的Starwood hotels会在这个季度末推行新房间钥匙,而不是所有的Starwood hotels,故B项为正确答案。

12.The word \(A)

A. simplify

B. strengthen

C. change

D. unify

解析:含义题。根据题干关键词定位到第三段第二句:Past attempts to use technology to streamline the check-in process have had mixed results。此句意为“以往利用科技______入住流程的尝试结果好坏参半”。故A项“简化”符合题意,为正确答案。

13.According to Robert Habeeb, he cancelled self-service check-in kiosks NOT because______.(D)

A. most guests pay little attention to them

B. most travelers are willing to ask for help from a staff

C. some guests may still want to be greeted when they arrive

D. most guests are difficult in using them

解析:细节题。根据题干关键词定位到第三段。根据…says he pulled out check-in kiosks at two of his Holiday Inn hotels after finding that most guests ignored them.可知A项“大多数客人忽视了自助登记人住服务机”正确。根据He found that many travelers will sacrifice speed or ease to talk with a staff member and ensure their room has the right view or location,or to try for an upgrade.可知B项“大多数客人喜欢求助于员工”正确。根据Other guests may still want to be greeted when they arrive.可知C项“一些客人仍然希望他们到达的时候被问候”正确。D项“大多数客人在使用自助登记入住服务机的时候有困难”属于无中生有,故正确答案为D项。

14.Christopher Nassetta would most likely agree that______.(B)

A. it’s a good idea to cancel check-in

B. the way of check-in needs to be changed

C. the management of hotel needs to be improved

D. it’s time to make use of technology in hotel industry

解析:推断题。根据题干关键词定位到第四段末尾部分: “Everybody has to check in,but we are all doing it pretty much the same way we were 100 years ago,”says Christopher Nassetta,chief executive officer for Hilton Worldwide Holdings Inc.“It’s something we are seriously addressing.”此句意为“希尔顿全球酒店集团首席执行长克里斯多夫-纳塞塔说,所有人都必须办理入住手续,但我们现在办理的方式还跟100年前差不多。这是我们现在郑重考虑的问题”。可知B项“入住方式需要改变”符合题意,为正确答案。

15.From the text we can see that the writer thinks the future of the new room key is______.(D)

A. optimistic

B. negative

C. bright

D. uncertain

解析:态度题。根据题干关键词定位到文章最后一段。此题考查作者对新型房间钥匙未来前景的看法,根据最后一段第一句Yet it is still not clear that virtual keys will do better than previous attempts to circumvent traditional check-ins.(但虚拟钥匙的效果会不会比此前一些试图改变传统入住手续的尝试更好还不清楚。)可知,作者对新型房间钥匙的未来不够确定。故D项“不确定的”符合题意,为正确答案。

Robots have been the stuff of science fiction for so long that it is surprisingly hard to see them as the stuff of management fact. It is time for management thinkers to catch up with science-fiction writers. Robots have been doing menial jobs on production lines since the 1960s. The world already has more than 1 million industrial robots. There is now an acceleration in the rates at which they are becoming both cleverer and cheaper: an explosive combination.

Robots are learning to interact with the world around them. Their ability to see things is getting ever closer to that of humans, as is their capacity to ingest information and act on it. Tomorrow’s robots will increasingly take on delicate, complex tasks. And instead of being imprisoned in cages to stop them colliding with people and machines, they will be free to wander.

Until now executives have largely ignored robots, regarding them as an engineering rather than a management problem. This cannot go on: robots are becoming too powerful and ubiquitous. Companies certainly need to rethink their human-resources policies—starting by questioning whether they should have departments devoted to purely human resources.

The first issue is how to manage the robots themselves. An American writer, Isaac Asimov laid down the basic rule in 1942: no robot should harm a human. This rule has been reinforced by recent technological improvements: robots are now much more sensitive to their surroundings and can be instructed to avoid hitting people.

A second question is how to manage the homo side of homo-robot relations. Workers have always worried that new technologies will take away their livelihoods, ever since the original Luddites’ fears about mechanised looms. Now, the arrival of increasingly humanoid automatons in workplaces, in an era of high unemployment, is bound to provoke a reaction.

Two principles—don’t let robots hurt or frighten people—are relatively simple. Robot scientists are tackling more complicated problems as robots become more sophisticated. They are keen to avoid hierarchies among rescue-robots (because the loss of the leader would render the rest redundant). They are keen to avoid duplication between robots and their human handlers. This suggests that the world could be on the verge of a great management revolution: making robots behave like humans rather than the 20th century’s preferred option, making humans behave like robots.

16.The second sentence implies that management thinkers should____.(C)

A. turn robots into superheroes and supervillains

B. give robots names such as the Terminator

C. ponder more about homo-robot relations

D. create more robots with super power

解析:推断题。根据题干关键词定位到第一段第二句。文章第一、二句提到“机器人被认为是科幻的事物已经太久了以至于把它们看作管理对象的事实惊人地难,现在管理思想家是赶上科幻作家的脚步的时候了”。浏览全文可知,文章主要讲人与机器人的管理,故C项“考虑更多关于人与机器人的关系”为正确答案。

17.Which of the following statements is true about robots?(D)

A. They will be free to wander and collide with people and machines.

B. They deliver information by acting like a human being.

C. Their eyesight is becoming closer to men’s.

D. They will do sophisticated jobs.

解析:细节题。根据题干关键词定位到第二段。此段都在讲机器人的行为,第三句提到“以后的机器人能够逐渐从事精细复杂的工作”,故D项为正确答案。

18.The word \(B)

A. numerous

B. pervasive

C. intelligent

D. complicated

解析:含义题。根据题干关键词定位到文章第三段。由本词所在句的too powerful和and可知,ubiquitous与powerful有同样的意义倾向。再根据本段第一句“直到今天大部分执行者们忽略了机器人,把它们当作工程问题而不是管理问题”,可知需要对机器人进行管理了,推测ubiquitous应为“无处不在的,普遍存在的”之意,故B项“普遍的,无处不在的”为正确答案。

19.To deal with the second problem, companies may not____.(A)

A. show employees that the robot sitting alongside them is a complete helpmate

B. explain that robots can help preserve manufacturing jobs in the rich world

C. tell workers that robots are productivity-enhancers

D. tell workers that robots are not just job-eating aliens

解析:推断题。根据题干关键词定位到第五段。根据第一、二句的信息可知“第二个问题是如何处理人与机器人关系中人类的一边。工人们总是担心新技术会带走他们的生计……”,故A项“给职员展示坐在他们边上的机器人完全是一位帮手”说法太绝对,否认了机器人也是“威胁”的事实,故为该题的正确答案。

20.From the passage we can see that the author thinks homo-robot relations____.(D)

A. are intrusive

B. render worries

C. become sentient

D. require specifications

解析:推断题。此题实际是考查作者对人与机器人关系的看法。文中提到管理机器人可能会遇到的问题,并指出“随着机器人变得日益先进,机器人科学家们正在处理更复杂的问题”,需要一个重要的管理改革,故作者认为人类和机器人的关系是需要规范的,故D项为正确答案。

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常规阅读理解(含4小题)

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