Cigarette smoking is a health hazard of sufficient importance in the United States. It was 50 years ago this month that America’s Surgeon General sounded that warning, marking the beginning of the end of cigarette manufacturing—and of smoking itself—as a respectable activity.
Some 20 million Americans have died from the habit since then. But advertising restrictions and smoking bans have had their effect: the proportion of American adults who smoke has dropped from 43% to 18%; smoking rates among teenagers are at a record low. In many other countries the trends are similar.
The current Surgeon General, Boris Lushniak, marked the half-century with a report on January 17th, declaring smoking even deadlier than previously thought. He added diabetes, colorectal cancer and other ailments to the list of ills it causes, and promised end-game strategies to extinguish cigarettes altogether.
New technologies such as e-cigarettes promise to deliver nicotine less riskily. E-cigarettes give users a hit of vapour infused with nicotine. In America, sales of the manufacturer, who is the fastest e-cigarettes-adopter, have jumped from nearly nothing five years ago to at least 1 billion in 2013.
At first, it looked as if e-cigarettes might lure smokers from the big tobacco brands to startups such as NJOY. But tobacco companies have bigger war chests, more knowledge of smokers’ habits and better ties to distributors than the newcomers. Some experts reckon Americans will puff more e-cigarettes than normal ones within a decade, but tobacco folk are skeptical. E-cigarettes account for just 1% of America’s cigarette market. In Europe 7% of smokers had tried e-cigarettes by 2012 but only 1% kept them up.
And no one knows what sort of restrictions regulators will eventually place on reduced risk products, including e-cigarettes. If these companies can manage the transition to less harmful smokes, and convince regulators to be sensible, the tobacco giants could keep up the sort of performance that has made their shares such a fine investment over the years. But some analysts are not so sure.
Many tobacco firms are struggling to deliver the consistency of the earnings-per-share model we’ve seen in the past. If that persists, investors may fall out of love with the industry. A half-century after the Surgeon General’s alarm, they, and hopeless smokers, are its last remaining friends.
1.It can be learned from Paragraph 1 that cigarette manufacturing in the United States_____.(D)
A. was of sufficient importance
B. was put forward by America’s Surgeon General
C. began to go downhill
D. used to be an honorable activity
2.According to the passage, e-cigarettes_____.(A)
A. supply smokers with nicotine more safely
B. help the fastest e-cigarettes-adopter gain sales 1 billion times
C. are mastered by all tobacco firms as a new technology
D. have lured smokers from the big tobacco brands to startups
解析：细节题。根据题干关键词定位到第四、五段。第四段首句指出“一些新的技术，比如电子香烟承诺提供危害风险更小的尼古丁”，A项中的supply和more safely与首句中的deliver和less riskily是同义替换，故A项为正确答案。
3.The phases \(B)
解析：含义题。根据题干关键词定位到第五段。其中war“战争”和chests“胸部”对考生来说并不陌生，但war chests的含义需要通过上下文并运用排除法来确定。本句将烟草公司和新兴公司做比较，But表转折，因此考生需要参考前文。第四段讲了运用电子香烟这一技术的新兴公司销售额激增，故本句涉及到的比较，第一个内容可能就是“资金”方面。war chests合在一起意为“战争基金；(为竞争等筹措的)资金”，故B项为正确答案。
4.The smokers’ attitude toward the consumption of e-cigarettes is______.(D)
5.What is the passage mainly about?(C)
A. The potency of tobacco’s advertising bans.
B. The hostile regulatory climate of tobacco in the U.S.
C. The current situation and challenge of big tobacco firms.
D. The introduction and growth of e-cigarettes.
The guy in the next cubicle is yammering away on the phone. Across the room, someone begins cursing loudly at a jammed copy machine. The headphones on the other end of your desk suddenly look very appealing. Would anyone mind if you tapped into your iTunes playlist for a while? Some workers like to listen to music when they find themselves losing focus. They may also plug in their earbuds to escape an environment that’s too noisy—or too quiet—or to make a repetitive job feel more lively.
In biological terms, melodious sounds help encourage the release of dopamine (a chemical found in brain) in the reward area of the brain, as would eating a delicacy, looking at something appealing or smelling a pleasant aroma, said Dr. Amit Sood, a physician of integrative medicine with the Mayo Clinic. People’s minds tend to wander, \
6.Some workers like to listen to music when they______.(C)
A. yammer away on the phone
B. curse loudly at a jammed copy machine
C. cannot concentrate on work
D. want to be in a noisy environment
解析：细节题。根据题干关键词定位到第一段。原文为“Some workers like to listen to music when they find themselves losing focus”，lose focus与cannot concentrate on work同义，即不能集中注意力。故C项为正确答案。
7._____will not help encourage the release of dopamine in the reward area of the brain.(C)
A. Listening to beautiful music
B. Eating delicious food
C. Looking at something appalling
D. Smelling a fragrance
解析：细节题。根据题干关键词定位到第二段。题干为哪一项不能够刺激大脑奖赏区释放多巴胺，根据文章原句“melodious sounds help encourage the release of dopamine in the reward area of the brain，as would eating a delicacy，looking at something appealing or smelling a pleasant aroma”，就是说“melodious sounds(优美的音乐)”“eating a delicacy(吃美味食物)”“looking at something appealing(观赏吸引人的东西)”以及“smelling a pleasant aroma(闻好闻的香味)”都有助于刺激大脑释放多巴胺。故C项Looking at something appalling“看可怕的东西”，不符合题意，因此选择C项。
8.Which of the following is an effect of music according to Paragraph 2?(D)
A. Making people’s mind wander.
B. Bring people to their unhappy moment.
C. Making people focus on the imperfections of life.
D. Improving people’s mood.
解析：细节题。根据题干关键词定位到第二段。题目要求为“哪一项是音乐的作用”。第二段最后一句“because the music improved their mood”与D项相符，因此D项为正确选项。
9.Which of the following is NOT true according to Paragraph 3?(B)
A. People who are not so skilled at their job benefit the most.
B. Music has the biggest effect on experts.
C. Newcomers find music distracting their work.
D. Older people spend less time listening to music.
解析：细节题。根据题干关键词定位到第三段。根据选项，找到“Those who were moderately skilled at their jobs benefited the most…regarded the music as distracting．”由此可知，那些对工作中等熟练的员工从音乐中获益最大，而专家却很少或几乎没有受到影响，还有一些工作新手认为音乐让人分心。因此B项“专家从音乐中受益最大”是错误的，故选B项。
10.It can be inferred from the last paragraph that______.(C)
A. companies encourage listening to music at work
B. you can listen to music as you like when others are listening too
C. you should be aware of your time on listening to music at work
D. it is none of others’ business when you listen to music at work
A paper in The Lancet, shamelessly timed to coincide with the Olympic games, compares countries’ rates of physical activity. The study it describes, led by Pedro Hallal of the Federal University of Pelotas, in Brazil, is the most complete portrait yet of the world’s busy bees and couch potatoes.
It suggests that nearly a third of adults are not getting enough exercise. That rates of exercise have declined is hardly a new discovery. Since the beginning of the industrial revolution, technology and economic growth have conspired to create a world in which the flexing of muscles is more and more an option rather than a necessity.
But only recently have enough good data been collected from enough places to carry out the sort of analysis Dr. Hallal and his colleagues have engaged in. In all, they were able to pool data from 122 countries, covering 89% of the world’s population. They considered sufficient physical activity to be 30 minutes of moderate exercise five days a week, 20 minutes of vigorous exercise three days a week, or some combination of the two. There are common themes in different places.
Unsurprisingly, people in rich countries are less active than those in poor ones, and old people are less active than young ones. Less obviously, women tend to exercise less than men—34% are inactive, compared with 28% of men. But there are exceptions. The women of Iraq and Finland, for example, move more than their male countrymen.
Six Americans in ten are sufficiently active by Dr. Hallal’s definition, compared with fewer than four in ten Britons. In an accompanying analysis of people’s habits, Dr. Hallal found equally wide differences. In South-East Asia fewer than a quarter sit for at least four hours each day; in Europe 64% do. And even neighbors may differ. Only 2% of Swiss walk to work, whereas 23% of Germans do so. These high rates of inactivity are worrying.
Paradoxically, human beings seem to have evolved to benefit from exercise while eschewing it whenever they can. In a state of nature it would be impossible to live a life that did not provide enough of it to be beneficial, while over-exercising would use up scarce calories to little advantage. But that no longer pertains. According to another paper in The Lancet, insufficient activity these days has nearly the same effect on life expectancy as smoking.
11.Which of the following statements is NOT true according to the first two paragraphs?(C)
A. The paper in The Lancet was published when the Olympic games began.
B. Pedro Hallal did a research about diligent and lazy people around.
C. It is surprising that people find the rates of exercise have dropped.
D. After the industrial revolution, people gradually choose to exercise.
12.Which of the following is NOT mentioned by Dr. Hallal and his colleagues as part of ways of sufficient physical activity?(A)
A. Do exercise less than an hour everyday.
B. Do moderate exercise 30 minutes, five days a week.
C. Do vigorous exercise 20 minutes, three days a week.
D. A combination of B and C.
13.From the findings of the study, we learn that____.(C)
A. people in poor countries are more inactive than those in wealthy ones
B. young people move less than the aged
C. the rates of inactive among women tend to be higher than those of men
D. in Finland, women exercise more than men in the country
14.The comparison of rates of Swiss and Germaas walk to work is used to illustrate____.(A)
A. the wide differences even in neighboring countries
B. the high rates of inactivity in two countries
C. the different analyses of people’s habits
D. the worrying about their differences
15.It can be inferred from the passage that The Lancet is a journal on___.(B)
解析：推断题。根据题干关键词可知，此题要求考生推断The Lancet是关于什么的期刊。The Lancet出现在文章第一段首句“The Lancet的一篇文章对世界各国人民进行体育锻炼的比率做了一个比较”和第六段末句“The Lancet中的另一篇文章称，缺乏锻炼对寿命造成的影响几乎和抽烟差不多”，综合两处可推断出，The Lancet是医学期刊，故选B项。
If anyone is qualified to unify the seemingly disparate subjects of financial markets and neurology, it’s John Coates, a senior research fellow in neuroscience and finance at the University of Cambridge. The Hour Between Dog and Wolf is a powerful distillation of his work and an important step in the ongoing struggle to free economics from rational-actor theory.
16.John Coates believes that____.(A)
A. gut feeling plays an important role in decision making
B. financial activities are mainly driven by irrationality.
C. investors are apt to take risky actions during recessions
D. investors tend to be rational profit-maximizers
17.The solution to a crisis is____, according to the traditional economic theory.(C)
A. to direct investors’ attention to aspects other than benefits
B. to guide the public to quit irrational behavior
C. to cut interest rates to stimulate expenses
D. to teach investors to adjust their body processes
18.We can infer that both Coates and the traditional theory may agree that____.(D)
A. irrationality is the source of economic bubbles
B. prior successes may stimulate irrational economic behavior
C. the fight-or-flight system of traders is rationality-dominated
D. irrationality may put the market at risk
19.In the author’s opinion, the value of The Hour Between Dog and Wolf Is that____.(B)
A. its contents are mostly original
B. it regards traders as full-blown human beings
C. it’s comprehensible to a broad audience
D. it combines neurology with human decision making
20.Which of the following statements is accord with Aristotle’s ideas?(D)
A. We are big brains perched on bodies that do our mind’s bidding.
B. People behave as if they calculate the rewards of each course of action.
C. Correct decisions will logically follow reasonable deduction.
D. The way we are built may affect the way we think.