考研英语(阅读)模拟试卷642附答案解析

考研英语(阅读)模拟试卷642

完型填空(含10小题)

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语法

完型填空

阅读(常规阅读理解)

Immigration is in the headlines again, with President Obama’s decision last week to stop deporting young illegal immigrants who came to the United States as children, and the Supreme Court’s approaching decision on the constitutionality of Arizona’s crackdown on undocumented migrants. But too much of the public debate has focused on the legality of immigration without considering a more fundamental question: What effects has mass immigration had on American society?

1.What does the first paragraph suggest?(A)

A. The impact of immigration gets insufficient attention.

B. President Obama backs legalizing undocumented migrants.

C. Arizona’s crackdown on migrants violates the Constitution.

D. The legality of immigration found much public support.

解析:主旨题。第一段共两句,仔细研读可知,首句介绍两项决议:一、奥巴马总统决定停止递解年轻非法移民出境;二、最高法院即将对亚利桑那州非法移民打压政策的合宪性做出裁决;第二句随后做出评论:公众辩论焦点在移民合法性问题上忽视了移民给美国社会的影响问题。由此可见,移民的影响问题是作者旨在论述的问题,A项最符合文意。

2.According to Paragraphs 2 and 3, which of the following would scholars agree on?(B)

A. Immigrants have reshaped the social fabric beneficially.

B. Immigrants have been appraised negatively.

C. Immigrants have worsened social ills.

D. Immigrants have pulled down the average living standards.

解析:推断题。第二段末句以及第三段末句分别提及:无证据证明“移民对社会结构进行了破坏性重塑”“移民加重社会问题”的观点是错误的。可见,学者们所呈递的新发现与原来人们既有看法相悖,移民在此研究发现前受着负面评价,B项符合文意,同时排除C项。

3.What does the author make use of to show the desirable effects of immigration?(C)

A. Induction.

B. Illustration.

C. Comparison.

D. Explanation.

解析:推断题。第四段主体阐述了移民的有利影响:将洛杉矶移民青年与本地青年暴力、犯罪率进行了横向对比,将圣安东尼奥和迈阿密等城市移民数量增加后杀人恶性案件发生率进行了纵向对比,同时还将纽约移民社区居民与本地居民对待法律态度以及与警方合作态度进行了横向对比。由此可见,作者为了说明移民产生的有利影响,借鉴了学者们的研究方法(对比、对照)来阐述这一问题,C项正确。

4.\(D)

A. scholars in the research

B. President Obama

C. supreme Court

D. Arizona state government

解析:细节题。第五段明确指出:持续不断的移民抵制浪潮部分原因在于移民带来的社会变化,反对这些变化的人(the critics)支持控制移民数量,可见他们是反对移民的人士。亚利桑那州对移民进行打压,其态度不言而喻,即为反对态度,与“批评者”同,故选D项。

5.To handle the immigration question, the author suggests____.(C)

A. holding immigrant families together

B. deporting undocumented adults

C. abolishing harsh deportation rules

D. establishing a guest-worker program

解析:细节题。作者在最后一段首先支持奥巴马让非法移民儿童免受严苛递解出境条款这一决议;随后提出解决移民问题的意见:为成年非法移民获取合法公民身份之路清除障碍,制定更为宽松的外籍劳工计划,同时保全移民家庭而不是通过递解出境以拆散他们。可见,作者对于严苛的递解出境条款不赞同,希望废除,C项符合文意。

Researchers from the universities of Istanbul and Hawaii hope the technique can lead to new ways to produce medicines.

As part of an effort to improve treatments for life-threatening illnesses, a team of scientists have created rabbits that glow in the dark. Their efforts produced two rabbits out of a litter of eight that went from being a normal, fluffy white to glowing green in the dark. The rabbits were born at the University of Istanbul as part of a collaboration between scientists from universities in Turkey and Hawaii.

The rabbits glow to show that a genetic manipulation technique can work efficiently, though the specific color is more cosmetic than scientific.

\

6.Which is the final goal of the researchers and scholars by breeding rabbits that glow?(D)

A. To produce some glowing rabbits.

B. Not only to produce glowing rabbits, but also to produce glowing sheep.

C. To see whether a genetic manipulation technique can work efficiently or not.

D. To find a new way of producing medicine cheaply.

解析:推断题。此题考查实验的根本目的。文章第一段即指出…hope the technique can lead to new ways to produce medicines(希望能利用科技手段找到生产药物的新途径),第五段又提到Eventually,the researchers hope the technique can lead to new ways to produce medicines,由此可知D项为正确答案。

7.The purpose of Moisyadi by saying the words in Paragraph 3 is to show____.(C)

A. green color is cosmetic, but not scientific at all

B. moisyadi doesn’t like green color

C. any color can be accepted in this experiment

D. only green color proves that the experiment is successful

解析:推断题。根据题干关键词定位到第三段。莫伊斯雅迪说“是不是绿色根本不重要,有颜色不过是证明实验能够取得成功的标志”,由此可以推断,只要有颜色,哪种颜色都没问题,因此C项为正确答案。

8.The underlined phrase \(B)

A. a type of herb plant

B. a place of producing medicine

C. a place of selling plants

D. plants that can feed animals

解析:含义题。根据题干关键词定位到第五段。本句为…pharma plants that make drugs…根据定语从句that make drugs就可以推断出pharma plants是“制药厂”的意思,pharma一词与pharmacy意思相通,plant意为“工厂”。因此B项为正确答案。

9.Why does Moisyadi think some people won’t accept this experiment?(B)

A. Because the glowing rabbits can’t live as long as the non-glowing ones.

B. Because live animals are used as materials in this experiment.

C. Because they want benefits more badly than injuries.

D. Because Moisydi doesn’t have much experience.

解析:细节题。根据关键词定位到第六段。由he understands people can object to this kind of experimentation involving live animals可知正确答案为B项,即人们反对这项实验可能是因为实验涉及活体动物,题干中的won’t accept是对原文object to的同义复现。

10.Which of the following descriptions is true about Stenfan Moisyadi?(B)

A. He invented glowing rabbits by himself.

B. He wants to help the poor countries to develop medicine industry.

C. He dislikes the people who are against the experiment.

D. He thinks the commercial benefits overweigh the injuries in this experiment.

解析:细节题。第五段介绍了莫伊斯雅迪的观点,因此答案应从本段中找,B项说他想帮助那些贫穷的国家发展制药业,这是对第五段的正确概括,为正确答案。

Researchers have known for years that children whose mothers were chronically stressed during pregnancy—by famine, anxiety, the death of a relative or marital discord, for instance—show higher-than-normal rates of various psychological and behavioural disorders when they are adults. They have also known for a long time that those brought up in abusive environments often turn out to be abusive themselves. The second of these observations is usually put down to learning. The reason for the first has remained unclear. A study just published by Axel Meyer, Thomas Elbert and their colleagues at the University of Konstanz in Germany, however, points to a phenomenon called epigenetics as the likely answer. Epigenetics is a type of gene regulation that can be passed from a cell to its daughters. The most common mechanism is methylation, whose consequence is to inactivate the gene being methylated.

They found that women abused during pregnancy were significantly more likely than others to have a child with methylated glucocorticoid-receptor genes. By contrast, abuse before or after pregnancy resulted in no such correlation. Nor was the mother’s own methylation affected by violence towards her. Taken together, these results suggest that glucocorticoid-receptor-gene methylation happens in the fetus in response to a mother’s stress, and persists into adolescence.

This has implications for those adolescents’ long-term health. Dampened glucocorticoid-receptor-gene activity has been shown to increase the risk of obesity and of depression. It also makes people more impulsive and aggressive—and therefore, if male, more likely to abuse the pregnant mothers of their children, thus perpetuating the whole sorry cycle.

Why, in light of such negative effects, have humans evolved to be programmed this way while still in the womb? Part of the answer is probably that not all the negative consequences would have shown up at the time the mechanism was evolving. The other part is that some of the consequences probably have a positive effect.

What can be done with such knowledge is unclear. Drugs that demethylate DNA are under development, but are still some way from approval—and, in any case, interfering with epigenetics, which is a widespread mechanism of gene regulation, is a drastic approach. The research might, though, point to the period when intervening to stop abuse will have the greatest effect. Then again, such intervention is always desirable, for the sake of both mother and child.

11.According to Paragraph 1, which of the following is NOT true?(C)

A. A pregnant mother’s stress can have a long-lasting effect on her children’s psychology.

B. A mother’s abuse behavior may genetically affect on her children’s behavior.

C. Children are psychologically and behaviorally disordered because of epigenetics.

D. Children are abusive themselves because they imitate their parents.

解析:细节题。根据题干关键词定位到第一段。根据首句“如果母亲在怀孕期间长期遭受……过大压力,她们的孩子成年后出现各种心理疾病和行为问题的几率会高于平均几率”和第五句“一种被称为‘外因遗传’的现象很有可能就是这个问题的答案”,可知C项说法不严谨,以偏概全,违背了原意,并非只要孩子一出现心理问题和行为障碍就是外因遗传引起的,故C项为正确答案。

12.A child with methylated glucocorticoid-receptor genes has a mother_____.(A)

A. with great pressure

B. abused before pregnancy

C. abused during pregnancy

D. abused after pregnancy

解析:细节题。根据题干关键词定位到第二段。该段末句提到“总体看来,这些结论表明胎儿糖皮质激素受体基因的甲基化是由于母亲压力过大引起的”,故A项为正确答案。

13.The word \(D)

A. long-lasting

B. moist

C. attached

D. inactive

解析:含义题。根据题干关键词定位到第三段。根据前三个自然段,可知Dampened glucocorticoid-receptor-gene activity仍然指“methylated glucocorticoid-receptor genes”,而methylated的定义在第一段末句给出了,句中的inactivate与D项表达的意思一致,故D项为正确答案。

14.It can be implied from the last two paragraphs that______.(D)

A. obesity is usually in a state of nature

B. if a mother lives in an environment where fear-inducing experiences are common, her offspring may have an insensitivity to fear

C. the research of drugs demethylating DNA is still not approved

D. people desire intervention of genes because it may stop family abuse

解析:推断题。根据题干关键词定位到第四、五段。第五段末句提到“为了让母亲和孩子们都幸福,这样的干涉乃众望所归”,故D项推断正确。

15.Which might be the appropriate title of this passage?(B)

A. Genes and Methylation

B. Epigenetics and Stress

C. Inheritance of Abusiveness

D. Intervention of Methylation

解析:主旨题。根据题干关键词需纵观全文,但文章第一段段末就指出了关键词epigenetics(外因遗传),同时第一段描述的孕妇的种种处境,都是在强调其孕期所承受的压力,故B项“外因遗传与压力”为正确答案。

Some employers increasingly are viewing autism—a severe mental disorder as an asset and not a deficiency in the workplace. Germany-based software company SAP has been actively seeking people with autism for jobs, not because of charitable help but because it believes features of autism may make some individuals better at certain jobs than those without autism.

It’s a worthy initiative, according to disability experts, since 85% of adults with autism are estimated to be unemployed. SAP aims to have up to 1% of its workforce—about 650 people—be employees with autism by 2020, according to Jose Velasco, head of the autism initiative at SAP in the U.S..

People with autism—characterized by social deficits and repetitive behavior—tend to pay great attention to detail, which may make them well suited as software testers or debuggers, according to Mr. Velasco, who has two children with the condition. In addition, these people bring a different perspective to the workplace, which may help with efficiency and creativity as well, he said. \

16.According to Paragraph 1, people with autism in a company______.(B)

A. perform better than those without it

B. may show a better working capacity in some positions

C. don’t want to get charitable help from the society

D. make others improve working efficiency

解析:细节题。根据题干关键词定位到第一段。根据段落中features of autism may make some individuals better at certain jobs than those without autism(自闭症的特征使人在特定岗位表现更为出色)可知,B项“在一些职位上显现出更好的工作能力”符合题意,为正确答案。

17.Which of the following is NOT the charac teristic of autism?(A)

A. Good cooperation spirit.

B. Focusing on details.

C. Repetition of one behavior.

D. Lack of communication skills.

解析:细节题。根据题干关键词定位到第三段,A项“良好的合作精神”不属于自闭症的特点,为题目要求的答案。

18.Employees with autism are assigned the work of writing manuals because they______.(C)

A. excel at writing instructions

B. skip details that are not necessary

C. make instructions precise

D. know how to install software

解析:细节题。根据题干关键词定位到第四段。由文中to give clients very precise instructions on how to install software(在如何安装软件方面给予用户准确的指导)可知,C项“使指导精确”符合题意,为正确答案。

19.Paragraph 5 shows that in America______.(D)

A. about 1% of three million people suffer from autism

B. adults between 21-25 often go outside their homes

C. half people with autism are holding a job

D. lifetime employment rate of those with autism is not satisfying

解析:细节题。根据题干关键词定位到第五段。由their lifetime employment rate is extremely low(但他们的终生就业率却非常低)可知,D项符合题意,为正确答案,not satisfying是对extremely low的同义改写。

20.It can be inferred from the last paragraph that______.(B)

A. many people with autism have to continue their education

B. people with autism should improve their social and interview skills

C. most people with autism are not qualified for employment

D. people without autism have difficulty in finding a job

解析:推断题。根据题干关键词定位到最后一段。由原文they may have trouble getting in the door of a workplace because of difficulties with communications or interviews(他们也会因社交障碍或在面试中的表现而被公司拒之门外)可推知,B项“自闭症患者应该提高自己的社交以及面试技能”符合题意,为正确答案。

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