专业英语八级模拟试卷900含答案解析

专业英语八级模拟试卷900

讲座

Slang in English

Today we’ll discuss a common linguistic phenomenon in English—

slang. The features of slang are listed as follows:

I. Slang affects the English 【T1】_____. 【T1】______

A. New words added for social, scientific or artistic reasons

B. Slang—the social new words troubling 【T2】______ 【T2】______

II. Slang is young people’s urge of say.

A. Created by 【T3】______ 【T3】______

— Reason: 【T4】______ 【T4】______

— Result: looked down upon by adults

considered unintelligent and 【T5】______ 【T5】______

B. The conservative view: lack of standard English due to

【T6】______ 【T6】______

C. Possible solution: use kids’ 【T7】______to help them learn standard 【T7】______

English.

III. Slang is usually used by people of 【T8】______. 【T8】______

A. People who do not like slang are 【T9】______, and they do not 【T9】______

want to hear other ways of talking

B. Much slang comes from 【T10】______.

【T10】______

IV. Slang equals change of language

A. Change of a language is to fit the 【T11】____of society

B. People who oppose slang and new dialects of English 【T11】______

— do not realize the way people speak 【T12】 _____time

— prove themselves to be intolerant of change 【T12】______

C. Language will 【T13】______in the future

— people talk via the Internet now 【T13】______

— the Internet has its own language

— 【T14】______is not accepted by conservatives

— it will probably appear in 【T15】______ 【T14】______

V. Conclusion: slang brings changes to language. 【T15】______

1.【T1】

vocabulary

解析:要点题。演讲者在提到俚语的第一点特征时说道:Slang affects the vocabulary of English.即俚语影响到英语的传统词汇,因此答案为vocabulary。

2.【T2】

conservative linguists

解析:归总题。讲座提到俚语让保守的语言学家非常头疼:But the social,or slang,words do trouble linguists,especially the conservative ones.They do fear that after slang continues to thrust new words to the English vocabulary, it will not remain pure and clean as standard English.因此答案是conservative linguists。

3.【T3】

children/teens

解析:细节题。根据讲座原文“Slang is usually created by children or teens”可知答案为children/teens。

4.【T4】

seek social status

解析:归总题。讲座原文提到:Second,slang indicates young people’s urge of say in society.Slang is usually created by children or teens who seek social status.归纳起来意思就是俚语多由青少年创造,目的是为自己争取社会话语权,谋求自己的社会地位,这里的归纳词可以是seek social status。

5.【T5】

rebellious

解析:推断题,但需要转换词性。演讲者讲道:Since kids are the source of new slang,some adults look down on it with the assumption that kids are unintelligent and simply rebelling against established English grammar and diction.也就是说,成年人认为小孩儿愚钝而叛逆,才会说些不合乎英语语法及措辞的俚语,这里原文用了rebel的现代分词rebelling,而空格前的unintelligent是形容词,提示空格中也应填入与之并列且具有相同词性的词,因此答案为rebel的形容词形式:rebellious。

6.【T6】

an education deficiency

解析:细节题。根据讲座原文“Some conservatives claim that the lack of standard English is due to an education deficiency.”可知答案为an education deficiency。

7.【T7】

dialects

解析:细节题。演讲者在谈到帮助孩子学习标准英语时提到:The conservatives should use the kids’dialects to help the kids learn standard English.因此答案为dialects。

8.【T8】

low social status

解析:推断题。演讲者提到俚语的第三大特征是使用俚语的人往往不属于上层社会,他们的社会地位较低。即Third,slang is usually not used by people of high social status and this is another reason why conservatives look down upon slang.因此保守派总是藐视说俚语的人,这里题目中的句子用的是肯定形式,而非讲座中的否定形式,因此答案为high social status的反义词low social status。

9.【T9】

(usually)prejudiced

解析:细节题。根据讲座原文“People who do not like slang are usually prejudiced as well.”即可得出答案。

10.【T10】

other languages

解析:细节题。根据讲座原文“Also,much slang comes from other languages,of which conservatives might also be prejudiced.”可知答案为other languages。

11.【T11】

paradigms

解析:细节题。讲座中提到语言并不是一成不变的,而是不断变化的,因而可以适应不同的社会范式:As is known to all,language is a live thing that embraces any change to fit the paradigms of society.其中关键词paradigms就是答案。

12.【T12】

varies with

解析:归总题。讲座并未直接给出答案,演讲者认为那些反对俚语反对新方言的人并没有意识到我们说话的方式与我们先辈说话的方式是不同的,即我们的说话方式随着时间的推移而变化:This simply illustrates the same types of people who opposed contractions in the past are opposing slang and new dialects of English.They do not realize that the way they speak differs from the way that their predecessors spoke.因此填入的空格应该意为随……而变化,所以答案为varies with。

13.【T13】

have different presentations

解析:归总题。讲座中提到:Furthermore,language will be thought of differently in the future because new mediums of communication will be used,the largest one being the Internet.可知语言在不断地发展,随着交流媒介的变化,未来的语言又会出现其他不同的呈现方式,比如因特网的使用就大大丰富了现有的语言形式,因此答案可以归纳为have different presentations或者present differently等意义相近的词组。

14.【T14】

cyber-slang/computer slang

解析:细节题。讲座提到保守派不能接受计算机俚语:Those acronyms could be called part of the cyber-slang,which is of course not accepted by conservatives。因此答案为cyber-slang或computer slang。

15.【T15】

standard dictionaries

解析:细节题。讲座中提到:Those acronyms could be called part of the cyber-slang,which is of course not accepted by conservatives,but who knows whether after several years,it will probably appear in standard dictionaries.可见现在不被接受的语言未必以后不被接受,那些网络上广为流传的俚语也有可能在若干年后编人标准词典,因此答案为standard dictionaries。

会话

16.(C)

A. The increased cost of raw materials.

B. Value.

C. Bargain.

D. The increased cost of human resources.

解析:推断题。脱口秀主持人在开场白中指出In the next few minutes we’re going to be asking whether you’re after value for money when you’re shopping for fashion;or fashion that’s made with values.We’re all after a bargain on the high street.即所有的消费者去商业街购物都会争相购买价廉物美的商品,因此答案为C。

17.(B)

A. The increased cost of raw materials.

B. The booming market for fast fashion.

C. Consumers’ needs for luxury fashion.

D. The increased cost of human resources.

解析:细节题。脱口秀中主持人提到Fulfilling our needs for fast fashion means increased production and competition in clothing made in countries with low-wage economies.可见消费者对快速变换的时尚的热衷导致低收入国家的服装业产量激增并使该产业竞争愈加激烈,只有选项B符合题意,因此答案为B。

18.(D)

A. Shoes.

B. T-shirts.

C. Suitcases.

D. Handbags.

解析:推断题。脱口秀中主持人提到Handbags at £3.99,T-shirts for a fiver and shoes for under a tenner—all roughly equivalent to the price of an everyday meal.即手提包只卖3.99英镑,T恤卖5英镑,鞋子卖10英镑左右,手提箱没有被提到,所以最便宜的是手提包,答案为D。

19.(A)

A. To provide information that might reveal the company ethics.

B. To study the ethical aspect of consumers while shopping.

C. To do research on ethical consumers’ behavior and values.

D. To give consumers useful information on quality of products.

解析:细节题。脱口秀节目中的嘉宾James来自伦理消费者研究协会(the Ethical Consumer Research Association),该协会的宗旨是为消费者提供厂家在产品品牌幕后的所作所为,换言之,就是提供给消费者有关制造商的生产销售是否符合伦理规范的情报:OK,well the Ethical Consumer Research Association exists to provide information for shoppers,letting them know what the companies are doing behind the brands that they see on the shelves.所以答案为A。

20.(C)

A. The shopper is concerned about the human labor involved in the product.

B. The shopper wonders whether the company is involved in armaments.

C. The shopper wonders whether the company manages to make ends meet.

D. The shopper wants to know which party the company financially supports.

解析:辨别题。脱口秀中提到伦理消费者有以下特征:Very broadly speaking,people who are concerned about ethical issues want to know that the product they’re buying hasn’t been made at the expense of the people who are producing it,whether it’s in this country or abroad.They might also be concerned with other kinds of issues:whether the company is involved in armaments,or whether they’re donating money to certain political parties…可见伦理消费者关注产品生产是否以牺牲人力为代价,他们也关注公司是否与军备生产有关,以及公司支持的政党是否与自己支持的一致等因素,这里只有选项C不属于伦理消费者关注的对象,因此答案为C。

21.(D)

A. They are made of better materials.

B. The animals.

C. The environment.

D. They are made by the workers with a high education.

解析:细节题。当主持人问及判断伦理商品的规则时,James回答道We can buy very cheap products and it’s very likely that when products are cheap,something has suffered in order to get it to us.Whether it’s the person making it or the animals or the environment.可见便宜的商品经常会以牺牲劳工的福利、动物的利益或者污染环境为代价,但是没有提到以降低质量为代价,所以答案为D。

22.(C)

A. They are made of better materials.

B. They are made of expensive materials.

C. They are made by the workers with a proper wage.

D. They are made by the workers with a high education.

解析:推断题。James在脱口秀中指出And unfortunately a lot of ethical products will cost more because they reflect the real cost of bringing that thing into the shops.So something that has been made in a factory where the workers have been paid a proper wage will cost you more to buy, simply because the people making it are getting paid enough to live on.即很多伦理商品价格较为昂贵,原因是生产这些商品的工人得到了应有的薪酬,而没有被生产商剥削,因此答案为C。

23.(D)

A. One should be wealthy enough.

B. One should buy cheap things.

C. One should buy everything second-hand.

D. One should buy less.

解析:推断题。James给大家的建议就是要成为一个有道德的消费者并不一定需要多么富有,关键是要做到理性购物,少购物或者可以适当购买合适的旧物:You don’t have to be rich to be an ethical shopper.One way of thinking about ethical shopping is thinking about buying less...So being an ethical shopper really means thinking a bit before you go and spend your money in the shops.Some things may cost a little bit more in the short-run,but be worth it in the long.run…And sometimes you can buy things second-hand…这里的主要干扰项是C,但选项中的everything一词过于极端,因此排除此选项,所以答案为D。

24.(C)

A. Those are cheap.

B. Those are ethical.

C. Those are unique.

D. Those are comfortable.

解析:细节题。James在脱口秀中指出For example,more youngsters want an ethical buy, but their original thing for that might be that they like to wear clothes which are totally different from everyone else.可见很多年轻人想买伦理商品,但是他们的初衷还是想穿与众不同的服饰,因此答案为C。

25.(A)

A. Positive.

B. Negative.

C. Neutral.

D. Ambiguous.

解析:态度推断题。最后主持人问及James对伦理购物这一理念未来发展的展望,James的态度包含在他的言辞中:Anyhow, I am sure ethical shopping will be popular with consumers and one day, it might appear as appealing as the latest fashion.由此可见他对伦理购物这一理念在消费者当中的发展还是持乐观态度的,他认为未来会有更多消费者接受这一理念。在未来这种消费方式会对消费者更具吸引力,因此答案为A。

听力大题型

Considering how jazz is transcribed in Chinese (jueshi), you may be misled into assuming that it is an aristocratic cultural form. Nothing could be further from the truth. It originated among black Americans at the end of the 19th century, at a time when they occupied the very bottom of the American social heap.

So how has something that was created by a once downtrodden and despised minority acquired a central place in today’s American culture? Mr. Darrell A Jenks, director of the American Center for Educational Exchange, and also a drummer in the jazz band Window, analyses the phenomenon for us here. Jazz: the soul of America.

Perhaps the essence of America is that you could never get two Americans to agree on just what that might be. After thinking about it for a while, we might chuckle and say, \

26.Which of the following words in Paragraph 1 CANNOT serve to indicate the statement \(D)

A. Aristocratic.

B. Bottom.

C. Misled.

D. Heap.

解析:下列哪个词不能对观点“这一认知错得不能再错了”起到支撑作用?本题中提到的“这一认知”指的是前文“你可能通过它的中文译名推断那是属于贵族的音乐”,根据后文可知爵士乐来自社会底层的黑人奴隶,所以这一认知的主要错误在于“贵族”与“社会底层”的反差,这来自于“爵”的误导。所以选项A、B、C都暗示了这一错误,只有选项D Heap原意为“堆”,这里social heap就是指社会阶层架构,与论点无直接关联。

27.What does the first sentence of Paragraph 3 imply?(B)

A. Americans could hardly agree with each other.

B. It’s hard to define what the essence of America is.

C. Never have Americans agreed on what the essence of America is.

D. The essence of America might be the diversity of ideas.

解析:文章第三段第一句话的含义是什么?此题关键在于对句子中代词that的理解“Perhaps the essence of America is that you could never get two Americans to agree on just what that might be.”第一个that引导表语从句,较易理解。第二个that指代句子主语the essence of America,所以该句的主要含义是“恐怕你找不到两个美国人对美国的精髓有着相同的看法”。故答案为B,其余选项对原文理解都有歪曲。

28.What characteristic in Americans is revealed in Ellison’s passage?(A)

A. Tolerance.

B. Individualism.

C. The American Dream.

D. Innovation.

解析:埃里森的文章中体现了美国人的哪种特质?本题题干的相关信息在第八段中,尤其是该段的主题句第一句。在论证美国人包容性的特质时又引用了埃里森提出的范例,故答案为A。其余选项虽然都是美国人所具有的特质但没有在他的文章中得到体现。

Vibrations in the ground are a poorly understood but probably widespread means of communication between animals.

It seems unlikely that these animals could have detected seismic \

29.What is the basic difference between animals and men in perception?(D)

A. Animals can detect seismic \

B. Animals can detect storms before they take place.

C. Animals can sense others of their species at distances.

D. Animals can sense vibrations transmitted through the ground.

解析:动物与人类在感知能力上基本的区别是什么?选项A、B、C都是动物对于震动具有感知能力后相应的行为表现,但基本的区别是选项D,参见第二段的中间信息:The best guess is that they can feel and understand vibrations that are transmitted through the ground.

30.Which of the following mammals is sure to use vibration as a means of communication?(A)

A. Elephant seal.

B. Elephant.

C. Rhino.

D. Lion.

解析:可以肯定的是下列哪种哺乳动物使用震动作为交流手段?文中明确提到至今能确定的使用震动作为交流手段的大型哺乳动物是海象,参考第三段首句,而其他动物仅是“怀疑”具有这一能力,但未得到证实。故答案为A。

31.Vibration is used to serve all of the following purposes EXCEPT______.(D)

A. to detect changes in the environment

B. to find their partners

C. to locate their preys

D. to protect themselves

解析:震动可用于以下目的,除了:文章起始便提到了动物可以感知地震、暴风雨等环境的变化,最好的推测就是它们通过地表震动感知,故选项A排除。第六段又提到利用振动来保卫领地、寻找配偶及发现猎物,故唯有选项D没有在文中提到。

32.What conclusion can be drawn from the passage?(D)

A. Earthquake prediction is highly possible.

B. The limitations of human sense will lead to the limitations of human’s ability.

C. Some scientists have overlooked some hidden ability in human.

D. Being in lack of evidence doesn’t mean its absence.

解析:可以从文中推论出以下哪个结论?本题信息主要在文章最后一段,地震时可以预报这一说法仅是推测,未得到证实,这里speculative表示“揣摩的;忖度的”,选项A不确切,选项B、C是对文章句子的歪曲理解。选项D恰恰是文章最后一句话的诠释,故答案为D。

Early in the film A Beautiful Mind, the mathematician John Nash is seen sitting in a Princeton courtyard, hunched over a playing board covered with small black and white pieces that look like pebbles. He was playing Go, an ancient Asian game. Frustration at losing that game inspired the real Nash to pursue the mathematics of game theory, research for which he eventually was awarded a Nobel Prize.

In recent years, computer experts, particularly those specializing in artificial intelligence, have felt the same fascination and frustration. Programming other board games has been a relative snap. Even chess has succumbed to the power of the processor. Five years ago, a chess-playing computer called Deep Blue not only beat but thoroughly humbled Garry Kasparov, the world champion at that time. That is because chess, while highly complex, can be reduced to a matter of brute force computation. Go is different. Deceptively easy to learn, either for a computer or a human, it is a game of such depth and complexity that it can take years for a person to become a strong player. To date, no computer has been able to achieve a skill level beyond that of the casual player.

The game is played on a board divided into a grid of 19 horizontal and 19 vertical lines. Black and white pieces called stones are placed one at a time on the grid’s intersections. The object is to acquire and defend territory by surrounding it with stones. Programmers working on Go see it as more accurate than chess in reflecting the ways the human mind works. The challenge of programming a computer to mimic that process goes to the core of artificial intelligence, which involves the study of learning and decision-making, strategic thinking, knowledge representation, pattern recognition and perhaps most intriguing, intuition.

Along with intuition, pattern recognition is a large part of the game. While computers are good at crunching numbers, people are naturally good at matching patterns. Humans can recognize an acquaintance at a glance, even from the back.

Daniel Bump, a mathematics professor at Stanford, works on a program called GNU Go in his spare time.

\

33.Which information about Go CANNOT be inferred from the passage?(B)

A. On the board there is a grid with 361 intersections.

B. The goal of the game is to defend one’s territory.

C. Playing Go involves more calculation than playing chess.

D. Playing Go involves intuition.

解析:以下哪项信息不能从文中推论得到?选项B错在围棋的目的是通过围格子获得或保卫领土而不仅仅是保卫领土,其他选项信息都可以在文章第三段及第八段中找到。A选项较难,需要进行运算。因为根据原文围棋由19条水平线和19条垂直线围成格子,因此交叉点(intersection)就有19×19=361个。

34.Which of the following DOES NOT contribute to the complexity of programming a computer to play Go?(A)

A. Playing Go involves decision-making.

B. Playing Go involves pattern-matching.

C. The limitation of computer’s processing speed.

D. There exist too many possibilities in each move.

解析:以下哪一要素没有构成围棋程序编写的难度?选项A错在虽然人工智能涉及了决策制订,但文中并没有提到是这一点使围棋程序编写尤其困难,以常识而言,象棋程序中也涉及决策制订。而其他选项在下文都有特别提到,用以强调围棋程序编写之难。

35.According to the passage, what causes the fascination in programming a computer to play Go?(C)

A. The award of Nobel Prize.

B. The ambition of beating human in playing Go like Deep Blue did in playing chess.

C. It can advance basic work in artificial intelligence.

D. It can make computers behave like man.

解析:根据文章,使科学家们沉迷于研究围棋程序编写的原因何在?文章在结尾处提到, “尽管围棋程序的开发如此之难,但编程人员愈发产生了浓厚的兴趣。”可见正因为其难,一旦攻克就可以在人工智能方面取得重大进展,这正是激励科学家们的最重要的原因,选项A、B流于表面,选项D错在“behave”,应该是“think”。

36.Which writing skill is NOT employed in this passage?(D)

A. Comparison.

B. Contrast.

C. Exemplification.

D. Definition.

解析:以下哪项写作手法没有运用在文中?选项A的比较,侧重于两者相似处的比较,文章一开始叙述数学家约翰·纳什与下文科学家们对围棋的痴迷与迷茫是相似的比较;选项B的对比,强调两者的反差,文中多处将象棋与围棋进行对比显示围棋之复杂;选项C的例证体现在计算机深蓝这一例子的使用。只有选项D的下定义没有用到。

For the first time in decades, researchers are reporting a significant drop worldwide in the number of women dying each year from pregnancy and childbirth, to about 342, 900 in 2008 from 526, 300 in 1980.

The findings, published in the medical journal The Lancet, challenge the prevailing view of maternal mortality as an intractable problem that has defied every effort to solve it. \

37.The most suitable substitute for \(A)

A. resisted

B. eluded

C. challenged

D. denied

解析:文章第二段中“defied”的最佳替代词是:该题考查考生的词汇量和对上下文的理解能力。 “defy”有三种意思:1.resist or confront with resistance反抗;2.elude,especially in a baffling way藐视;3.challenge挑衅。根据原文“as an intractable problem that has defied every effort to solve it”,我们得知这是一个棘手的问题,任何努力去解决它都是徒劳的,所以最合适的替代词应该是“resist”。

38.Which of the following is NOT the reason for the significant drop worldwide in the number of women dying each year from pregnancy and childbirth?(D)

A. There are lower pregnancy rates now in some developed countries.

B. Health care is now more accessible to most women.

C. There are more skilled attendants with some medical training to help women give birth.

D. Large countries like India and China are not included in the study.

解析:下列哪项不是全世界死于怀孕和分娩的女性人数在大幅下降的原因:根据原文第二段我们可以得知怀孕率的下降、医疗保健的普及和经过专业培训的医护人员的增加都是孕产妇死亡率下降的原因,并且这样的统计是包括像印度和中国这样的大国的。故答案为D。

39.The writing style of the author is______.(C)

A. humorous

B. indifferent

C. plain

D. evasive

解析:作者的写作风格是:该题为推断题。我们通过全文的阅读可以感受原文的题材为科技文,作者的笔触是客观平实的,但并不冷漠,同时也不幽默或含糊。故答案为C。

简答题

PASSAGE ONE

40.According to experts, why do people feel the pressure of having a perfect marriage?

Afraid of being imperfect,and feeling like a failure.

解析:根据专家的观点,人们为什么会对拥有一个完美的婚姻感到有压力呢?文章的第二段和第三段有明确答案,人们感到有压力是因为他们害怕自己的婚姻不完美,或想在婚姻幸福程度上与他人比较,或害怕一旦离婚,他们就会被认为是失败者。

41.Why is Benjie Goodheart afraid of being married?

It’s all thanks to his parents’perfect marriage.

解析:为什么本杰-古德哈特害怕结婚?文章的第一段和第二段有明确答案,本杰-古德哈特害怕结婚是因为他的父母有着一段非常完美的婚姻,他想拥有和他们一样完美的婚姻,所以感到了压力。

42.PASSAGE TWO

A persistent attachment to an object or idea.

解析:根据语境,文中第五段的“obsession”是什么意思?根据原文“He says it’s a 20-year obsession”可推测意为“他的这一爱好已有20年历史”。上下文还提到理查德-埃利斯写作有关鲸鱼的著述,拍摄鲸鱼在辽阔大海里的照片,把被困在海滩上的鲸鱼画下来,可见他对鲸鱼的痴迷程度,所以obsession在此意为“a persistent attachment to an object or idea”。

PASSAGE THREE

43.What are people’s worries about GM plants?

How do Bt crops affect“nontarget”organisms and nearby plants?

解析:人们对于转基因作物的担忧是什么?本题的相关信息都集中体现在最后一段的三个问题中,分别提到了对“非目标型”动物、周遭植物的影响及本身特性的丧失。

44.According to the context, what does the word \

It means“possibility”.

解析:根据语境,文中(最后一段)的“odds”是什么意思?根据原文“以基因工程技术植入的抗虫与抗除草剂能力万一失效,使转基因作物突然变得异常脆弱,这种概率又有多大?”所以“What are the odds”的odds表示概率。

PASSAGE FOUR

45.What does the author think of society toward motorists?

Society condones their rude driving.

解析:作者认为社会对司机的看法是什么?社会宽容这种野蛮开车的行径。答案在第三段:令人惊讶的是社会对司机宽厚地笑笑,似乎宽容他们的行为。人们允许城市交通拥堵,允许大型停车场把城镇“弄得”丑陋不堪,忽视公路网站污染了乡村。每年大量的死亡仅仅成为统计数字,被很容易被忘记。

46.Why does the author say that his car becomes the extension of his personality?

Driving can show his real self.

解析:为何作者说“他的车就是他个性的外延”?这句话就体现了“开车表现他真正的自我,真实的个性”。第二段讲得很清楚“这么说完全正确:当一个人坐在方向盘后,他的车就成为他个性的外延。毫无疑问,汽车常常显现出人之最坏的品质。平常很安详愉快的人,一坐在方向盘后可能就变得难以认识。他们咒骂、行为差劲、好斗、固执、任性得就像两岁的孩子。他们所有隐藏的失落、失望和忌妒感,似乎都在开车中暴露出来了。”

47.Why should driver avoid using mobile phones on the road?

We are not concentrated on the road when driving.

解析:司机为何不能在马路上(开车时)用手机?文中第四段最后一句说到Additionally,no driver should use mobile phones as we are not concentrated on the road when we are driving.即开车时使用手机我们便不会关注路面情况,言下之意是这种状态会造成交通事故,应避免之。所以答案是We are not concentrated on the road when driving.

阅读理解大题型

The more I reflect on the 23 impressive years since the

signing of the Montreal Protocol, the more I realize what

far-reaching lessons holds for the global environmental 【S1】______

agreements of today.

As we close the door on the first decade of the 21st

century, the environmental crisis that we face today require 【S2】______

action beyond even the scale of the world’s response to the

ozone-depletion emergency in the late 20th century.

As we all know, the ozone layer is a thin layer in the

atmosphere that sits about 10-50 km above the Earth. It

absorbs most of the harmful ultraviolet radiation to the 【S3】______

sun. The discovery of an ozone \

48.【S1】

∧ it

解析:宾语从句中的主语缺失,补充it当主语,指代《蒙特利尔议定书》。

49.【S2】

crises

解析:crisis(危机)是单数,require一般现在时需要变成requires,两者有出入。经过分析发现应该是各种环境危机,即复数crises。

50.【S3】

from

解析:臭氧层可以吸收来自太阳的对身体有害的紫外线,方向应该是“来自”太阳,而不是“往”太阳去,即用“from”,而不是“to”。

51.【S4】

later

解析:1985年人们发现臭氧层出现了空洞,从逻辑上讲,是两年后各国签订《蒙特利尔议定书》,故应该是two years later。

52.【S5】

recalling

解析:be worth doing表示“值得做某事”,是固定搭配,故将recalled改为recalling。

53.【S6】

multilateral

解析:臭氧层空洞问题不是某两个国家之间的事情,而是全球性的环境问题,bilateral表示“两国之间的”,不符合上下文,应改为multilateral(多国的)。

54.【S7】

together

解析:《蒙特利尔议定书》以一种独特的方式让全球联合起来应对臭氧层空洞问题。altogether表示“全部地;总之;总共”,together表示“共同”,后者符合原意。

55.【S8】

∧ were

解析:CFC(氟氯化碳)曾经使用在喷雾剂、冰箱中,目前空调中仍然使用氟氯化碳。后半句are still used是另外一个线索,再次证实前半句应该使用被动语态,即were used。

56.【S9】

industrialized

解析:工业化国家为发展中国家提供经济上和技术上的帮助,使它们可以执行《蒙特利尔议定书》。“工业化国家\

57.【S10】

删去 out

解析:implement是及物动词,不需要out,故删去。

翻译

58. 浙江钱塘江河口的涌潮,自古蔚为天下奇观。它是大自然赋予的神奇景象。由于天体引力和地球离心作用,每逢农历初一至初五,十五至三十,天体引潮力特别强,易形成大潮;农历八月十八日的大潮尤为壮观。而杭州湾喇叭口的地形特殊,海湾水域广阔,但河口狭窄,加之河床泥沙阻挡,易使潮流能量集中,江潮迅速猛涨,流速加快,涌潮现象频频发生。钱江涌潮,一年四季,周而复始。全年共有120天的“观潮日”。每天有日、夜两潮,尤以秋潮为佳。每当大潮来时,开始远处呈现一条白线,声如闷雷。数分钟之后,白线向前推移;继而巨浪汹涌澎湃,如万马奔腾,潮声震天动地,真有翻江倒海之势,最高潮差达8.93米。钱塘江涌潮举世无双,其奇、其高可与亚马孙河媲美,被誉为“世界八大奇观”之一。

At this time, the moon and the sun exert the greatest pull on the ocean at the mouth ofi the Qiantang River. The bore is at its most spectacular every September on the eighteenth day of the lunar calendar’s eighth month. The river’s special physical features account for this remarkable natural phenomenon. Its outlet to the ocean. Hangzhou Bay, is extremely wide, shaped like a large trumpet. When the sea tide rises, it brings with it a huge amount of water, pushing inland at a great speed. However, the river narrows abruptly at this point. This, together with the river’s sandy bed, prevents the water’s smooth progress. As waves follow one after the other, the tide surges and creates a gigantic wall of tidal water, the so-called \

解析:这是一篇介绍著名的钱塘江潮的短文,属于“实用性文体”(Pragmatic Texts)”。这类文章以内容为中心,以读者为中心,以传达信息为主要目的。因此,翻译这类文章的原则也应以内容为中心,以读者为中心。信息传递一定要正确,译文要让读者乐于阅读。汉英两种语言在文体和表达方式上有很大的差异,如本文对钱塘江潮的各种描写以及其中的种种比喻,在中文中读起来可能很美,但如果照字面翻译,有些说法在英语里会显得十分突兀,更不必说是否合乎英语的习惯表达方式了。

1. 由于天体引力和地球离心作用:如果照字面直译,大致可译成——Owing to the attraction of celestial bodies and the centrifugal force of the earth,…这样的译文让人读来觉得是科普文章。参考译文改写At this time,the moon and the sun exert the greatest pull on the ocean at the mouth of the Qiantang River.来表达原文的意思,与原文的描写文体相适应。

2. “而杭州湾喇叭口的地形特殊,海湾水域广阔,但河口狭窄,加之河床泥沙阻挡,易使潮流能量集中,江潮迅速猛涨,流速加快,涌潮现象频频发生。”这一句翻译时,需要考生先理解原文,然后根据英语的行文要求进行结构调整,并略作补充:The river’s special physical features account for this remarkable natural phenomenon.Its outlet to the ocean,Hangzhou Bay, is extremely wide,shaped like a large trumpet.When the sea tide rises,it brings with it a huge amount of water, pushing inland at a great speed.However, the river narrows abruptly at this point.This,together with the river’s sandy bed,prevents the water’s smooth progress.As waves follow one after the other,the tide surges and creates a gigantic wall of tidal water, the so-called“tidal bore”,原文对形成钱塘江潮的地势特征描述非常简练,译文如按照原文翻译,可能难以充分说明。如果把英语回译成汉语,大致意思如下:“钱塘江的地势特殊,是形成这一自然奇观的原因。”这一句是总的概括,下面再仔细叙述:“钱塘江出口杭州湾非常宽阔,但呈喇叭形,海潮来临时,大量的海水以极大的流速涌入江里。而河口突然变窄,加之河底泥沙阻挡,海水难以通过。但后浪追前浪,浪头重叠,犹如一堵高高的水墙,俗称‘涌潮’。”

写作

59. Following are a graph showing the current situation of smartphone penetration in the UK and an excerpt on the future trend of smartphones. Read them carefully and write a mini-report of about 300 words, in which you should:

1. summarize the ideas in both materials;

2. comment on the possible influence of this trend on education.

Graph

Smartphone Penetration and Its Implication

As the smartphone is invading human society, it is necessary to decide what may decide whether one will use a smartphone. According to a research by Nielson about 2, 500 British people in 2011, both age and income may influence the penetration of the smartphone. Generally, the younger you are, the more likely that you have a smartphone. The three age groups from 18 to 44 obviously show higher percentage of smartphone using than the other three age groups. Besides, income also affects smartphone possession. As the graph shows, smartphone possession increases with income, and those earning over 100, 000 pounds have much more smartphones than others. The second excerpt echoes the message on a more global scope. It predicts that smartphone users in the world will keep increasing at a fast rate. This will have great implications for marketers in the business world.

Most people are talking excitedly about the implications this high penetration rate may have for business world. In my opinion, besides the business world, education will be another area to experience the profound influence of smartphone penetration. On the one hand, this smart equipment will facilitate teaching and learning. For example, it can be used to receive, store and share teaching materials and ideas, and a tool to explore and access information needed. This will bring fundamental change to how teachers teach and how students learn. Most probably, the smartphone will replace traditional classrooms to become the place where education takes place. On the other hand, higher penetration makes education accessible to more people, especially the older citizens. Teaching and learning become possible for everybody, and those beyond school age can also find education whenever they need it. Wider accessibility of education can also help overcome the geographical barrier of education. In the future, people in remote areas can also enjoy high quality education with a phone in hand, and this will greatly improve social equality and mobility.

To sum up, the smartphone will constitute a great influence in the future, especially on the younger and the rich. By driving such fields as business and education, it will exert an unprecedented influence on human society.

解析:

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