Slang in English
Today we’ll discuss a common linguistic phenomenon in English—
slang. The features of slang are listed as follows:
I. Slang affects the English 【T1】_____. 【T1】______
A. New words added for social, scientific or artistic reasons
B. Slang—the social new words troubling 【T2】______ 【T2】______
II. Slang is young people’s urge of say.
A. Created by 【T3】______ 【T3】______
— Reason: 【T4】______ 【T4】______
— Result: looked down upon by adults
considered unintelligent and 【T5】______ 【T5】______
B. The conservative view: lack of standard English due to
C. Possible solution: use kids’ 【T7】______to help them learn standard 【T7】______
III. Slang is usually used by people of 【T8】______. 【T8】______
A. People who do not like slang are 【T9】______, and they do not 【T9】______
want to hear other ways of talking
B. Much slang comes from 【T10】______.
IV. Slang equals change of language
A. Change of a language is to fit the 【T11】____of society
B. People who oppose slang and new dialects of English 【T11】______
— do not realize the way people speak 【T12】 _____time
— prove themselves to be intolerant of change 【T12】______
C. Language will 【T13】______in the future
— people talk via the Internet now 【T13】______
— the Internet has its own language
— 【T14】______is not accepted by conservatives
— it will probably appear in 【T15】______ 【T14】______
V. Conclusion: slang brings changes to language. 【T15】______
解析：要点题。演讲者在提到俚语的第一点特征时说道：Slang affects the vocabulary of English．即俚语影响到英语的传统词汇，因此答案为vocabulary。
解析：归总题。讲座提到俚语让保守的语言学家非常头疼：But the social，or slang，words do trouble linguists，especially the conservative ones．They do fear that after slang continues to thrust new words to the English vocabulary, it will not remain pure and clean as standard English．因此答案是conservative linguists。
解析：细节题。根据讲座原文“Slang is usually created by children or teens”可知答案为children／teens。
seek social status
解析：归总题。讲座原文提到：Second，slang indicates young people’s urge of say in society．Slang is usually created by children or teens who seek social status．归纳起来意思就是俚语多由青少年创造，目的是为自己争取社会话语权，谋求自己的社会地位，这里的归纳词可以是seek social status。
解析：推断题，但需要转换词性。演讲者讲道：Since kids are the source of new slang，some adults look down on it with the assumption that kids are unintelligent and simply rebelling against established English grammar and diction．也就是说，成年人认为小孩儿愚钝而叛逆，才会说些不合乎英语语法及措辞的俚语，这里原文用了rebel的现代分词rebelling，而空格前的unintelligent是形容词，提示空格中也应填入与之并列且具有相同词性的词，因此答案为rebel的形容词形式：rebellious。
an education deficiency
解析：细节题。根据讲座原文“Some conservatives claim that the lack of standard English is due to an education deficiency．”可知答案为an education deficiency。
解析：细节题。演讲者在谈到帮助孩子学习标准英语时提到：The conservatives should use the kids’dialects to help the kids learn standard English．因此答案为dialects。
low social status
解析：推断题。演讲者提到俚语的第三大特征是使用俚语的人往往不属于上层社会，他们的社会地位较低。即Third，slang is usually not used by people of high social status and this is another reason why conservatives look down upon slang．因此保守派总是藐视说俚语的人，这里题目中的句子用的是肯定形式，而非讲座中的否定形式，因此答案为high social status的反义词low social status。
解析：细节题。根据讲座原文“People who do not like slang are usually prejudiced as well．”即可得出答案。
解析：细节题。根据讲座原文“Also，much slang comes from other languages，of which conservatives might also be prejudiced．”可知答案为other languages。
解析：细节题。讲座中提到语言并不是一成不变的，而是不断变化的，因而可以适应不同的社会范式：As is known to all，language is a live thing that embraces any change to fit the paradigms of society．其中关键词paradigms就是答案。
解析：归总题。讲座并未直接给出答案，演讲者认为那些反对俚语反对新方言的人并没有意识到我们说话的方式与我们先辈说话的方式是不同的，即我们的说话方式随着时间的推移而变化：This simply illustrates the same types of people who opposed contractions in the past are opposing slang and new dialects of English．They do not realize that the way they speak differs from the way that their predecessors spoke．因此填入的空格应该意为随……而变化，所以答案为varies with。
have different presentations
解析：归总题。讲座中提到：Furthermore，language will be thought of differently in the future because new mediums of communication will be used，the largest one being the Internet．可知语言在不断地发展，随着交流媒介的变化，未来的语言又会出现其他不同的呈现方式，比如因特网的使用就大大丰富了现有的语言形式，因此答案可以归纳为have different presentations或者present differently等意义相近的词组。
解析：细节题。讲座提到保守派不能接受计算机俚语：Those acronyms could be called part of the cyber-slang，which is of course not accepted by conservatives。因此答案为cyber-slang或computer slang。
解析：细节题。讲座中提到：Those acronyms could be called part of the cyber-slang，which is of course not accepted by conservatives，but who knows whether after several years，it will probably appear in standard dictionaries．可见现在不被接受的语言未必以后不被接受，那些网络上广为流传的俚语也有可能在若干年后编人标准词典，因此答案为standard dictionaries。
A. The increased cost of raw materials.
D. The increased cost of human resources.
解析：推断题。脱口秀主持人在开场白中指出In the next few minutes we’re going to be asking whether you’re after value for money when you’re shopping for fashion；or fashion that’s made with values．We’re all after a bargain on the high street．即所有的消费者去商业街购物都会争相购买价廉物美的商品，因此答案为C。
A. The increased cost of raw materials.
B. The booming market for fast fashion.
C. Consumers’ needs for luxury fashion.
D. The increased cost of human resources.
解析：细节题。脱口秀中主持人提到Fulfilling our needs for fast fashion means increased production and competition in clothing made in countries with low-wage economies．可见消费者对快速变换的时尚的热衷导致低收入国家的服装业产量激增并使该产业竞争愈加激烈，只有选项B符合题意，因此答案为B。
解析：推断题。脱口秀中主持人提到Handbags at ￡3．99，T-shirts for a fiver and shoes for under a tenner—all roughly equivalent to the price of an everyday meal．即手提包只卖3．99英镑，T恤卖5英镑，鞋子卖10英镑左右，手提箱没有被提到，所以最便宜的是手提包，答案为D。
A. To provide information that might reveal the company ethics.
B. To study the ethical aspect of consumers while shopping.
C. To do research on ethical consumers’ behavior and values.
D. To give consumers useful information on quality of products.
解析：细节题。脱口秀节目中的嘉宾James来自伦理消费者研究协会(the Ethical Consumer Research Association)，该协会的宗旨是为消费者提供厂家在产品品牌幕后的所作所为，换言之，就是提供给消费者有关制造商的生产销售是否符合伦理规范的情报：OK，well the Ethical Consumer Research Association exists to provide information for shoppers，letting them know what the companies are doing behind the brands that they see on the shelves．所以答案为A。
A. The shopper is concerned about the human labor involved in the product.
B. The shopper wonders whether the company is involved in armaments.
C. The shopper wonders whether the company manages to make ends meet.
D. The shopper wants to know which party the company financially supports.
解析：辨别题。脱口秀中提到伦理消费者有以下特征：Very broadly speaking，people who are concerned about ethical issues want to know that the product they’re buying hasn’t been made at the expense of the people who are producing it，whether it’s in this country or abroad．They might also be concerned with other kinds of issues：whether the company is involved in armaments，or whether they’re donating money to certain political parties…可见伦理消费者关注产品生产是否以牺牲人力为代价，他们也关注公司是否与军备生产有关，以及公司支持的政党是否与自己支持的一致等因素，这里只有选项C不属于伦理消费者关注的对象，因此答案为C。
A. They are made of better materials.
B. The animals.
C. The environment.
D. They are made by the workers with a high education.
解析：细节题。当主持人问及判断伦理商品的规则时，James回答道We can buy very cheap products and it’s very likely that when products are cheap，something has suffered in order to get it to us．Whether it’s the person making it or the animals or the environment．可见便宜的商品经常会以牺牲劳工的福利、动物的利益或者污染环境为代价，但是没有提到以降低质量为代价，所以答案为D。
A. They are made of better materials.
B. They are made of expensive materials.
C. They are made by the workers with a proper wage.
D. They are made by the workers with a high education.
解析：推断题。James在脱口秀中指出And unfortunately a lot of ethical products will cost more because they reflect the real cost of bringing that thing into the shops．So something that has been made in a factory where the workers have been paid a proper wage will cost you more to buy, simply because the people making it are getting paid enough to live on．即很多伦理商品价格较为昂贵，原因是生产这些商品的工人得到了应有的薪酬，而没有被生产商剥削，因此答案为C。
A. One should be wealthy enough.
B. One should buy cheap things.
C. One should buy everything second-hand.
D. One should buy less.
解析：推断题。James给大家的建议就是要成为一个有道德的消费者并不一定需要多么富有，关键是要做到理性购物，少购物或者可以适当购买合适的旧物：You don’t have to be rich to be an ethical shopper．One way of thinking about ethical shopping is thinking about buying less．．．So being an ethical shopper really means thinking a bit before you go and spend your money in the shops．Some things may cost a little bit more in the short-run，but be worth it in the long．run…And sometimes you can buy things second-hand…这里的主要干扰项是C，但选项中的everything一词过于极端，因此排除此选项，所以答案为D。
A. Those are cheap.
B. Those are ethical.
C. Those are unique.
D. Those are comfortable.
解析：细节题。James在脱口秀中指出For example，more youngsters want an ethical buy, but their original thing for that might be that they like to wear clothes which are totally different from everyone else．可见很多年轻人想买伦理商品，但是他们的初衷还是想穿与众不同的服饰，因此答案为C。
解析：态度推断题。最后主持人问及James对伦理购物这一理念未来发展的展望，James的态度包含在他的言辞中：Anyhow, I am sure ethical shopping will be popular with consumers and one day, it might appear as appealing as the latest fashion．由此可见他对伦理购物这一理念在消费者当中的发展还是持乐观态度的，他认为未来会有更多消费者接受这一理念。在未来这种消费方式会对消费者更具吸引力，因此答案为A。
Considering how jazz is transcribed in Chinese (jueshi), you may be misled into assuming that it is an aristocratic cultural form. Nothing could be further from the truth. It originated among black Americans at the end of the 19th century, at a time when they occupied the very bottom of the American social heap.
So how has something that was created by a once downtrodden and despised minority acquired a central place in today’s American culture? Mr. Darrell A Jenks, director of the American Center for Educational Exchange, and also a drummer in the jazz band Window, analyses the phenomenon for us here. Jazz: the soul of America.
Perhaps the essence of America is that you could never get two Americans to agree on just what that might be. After thinking about it for a while, we might chuckle and say, \
26.Which of the following words in Paragraph 1 CANNOT serve to indicate the statement \(D)
解析：下列哪个词不能对观点“这一认知错得不能再错了”起到支撑作用?本题中提到的“这一认知”指的是前文“你可能通过它的中文译名推断那是属于贵族的音乐”，根据后文可知爵士乐来自社会底层的黑人奴隶，所以这一认知的主要错误在于“贵族”与“社会底层”的反差，这来自于“爵”的误导。所以选项A、B、C都暗示了这一错误，只有选项D Heap原意为“堆”，这里social heap就是指社会阶层架构，与论点无直接关联。
27.What does the first sentence of Paragraph 3 imply?(B)
A. Americans could hardly agree with each other.
B. It’s hard to define what the essence of America is.
C. Never have Americans agreed on what the essence of America is.
D. The essence of America might be the diversity of ideas.
解析：文章第三段第一句话的含义是什么?此题关键在于对句子中代词that的理解“Perhaps the essence of America is that you could never get two Americans to agree on just what that might be．”第一个that引导表语从句，较易理解。第二个that指代句子主语the essence of America，所以该句的主要含义是“恐怕你找不到两个美国人对美国的精髓有着相同的看法”。故答案为B，其余选项对原文理解都有歪曲。
28.What characteristic in Americans is revealed in Ellison’s passage?(A)
C. The American Dream.
Vibrations in the ground are a poorly understood but probably widespread means of communication between animals.
It seems unlikely that these animals could have detected seismic \
29.What is the basic difference between animals and men in perception?(D)
A. Animals can detect seismic \
B. Animals can detect storms before they take place.
C. Animals can sense others of their species at distances.
D. Animals can sense vibrations transmitted through the ground.
解析：动物与人类在感知能力上基本的区别是什么?选项A、B、C都是动物对于震动具有感知能力后相应的行为表现，但基本的区别是选项D，参见第二段的中间信息：The best guess is that they can feel and understand vibrations that are transmitted through the ground．
30.Which of the following mammals is sure to use vibration as a means of communication?(A)
A. Elephant seal.
31.Vibration is used to serve all of the following purposes EXCEPT______.(D)
A. to detect changes in the environment
B. to find their partners
C. to locate their preys
D. to protect themselves
32.What conclusion can be drawn from the passage?(D)
A. Earthquake prediction is highly possible.
B. The limitations of human sense will lead to the limitations of human’s ability.
C. Some scientists have overlooked some hidden ability in human.
D. Being in lack of evidence doesn’t mean its absence.
Early in the film A Beautiful Mind, the mathematician John Nash is seen sitting in a Princeton courtyard, hunched over a playing board covered with small black and white pieces that look like pebbles. He was playing Go, an ancient Asian game. Frustration at losing that game inspired the real Nash to pursue the mathematics of game theory, research for which he eventually was awarded a Nobel Prize.
In recent years, computer experts, particularly those specializing in artificial intelligence, have felt the same fascination and frustration. Programming other board games has been a relative snap. Even chess has succumbed to the power of the processor. Five years ago, a chess-playing computer called Deep Blue not only beat but thoroughly humbled Garry Kasparov, the world champion at that time. That is because chess, while highly complex, can be reduced to a matter of brute force computation. Go is different. Deceptively easy to learn, either for a computer or a human, it is a game of such depth and complexity that it can take years for a person to become a strong player. To date, no computer has been able to achieve a skill level beyond that of the casual player.
The game is played on a board divided into a grid of 19 horizontal and 19 vertical lines. Black and white pieces called stones are placed one at a time on the grid’s intersections. The object is to acquire and defend territory by surrounding it with stones. Programmers working on Go see it as more accurate than chess in reflecting the ways the human mind works. The challenge of programming a computer to mimic that process goes to the core of artificial intelligence, which involves the study of learning and decision-making, strategic thinking, knowledge representation, pattern recognition and perhaps most intriguing, intuition.
Along with intuition, pattern recognition is a large part of the game. While computers are good at crunching numbers, people are naturally good at matching patterns. Humans can recognize an acquaintance at a glance, even from the back.
Daniel Bump, a mathematics professor at Stanford, works on a program called GNU Go in his spare time.
33.Which information about Go CANNOT be inferred from the passage?(B)
A. On the board there is a grid with 361 intersections.
B. The goal of the game is to defend one’s territory.
C. Playing Go involves more calculation than playing chess.
D. Playing Go involves intuition.
34.Which of the following DOES NOT contribute to the complexity of programming a computer to play Go?(A)
A. Playing Go involves decision-making.
B. Playing Go involves pattern-matching.
C. The limitation of computer’s processing speed.
D. There exist too many possibilities in each move.
35.According to the passage, what causes the fascination in programming a computer to play Go?(C)
A. The award of Nobel Prize.
B. The ambition of beating human in playing Go like Deep Blue did in playing chess.
C. It can advance basic work in artificial intelligence.
D. It can make computers behave like man.
36.Which writing skill is NOT employed in this passage?(D)
For the first time in decades, researchers are reporting a significant drop worldwide in the number of women dying each year from pregnancy and childbirth, to about 342, 900 in 2008 from 526, 300 in 1980.
The findings, published in the medical journal The Lancet, challenge the prevailing view of maternal mortality as an intractable problem that has defied every effort to solve it. \
37.The most suitable substitute for \(A)
解析：文章第二段中“defied”的最佳替代词是：该题考查考生的词汇量和对上下文的理解能力。 “defy”有三种意思：1．resist or confront with resistance反抗；2．elude，especially in a baffling way藐视；3．challenge挑衅。根据原文“as an intractable problem that has defied every effort to solve it”，我们得知这是一个棘手的问题，任何努力去解决它都是徒劳的，所以最合适的替代词应该是“resist”。
38.Which of the following is NOT the reason for the significant drop worldwide in the number of women dying each year from pregnancy and childbirth?(D)
A. There are lower pregnancy rates now in some developed countries.
B. Health care is now more accessible to most women.
C. There are more skilled attendants with some medical training to help women give birth.
D. Large countries like India and China are not included in the study.
39.The writing style of the author is______.(C)
40.According to experts, why do people feel the pressure of having a perfect marriage?
Afraid of being imperfect，and feeling like a failure．
41.Why is Benjie Goodheart afraid of being married?
It’s all thanks to his parents’perfect marriage．
A persistent attachment to an object or idea．
解析：根据语境，文中第五段的“obsession”是什么意思?根据原文“He says it’s a 20-year obsession”可推测意为“他的这一爱好已有20年历史”。上下文还提到理查德-埃利斯写作有关鲸鱼的著述，拍摄鲸鱼在辽阔大海里的照片，把被困在海滩上的鲸鱼画下来，可见他对鲸鱼的痴迷程度，所以obsession在此意为“a persistent attachment to an object or idea”。
43.What are people’s worries about GM plants?
How do Bt crops affect“nontarget”organisms and nearby plants?
44.According to the context, what does the word \
解析：根据语境，文中(最后一段)的“odds”是什么意思?根据原文“以基因工程技术植入的抗虫与抗除草剂能力万一失效，使转基因作物突然变得异常脆弱，这种概率又有多大?”所以“What are the odds”的odds表示概率。
45.What does the author think of society toward motorists?
Society condones their rude driving.
46.Why does the author say that his car becomes the extension of his personality?
Driving can show his real self.
47.Why should driver avoid using mobile phones on the road?
We are not concentrated on the road when driving．
解析：司机为何不能在马路上(开车时)用手机?文中第四段最后一句说到Additionally，no driver should use mobile phones as we are not concentrated on the road when we are driving．即开车时使用手机我们便不会关注路面情况，言下之意是这种状态会造成交通事故，应避免之。所以答案是We are not concentrated on the road when driving．
The more I reflect on the 23 impressive years since the
signing of the Montreal Protocol, the more I realize what
far-reaching lessons holds for the global environmental 【S1】______
agreements of today.
As we close the door on the first decade of the 21st
century, the environmental crisis that we face today require 【S2】______
action beyond even the scale of the world’s response to the
ozone-depletion emergency in the late 20th century.
As we all know, the ozone layer is a thin layer in the
atmosphere that sits about 10-50 km above the Earth. It
absorbs most of the harmful ultraviolet radiation to the 【S3】______
sun. The discovery of an ozone \
解析：1985年人们发现臭氧层出现了空洞，从逻辑上讲，是两年后各国签订《蒙特利尔议定书》，故应该是two years later。
解析：be worth doing表示“值得做某事”，是固定搭配，故将recalled改为recalling。
解析：CFC(氟氯化碳)曾经使用在喷雾剂、冰箱中，目前空调中仍然使用氟氯化碳。后半句are still used是另外一个线索，再次证实前半句应该使用被动语态，即were used。
At this time, the moon and the sun exert the greatest pull on the ocean at the mouth ofi the Qiantang River. The bore is at its most spectacular every September on the eighteenth day of the lunar calendar’s eighth month. The river’s special physical features account for this remarkable natural phenomenon. Its outlet to the ocean. Hangzhou Bay, is extremely wide, shaped like a large trumpet. When the sea tide rises, it brings with it a huge amount of water, pushing inland at a great speed. However, the river narrows abruptly at this point. This, together with the river’s sandy bed, prevents the water’s smooth progress. As waves follow one after the other, the tide surges and creates a gigantic wall of tidal water, the so-called \
1． 由于天体引力和地球离心作用：如果照字面直译，大致可译成——Owing to the attraction of celestial bodies and the centrifugal force of the earth，…这样的译文让人读来觉得是科普文章。参考译文改写At this time，the moon and the sun exert the greatest pull on the ocean at the mouth of the Qiantang River.来表达原文的意思，与原文的描写文体相适应。
2． “而杭州湾喇叭口的地形特殊，海湾水域广阔，但河口狭窄，加之河床泥沙阻挡，易使潮流能量集中，江潮迅速猛涨，流速加快，涌潮现象频频发生。”这一句翻译时，需要考生先理解原文，然后根据英语的行文要求进行结构调整，并略作补充：The river’s special physical features account for this remarkable natural phenomenon．Its outlet to the ocean，Hangzhou Bay, is extremely wide，shaped like a large trumpet．When the sea tide rises，it brings with it a huge amount of water, pushing inland at a great speed．However, the river narrows abruptly at this point．This，together with the river’s sandy bed，prevents the water’s smooth progress．As waves follow one after the other，the tide surges and creates a gigantic wall of tidal water, the so-called“tidal bore”，原文对形成钱塘江潮的地势特征描述非常简练，译文如按照原文翻译，可能难以充分说明。如果把英语回译成汉语，大致意思如下：“钱塘江的地势特殊，是形成这一自然奇观的原因。”这一句是总的概括，下面再仔细叙述：“钱塘江出口杭州湾非常宽阔，但呈喇叭形，海潮来临时，大量的海水以极大的流速涌入江里。而河口突然变窄，加之河底泥沙阻挡，海水难以通过。但后浪追前浪，浪头重叠，犹如一堵高高的水墙，俗称‘涌潮’。”
59. Following are a graph showing the current situation of smartphone penetration in the UK and an excerpt on the future trend of smartphones. Read them carefully and write a mini-report of about 300 words, in which you should:
1. summarize the ideas in both materials;
2. comment on the possible influence of this trend on education.
Smartphone Penetration and Its Implication
As the smartphone is invading human society, it is necessary to decide what may decide whether one will use a smartphone. According to a research by Nielson about 2, 500 British people in 2011, both age and income may influence the penetration of the smartphone. Generally, the younger you are, the more likely that you have a smartphone. The three age groups from 18 to 44 obviously show higher percentage of smartphone using than the other three age groups. Besides, income also affects smartphone possession. As the graph shows, smartphone possession increases with income, and those earning over 100, 000 pounds have much more smartphones than others. The second excerpt echoes the message on a more global scope. It predicts that smartphone users in the world will keep increasing at a fast rate. This will have great implications for marketers in the business world.
Most people are talking excitedly about the implications this high penetration rate may have for business world. In my opinion, besides the business world, education will be another area to experience the profound influence of smartphone penetration. On the one hand, this smart equipment will facilitate teaching and learning. For example, it can be used to receive, store and share teaching materials and ideas, and a tool to explore and access information needed. This will bring fundamental change to how teachers teach and how students learn. Most probably, the smartphone will replace traditional classrooms to become the place where education takes place. On the other hand, higher penetration makes education accessible to more people, especially the older citizens. Teaching and learning become possible for everybody, and those beyond school age can also find education whenever they need it. Wider accessibility of education can also help overcome the geographical barrier of education. In the future, people in remote areas can also enjoy high quality education with a phone in hand, and this will greatly improve social equality and mobility.
To sum up, the smartphone will constitute a great influence in the future, especially on the younger and the rich. By driving such fields as business and education, it will exert an unprecedented influence on human society.