Computer Crime

I. Introduction

Current situation: the increase in the number and types of computer crime

II. 【T1】______of computer criminals 【T1】______

A. relatively honest

B.【T2】______ 【T2】______

— most being males

— females being accomplices

C. aged between 【T3】______ 【T3】______

D. bright, eager, highly motivated, adventuresome

E. 【T4】____profiles: ranging from young teens to elders, from black to 【T4】______

white, from short to tall

III. Definitions of computer crime—changing over 【T5】______ 【T5】______

A. once defined as a form of 【T6】______ 【T6】______

B. defined as a federal crime hacking into credit and other data bases

protected by【T7】_____ 【T7】______

C. defined as 【T8】______to computers to obtain money, goods or


services or classified information

IV. 【T9】______of computer crime 【T9】______

A. 【T10】______of money

e.g. The Well Fargo Bank discovered an employee using the bank 【T10】______

computer to embezzle $21.3 million.

B. credit card and 【T11】______

e.g. A computer hacker gained illegal access to a credit data base. 【T11】______

C. 【T12】______of computer time

e.g. Excessive computer game time in business means stealing of work 【T12】______


V. Protection 【T13】______

A. hardware identification 【T13】______

B. 【T14】______software

C. disconnecting critical bank applications 【T14】______

D.【T15】______ 【T15】______



解析:归总题。讲座开篇提了个问题:First,what kinds of people tend to commit computer crimes?然后描述了电脑犯罪分子的一些基本特征,因此这里的归纳词可以用features或characteristics。


gender bias/difference

解析:归总题。讲座并未直接给出答案。这篇讲座主要列举了高科技犯罪之一,即电脑犯罪的一些特点。讲座提到的第一要点是电脑犯罪分子的构成,其中一个显著特征就是性别偏好:Most are males:women have tended to be accomplices,although later they are becoming more aggressive.即犯罪分子多数是男性。因此空格中填入的单词应意为偏好/区别,答案为gender bias/difference或其他意义相近的词。


14 and 30

解析:细节题。根据讲座中电脑犯罪分子的年龄构成“Computer criminals tend to usually be between the ages of 14-30”可知答案。



解析:归总题。讲座中直接提到的相关内容是:There is no actual profile of a computer criminal because they range from young teens to elders,from black to white,from short to tall.即电脑犯罪分子并没有特定的特征,犯罪分子包括不同年龄层、不同人种及不同身高,换言之,电脑犯罪分子呈现多样化趋势,所以答案为diversified(多样化的,多种的)。



解析:归总题。讲座中提到电脑犯罪的定义随时间的推移演变:Second,we shall discuss the evolutionary definition of computer crime.Definitions of computer crime have changed over the years as the users and misusers of computers have expanded into new areas.因此电脑犯罪的定义并不是一成不变的,而随时间的变化而变化,所以答案为time/years。


white-collar crime

解析:细节题。根据讲座原文中有关电脑犯罪的定义“When computers were first introduced into businesses,computer crime was defined simply as a form of white-collar crime”即可得出答案。


federal privacy statutes

解析:细节题。根据讲座中提到的“The U.S.House of Judiciary Committee approved a bipartisan computer crime bill that was expanded to make it a federal crime to hack into credit and other data bases protected by federal privacy statutes.”可知答案为federal privacy statutes。


unauthorized access

解析:细节题。根据讲座原文“This bill is generally creating several categories of federal crimes for unauthorized access to computers to obtain money, goods or services or classified information.”可知答案是unauthorized access。



解析:要点题。讲座中提到的第三个要点就是电脑犯罪的几种形式,即:Third,computer crimes can take on many forms.The first form is swindling or stealing of money which is one of the most common computer crime.所以答案为Forms/Types(形式)。


swindling or stealing

解析:细节题。根据讲座原文“The first form is swindling or stealing of money which is one of the most common computer crimes.”可直接拷贝答题。



解析:细节题。根据第二种电脑犯罪形式“The second form is called credit card seams.”可知答案为seams或其同义词。



解析:细节题。根据讲座中提到的最后一种电脑犯罪形式——盗窃电脑使用时间“Finally, one of the thefts involving the computer is the theft ofcomputer time.”可知答案为theft。



解析:要点题。讲座的最后要点是抵制电脑犯罪的防护措施:Finally, how to protect our computers from the hackers’intrusion?Protection measures such as hardware identification,access controls software and disconnecting critical bank applications should be devised.因此答案为measures。


access controls

解析:细节题。讲座最后提到的防护措施包括“hardware identification,access controls software and disconnecting critical bank applications”,因此答案为access controls。


proper internal controls

解析:细节题。根据讲座原文“Proper internal controls reduce the opportunity for fraud.”可知答案是proper internal controls。



A. She failed to understand the contents of the new book by Dr. Charles Adams.

B. Eating eggs and toast is important for learning another language.

C. Learning another language is as easy as eating eggs and toast.

D. She failed to pass the proficiency test of Spanish though she worked hard in high school.

解析:推断题。当脱口秀主持人问到Adams博士有关他编著的书时,博士答道:Well,one of the most important keys to learning another language is to establish a regular study program,like planning a few minutes every morning around breakfast time.即学习一门外语最重要的是建立起一个常规学习计划,比如计划下每天早餐时分的学习任务,可见访谈中提到的Learning a Language over Eggs and Toast这本书是关于制订语言学习计划的,所以答案为A。


A. She failed to understand the contents of the new book by Dr. Charles Adams.

B. She failed to speak Spanish proficiently after four years of study in high school.

C. She failed to finish an academic term paper about Spanish learning in high school.

D. She failed to pass the proficiency test of Spanish though she worked hard in high school.

解析:推断题。脱口秀的主持人提到Now, sorry for saying this,but your ideas may sound a little simplistic to our viewers.I mean I took Spanish in high school for four years,and I didn’t become a proficient speaker of the language.可见令她苦恼的是在高中学了四年西班牙语,她还是没法熟练使用这门语言,因此答案为B。


A. A focused study.

B. A regular study.

C. A crammed study.

D. A consistent study.

解析:推断题。Adams博士提到I’m not implying that we can become fluent speakers in a matter of a few minutes here and there,but rather following a regular, consistent,and focused course of study can help us on the way to the promised land of language mastery…即学习要常规化、持续化、集中化,并没有提到要临时抱佛脚,所以答案为C。


A. Coherence.

B. Proficiency.

C. Native fluency.

D. Logic structure.

解析:推断题。Adams博士提到there is a difference between native fluency and proficiency in a language,and I am proposing the latter,即他更关注的是语言学习的熟练性,因此答案为B。


A. Small steps.

B. Ambitious plans.

C. High expectation.

D. Enthusiastic learning.

解析:细节题。脱口秀的主持人问So what are some of the basic keys you are suggesting in the book?Adams博士回答And small steps,little by little,are the key.即循序渐进是确保语言学习成功的关键,所以答案为A。


A. Seeing models of the patterns to be learned.

B. Personality.

C. Education.

D. Having great instinctive sense of direction.

解析:细节题。Adams博士提到Now, our preferences are determined by many factors,for example,personality, culture,and past experience.即学习方法的偏好取决于性格、文化和以往的经历,没有提到所受的教育,所以答案为C。


A. Seeing models of the patterns to be learned.

B. Associating images with ideas and concepts.

C. Performing better through artistic experiences.

D. Having great instinctive sense of direction.

解析:辨别题。讲座中提到不同的学习风格,有的人被称作视觉学习者,这类学习者倾向于看到需要学习的知识的模型示范,他们的认知习惯是把抽象概念与具体的图像联系起来帮助记忆,因而这类学习者的方向感和形象思维均不错,即Visual leamers prefer to see models of the patterns they are expected to learn;it is a learning style in which ideas,concepts,data and other information are associated with images and techniques.It is one of the three basic types of learning styles that also includes kinesthetic learning and auditory learning....Visual learners usually possess the qualities of having great instinctive direction and having the ability to easily visualize objects.这里只有C未提到,所以答案为C。


A. Keeping silent in the background.

B. Playing music in the background.

C. Talking in the background.

D. Playing TV in the background.

解析:辨别题。Adams博士提到It is believed that when an auditory/verbal learner reads,it is almost impossible for the learner to comprehend anything without sound in the background.In these situations,listening to music or having different sounds in the background(TV,people talking,etc.)will help learners work better.即为了提高听觉学习者的工作效率,需要制造一些背景音,比如播放音乐、谈话或者打开电视,而不能静音,所以答案为A。


A. Visual style.

B. Tactile style.

C. Auditory style.

D. Writing style.

解析:细节题。当脱口秀主持人问到Adams博士自己的学习风格时,博士的回答是:Well,I’m a very tactile learner.后面他又提到:While I cut up tomatoes and onions for my breakfast in the morning,I might recite aloud vocabulary to the rhythm of the knife.可见Adams博士的学习风格是运动知觉型的,所以答案为B。


A. Because learners are complicated and hardly analyzable.

B. Because learners tend to grasp all the learning styles.

C. Because learners hardly use one learning style at a time.

D. Because learners’ learning styles are situation-specific.

解析:推断题。Adams博士在脱口秀节目快结束时强调学习者的学习风格并不是单一的,而是多维的,因为学习是动态的,不同情况下人们会使用不同的学习方法,即:But it is important to remember that often our learning styles are not singular in nature,but are often very multidimensional,and we tend to learn differently in different situations.所以答案为D,学习者的学习风格随场景的变化而变化。


For many years it was common in the United States to associate Chinese Americans with restaurants and laundries. People did not realize that the Chinese had been driven into these occupations.

The first Chinese to reach the United States came during the California Gold Rush of 1849. Like most of the other people there, they had come to search for gold. In that largely unoccupied land, the men staked a claim for themselves by placing markers in the ground. However, either because the Chinese were so different from the others or because they worked so patiently that they sometimes succeeded in turning a seemingly worthless mining claim into a profitable one, they became the scapegoats of their envious competitors. They were harassed in many ways. Often they were prevented from working their claims; some localities even passed regulations forbidding them to own claims. The Chinese therefore started to seek out other ways of earning a living. Some of them began to do the laundry for the white miners; others set up small restaurants. (There were almost no women in California in those days, and the Chinese filled a real need by doing this \

26.The italicized word \(C)

A. something or somebody that is sacred

B. a person who can’t bear heat

C. a person who does not believe in any of the world’s chief religions

D. a person who is superstitious

解析:文章第三段中斜体字“heathen”的含义是什么?根据与该词紧密联系的上文“and(they were so different)in their religion”及下文“because there were many sacred images in their houses of worship”因为在他们的礼拜堂里有许多他们崇拜的神像,可见heathen一词与宗教有关,故答案为C。A选项中的sacred表示“神圣不可侵犯的”,褒义词,与上文中国人所受的歧视不符。B选项是根据构词中的“heat”所出的混淆项。D选项指“迷信的人”,但是美国人也信基督教,是有神论者,故崇拜神像对他们而言不是迷信行为。

27.Which of the following statements about Chinese immigrants in America is NOT true?(C)

A. Before 1880s, Chinese people were allowed to come to the United States but they were denied the right of becoming American citizens.

B. In 1882, no Chinese were permitted to come to the United States because of the Chinese Exclusion Act.

C. The general revision of American immigration laws which allow more Chinese to settle in the US was the outcome of the World War II.

D. During the World War II, Chinese were allowed to immigrate again, but the number was controlled.

解析:下列关于在美国的华人移民的描述中哪一项是不正确的?根据文中第四段信息“in a general revision of our immigration laws,many more Chinese were permitted to settle here,as discrimination against Asian immigration was abolished”在一次移民法的全面修订中,更多的中国人被允许在美国定居,因为对亚洲移民的歧视已被废除了,可见直接原因不是二战而是对亚洲移民歧视的消除,虽然二战中中美关系的合作起了一定作用。故答案为C,其余选项可在原文第四段中找到相关信息。

28.Which of the following Chinese characteristics is NOT mentioned in the passage?(D)

A. Patience.

B. Willingness to work hard.

C. Sense of responsibility.

D. Modesty.


New data released today from the Partnership for a Drug Free America suggest that not only are girls now drinking more than boys, they turn to drugs and alcohol for more serious reasons as well. The report, which analyzed results from the 2009 Partnership Attitude Tracking Study (PATS), a survey of teen attitudes and behaviors, shows that the number of middle- and high-school girls who say they drink has increased by 11 percent in the past year. Boys have stayed at about the same level, hovering around 52 percent.

These numbers are more indicative of a long-term trend than a sudden uptick. In 2005 the rate of girls who had used alcohol in the past year as surveyed by the Partnership hit 57 percent, only to fall back to 55 percent in 2007 and 53 percent in 2008. (During that same time, boys continued to fall within a couple of percentage points of 50 percent, but the changes were not statistically significant.)

These aren’t the only data to note issues involving girls and drinking. According to Monitoring the Future, an ongoing study that monitors the habits and attitudes of young Americans, the number of high-school students who admitted being drunk in the previous 30 days has changed dramatically for boys compared with girls. In 1998, 39 percent of boys were reported being drunk in the previous 30 days, compared with 26.6 percent of girls. Ten years later, in 2008, 29.2 of boys were reported being drunk during the 30-day period, while girls stayed relatively steady at 26.2 percent. \

29.Which of the following best indicates the main idea of the passage?(A)

A. Teen girls are drinking more than boys for different reasons.

B. Teen girls are feeling more stress than boys.

C. Measures should be taken to relieve the stress and worries of teen girls.

D. Teen girls are drinking mainly for fun.

解析:下面哪项可以最好地表明文章的大意?该文章主要探讨女生饮酒的现状和原因,关键词是:drinking。文章首段提到“…not only are girls now drinking more than boys,they turn to drugs and alcohol for more serious reasons as well.”而且文章主题还进一步阐释了女生不仅喝酒比男生多,还把喝酒作为一种调节压力和回避问题的方式。答案B和C都没有体现出关键词内容,答案D又不是文内信息。

30.We can learn from the third paragraph that______.(D)

A. more girls were reported being drunk in the previous month than boys ten years ago

B. more girls were reported being drunk in the previous month than boys ten years later

C. both girls and boys have witnessed an increase in the drinking population in the past ten years

D. boys have witnessed a greater decrease in the drinking population than girls in the past ten years


31.Which of the following is NOT the reason for girls drinking?(C)

A. More alcohol is made oriented to young females.

B. Girls drink to avoid problems and relieve stress.

C. Girls regard drinking as a necessary ingredient for a party.

D. Girls may seek alcohol as a way to self-medicate.


32.The passage most probably appears in______.(B)

A. a scientific report

B. a newspaper

C. a textbook

D. a brochure


Catastrophic volcanic eruptions in Europe may have culled Neanderthals to the point where they couldn’t bounce back, according to a controversial new theory. Modern humans, though, squeaked by, thanks to fallback populations in Africa and Asia, researchers say.

About 40, 000 years ago in what we now call Italy and the Caucasus Mountains, which straddle Europe and Asia, several volcanoes erupted in quick succession, according to a new study to be published in the October issue of the journal Current Anthropology. It’s likely the eruptions reduced or wiped out local bands of Neanderthals and indirectly affected farther-flung populations, the team concluded after analyzing pollen and ash from the affected area. The researchers examined sediments layer from around 40, 000 years ago in Russia’s Mezmaiskaya Cave and found that the more volcanic ash a layer had, the less plant pollen it contained.


33.What does \(B)

A. Leap suddenly.

B. Recover from a terrible situation.

C. Refuse to accept.

D. Come back after being refused.

解析:文章第一段中“bounce back”的意思是什么?本题考查考生对上下文的推断能力。上文提到欧洲“灾难性的火山喷发”,后面紧跟“to the point where”,我们可以推断出“bounce back”在该处的意思是恢复。故选项B正确。

34.According to the volcanoes theory, which of the following is NOT the reason for Neanderthals’ extinction?(D)

A. The loss of plants caused by volcano eruption led to a decline in plant-eating mammals as well as Neanderthals.

B. The number of Neanderthals decreased due to modern humans’ competition, warfare, or interbreeding.

C. The lack of food sources led to the extinction of Neanderthals.

D. The Neanderthals were unfamiliar with and unprepared for volcanoes and other natural calamities.


35.We can learn from the fifth paragraph all the following EXCEPT that______(C)

A. The Neanderthals had once survived several ice ages and were experienced in coping with volcano eruptions.

B. The extinction of Neanderthals resulted from a succession of volcano eruptions.

C. The volcano eruption happening 40, 000 years ago was the most powerful one in the history.

D. Neanderthals could not adapt to the sudden change of their surroundings.


36.The volcanoes theory cannot convince everyone because______.(A)

A. there are gaps in the volcanoes theory and the time line is not clearly defined

B. modern humans had not yet spread into the heart of Europe

C. modern humans were not as experienced as Neanderthals in coping with natural calamity

D. the population of Neanderthals was much larger than that of modern humans


By now, it should come as no surprise when scientists discover yet another case of experience changing the brain. From the sensory information we absorb to the movements we make, our lives leave footprints on the bumps and fissures of our cortex, so much so that experiences can alter \

37.Which of the following is INCORRECT according to the second paragraph?(B)

A. Medial prefrontal cortex is active when Americans think of their own identity and traits.

B. Medial prefrontal cortex is active when the Chinese think of their mothers’ identity.

C. The Chinese show certain overlap between self and mom in their values.

D. Neural circuit takes on quite different functions in different cultures.


38.What does \(D)

A. Contradict.

B. Doubt.

C. Be unrelated to.

D. Support.


39.The passage most probably appears in______.(A)

A. a scientific report

B. a biography

C. a novel

D. a newspaper




40.What was the Holmes’ idea about knowledge-learning?

Learning what was useful to you.


41.How does Watson describe Holmes?

Watson describes Holmes as“bohemian”in his habits and lifestyle.



Thinner isn’t always better.

解析:最后一段中的例子说明什么?最后一段中的For example表明作者在列举论证主题。而该段的主题句很明显,即Thinner isn’t always better.


43.What is the main idea of the passage?

Vicious and dangerous sports should be banned by law.


44.According to context, what does the word \

violent and uncivilized.

解析:根据语境,单词“barbaric”是什么意思?在最后一段锁定单词barbaric,根据该单词的上下文“And why should we ban violent sports if people enjoy them so much?You may well ask.The answer is simple:they are uncivilized”,我们可以判断该词意同violent,uncivilized,指野蛮的,未开化的。


45.What did the research show?

About 30% of Ph.D.candidates fail to earn their degree.


46.What does the high rate of dropouts lie in?

The salary for Ph.D.is too low.

解析:高辍学率缘于什么?见最后一段: “至于返回校园的可能性,前景不乐观。至少有25%的退学生可能考虑返回研究生院就读,条件是保证他们保留现有的收入水平,有些还要保留他们目前的工作。”所以,博士辍学的主要原因是收入太低。

47.According to the context, what does the word \

Gloomy,not promising.

解析:根据语境,文中的“glum”一词是何意?该词出现在最后一段the outlook was glum一句中,根据最后一段中的讨论,可以推断让辍学的博士返回校园的前景不乐观。


To live, learn, and work successfully in an increasing 【S1】______

complex and information-rich society, students must be able

to use technology effectively. Within an effective educational

setting, technology can enable students to become able 【S2】______

information users and effective users of productivity tools.

Parents want their children to graduate with skills

that prepare them to either get a job in today’s marketplace

and advance to higher levels of education and training. 【S3】______

Employers want to hire employees who are honest, reliable,

literary, and able to reason, communicate, make decisions, and 【S4】______

learn. Communities want schools to prepare their children to

become good citizens and productive members of society in

an increasingly technological and information-basing world. 【S5】______

National leaders, the U.S. Department of Education, and other

federal agencies admit the essential role of technology in 21 st 【S6】______

century education.

The challenge facing America’s schools is the empowerment

of all children to function effectively in their future, future 【S7】______

marked increasingly with change, information growth, and

evolving technologies. Technology is a powerful tool with

enormous potential for paving high-speed highways from

outdated educational systems to systems capable of providing

learning opportunities for all, to better serve for the needs of 21 st 【S8】______

century work, communications, learning, and life. Technology

had become a powerful catalyst in promoting learning, 【S9】______

communications, and life skills for economic survival in today’s

world. Educational leaders are encouraged to providing learning 【S10】______

opportunities that produce technology-capable students.






解析:本题辨析近义词able和capable。able只能作主语补足语,而capable既可以作主语补足语,也可以作名词的前置修饰语。所以文中的able应该改成capable。在意义上,两者也有所差别。able的意思是“clever, or good at doing something”,capable的意思是“having the skill or qualities necessary to do a particular thing well”,capable强调拥有能够做好一件事的技能。



解析:本题辨析并列连词either…or的用法。either和or搭配构成一组并列连词。有一些并列连词有固定的搭配,如both…and…,not only…but also…,not…nor…,neither…nor…,not…but…等。在使用这样的连词时要注意前后呼应。









解析:本题辨析admit和recognize的区别。admit的意思是“agree that something is bad,unpleasant,or embarrassing”。recognize的意思是“officially accept or approve of something”。从上下文来看,是说科技的重要性已经得到官方的承认,所以应该用recognize。



解析:这里的抽象名词future是不确定特指,由修饰语marked increasingly with change,information growth,and evolving technologies修饰,前面加不定冠词,表示“一种,一类”。有些抽象名词和不定冠词连用,表示“一种,一类”,例如:a devotion that cannot be paralleled,an admiration that is valued greatly等。



解析:本题辨析动词serve的用法。动词serve表示“为……服务”时,作及物动词,后面直接跟宾语,或者跟as,in,on,under等介词组,如serve in the army,serve on the committee,serve under the king等。但是serve不和介词for搭配,这一点容易受到中文表达“为……服务”影响而出错。






解析:本题辨析动词词组中to的性质。动词词组中的to有时是介词,有时是不定式符号,考生要在平时的学习中注意积累。be encouraged to中的to是动词不定式符号,所以其后应当跟动词不定式。


58. 洋教师说: “这文章写得当然好,而且绝妙无比,你们听——”他拿起作文念起来, “我们学校最美的地方,不是教室,不是操场,也不是校门口那个带喷水的小花坛,而是食堂。瞧,玻璃干净得几乎叫你看不到它的存在——”洋教师念到这儿,眼睛调皮地一亮,眉毛一挑, “听听,多么幽默!”


洋教师接着念道: “如果你不小心在学校食堂跌了一跤,你会惊奇地发现你并没有跌跤,因为你身上半点尘土也没留下;如果你长期在学校食堂里工作,恐怕你会把苍蝇是什么样子都忘了……”洋教师又停住,舌头“得”地弹一声,做一个怪脸说, “听呀,还要多幽默,我简直笑得念不下去了。”


He picked up the composition and began to read. \


1. 地方:如用“place”太过宽泛,而“spot”指“particular place or area(地点;场所)”,更适合指明某一特定地方。

2. 眼睛调皮地一亮:实指“眼睛闪烁着智慧的光芒”,可译成“his eyes flashing with a glint of wits”。glint:gleam or flash(闪烁;闪光)。例如,glints of gold in her hair(她头发上的金光)。wit:intelligence;understanding;quickness of mind(理智;理解;机智)。例如,He hadn’t the wits enough to realize what to do in the emergency.(他没有应付紧急事件的机智。)

3. 眉毛一挑:关键是动词“挑”的英译,可译为“shoot”。shoot:move,come,go,send,suddenly or quickly(突然或迅速地动、来、去、送)。例如,They shot angry glances at us.(他们对我们投以愤怒的眼色。)/Flames were shooting up from the burning house.(火焰自燃烧着的房子冒出。)/The meteor shot across the sky.(流星快速地掠过天空。)整个短语可译为“his brows shooting upward”。

4. 大家还没弄明白: “大家”即“学生们”, “还没弄明白”即“仍感困惑”。因此,可译作“The students were puzzled.”,再现原文的简练。

5. 如果: “如果”在英语中的对应词是“if”,难点是考虑译语是否需要使用虚拟语气。原文中假设的情况,如, “你不小心在学校食堂跌了一跤”, “你长期在学校食堂里工作”,这些都是虚拟的情况。应该采用以下的句式: “If you were…and had…,you would….If you had…,you would have…”。

6. 半点尘土:作者采用了夸张的修辞手法,可译成“a single particle of dust”。particle:very small bit(极小之物;微粒)。例如,particles of dust(尘埃)/She hasn’t a particle of sense.(她一点儿意识也没有。)


59. Below are two short excerpts on the relation between ambition and happiness.

Write an article of NO LESS THAN 300 words, in which you should:

1. sum up the main ideas in both;

2. explain your view on the relationship between ambition and happiness.

Excerpt 1

Ambition and Happiness


Viewed in one way, ambition is a good thing, and its absence in people, especially in the young, we consider to be a defect. Without ambition, there can be no realization of one’s potential. Happiness is connected with the latter. We are happy when we are active in pursuit of choice-worthy goals that we in some measure attain. On the other hand, there is no happiness without contentment, which requires the curtailing of ambition. There is thus a tension between two components of happiness. It is a tension between happiness as self-actualization and happiness as contentment.

To actualize oneself one must strive. One strives for what one doesn’t have. Striving is predicated upon felt lack. But one who lacks what he desires is not content, not at peace, and so is unhappy in one sense of the term. One who longs for what is permanently out of reach will be permanently unhappy, always striving, never arriving. Not only will he not get what he wants, he will fail to appreciate what he has.

To be happy one must strive for, and in some measure attain, choice-worthy ends. That requires ambition. But the attaining is not enough; one must rest in and enjoy what one has attained. That requires the curtailing of ambition.

Excerpt 2

Are Ambitious People Happier?


By Drake Baer

Though it’s central to American life, the ambition-happiness tension receives surprisingly little academic attention, though new research drawing from a 90-year longitudinal study of gifted children sheds new light.

From what the researchers found, ambition had clear causes and effects on lives as they grew into maturity. The most ambitious had common traits: They had parents with occupational prestige, and their personalities were organized, disciplined, and goal-seeking. As you’d expect, the more ambitious were better educated, made more money, and landed more prestigious jobs.

But ambition did not predict for well-being in the same way: It was only weakly connected with well-being and in fact negatively associated with longevity. Meaning that ambitious people died earlier.

One of the researchers, John D. Kammeyer-Mueller, tells us that ambition didn’t impact how satisfied people felt with their lives—they felt they had accomplished more with them—but that project-based happiness got in the way of personal relationships. As the researchers write, this \

Everybody, in his life, must have thought over the following questions. What is happiness? What is my ambition? The two excerpts address the relationship between the two. According to the first excerpt, there exists a tension between self-actualization and self-contentment. A really happy person should both hope for more and be happy for what he has. The second excerpt reports a study that supports this claim. The study reveals that ambition is only slightly connected with people’s happiness and even negatively connected with life span. This is because ambition can drive people to win success at any cost, and therefore damages their relationship with others, and finally affects their feeling of happiness.

I can’t agree to the conclusions in the two excerpts more. In my view, happiness is a state of well-being and contentment which results from harmony either inside the individual or between the individuals. While harmony inside the individual means consistency between what one thinks, what one says and what one does, harmony between the individuals refers to the friendly relationship between one person and the people around him or her. Meanwhile, ambition is an ideal envisioned in one’s mind which lends a goal or meaning to his life. If a person’s ambition is not against his own will as well as the interests of other people, he will benefit from it. A young man who secretly desires to be a scientist but sets becoming a billionaire to be his ambition simply because his parents tell him so won’t gain happiness in the long run. Hitler’s grand ambition brought about catastrophe both to himself and the whole world because it is antisocial.

To sum up, one, especially the young man, needs an ambition to render his life meaningful and happy. But in the choice and pursuit of his ambition, it is sensible for him to listen to his heart and take heed of the feelings of the people around him especially of those dear to him. Just as the first excerpt claims, there is a delicate tension between self-actualization and contentment. It takes wisdom to handle the tension properly.


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