2018年江苏专转本(英语)真题试卷附答案解析

2018年江苏专转本(英语)真题试卷

词汇语法

1.If it______tomorrow, we will go to the park to take pictures.(C)

A. will snow

B. would snow

C. snows

D. snowed

解析:本题考查的是条件状语从句的时态。在条件状语从句中,可以用一般现在时态替一般将来时表示将来动作,因此句中应该用snows。本句意为:如果明天下雪的话,我们就去公园拍照。

2.She sent her two children to the boarding school when______was only eight.(C)

A. the youngest

B. the most younger

C. the younger

D. the more younger

解析:本题考查的是比较级的用法。形容词的比较级用于两者之间的比较,最高级用于三者或三者以上的人或物进行比较。根据题干可知是两个孩子进行比较,先排除A、B两项。D项中,more和younger都是比较级,二者放一起是错误的。本句意为:她把她的两个孩子都送到了寄宿学校,那时年幼的那个孩子才仅仅八岁。

3.The person I trusted most was a friend ______ I had been cooperating in business for a long time.(B)

A. whom

B. with whom

C. with who

D. that

解析:本题考查的是定语从句。此处的cooperate要和with构成搭配,即:cooperate with sb.(与某人合作),with属于介词,介词后面要跟介词宾语,所以要用宾格形式的关系代词whom。本句意为:我过去一直最信任的那个人是我在生意场上长时间合作过的一个朋友。

4.All flights______because of the strike, they had to find some other means of transportation.(A)

A. having been canceled

B. had been canceled

C. having canceled

D. were canceled

解析:本题考查的是独立主格结构。本题中,独立主格结构做状语,由于是独立主格结构,因此选非谓语动词形式,先排除B、D两项。all flights是动作cancel的逻辑主语,两者之间的关系是动宾关系,即被动关系,因此要用被动语态,C项为主动语态。本句意为:因为罢工,所有的航班都被取消了,他们不得不寻找其它的交通出行方式。

5.One hundred and twenty kilometers per hour______usually the speed limit for cars on highway.(B)

A. are

B. is

C. have

D. had

解析:本题考查的是主谓一致。本句的主语为“One hundred and twenty kilometers per hour”,应该看成是一个整体,谓语单词要用单数。本句意为:每小时120公里通常是高速公路上对小轿车的车速限制。

6.After the party, the hostess did not know who______for the broken vase.(C)

A. will blame

B. blamed

C. to blame

D. blames

解析:本题考查“疑问词+不定式”的用法。不定式可以和疑问代词who,what,which及疑问副词when,how,where等连用,构成不定式短语,在句子中作主语、宾语、表语。此处,who+不定式,即who to blame,to blame意为“该受责备,应负责任”,一般用主动形式表示被动含义。本句意为:晚会结束之后,花瓶碎了,女主人不知道该责备谁。

7.______you are well prepared for the coming exam, you will fail it.(B)

A. If

B. Unless

C. Provided

D. Until

解析:本题考查的是条件状语从句。A、C两项意思相同,均表示“如果,假如”,不符合句意;until意为“直到……才”,意思不合适。unless表示“除非”,放入句中符合句意,即:除非你为这个即将来临的考试做了充分的准备,否则你会考试不及格。

8.The employee turned a deaf ear to what the boss said, ______annoyed the boss very much.(A)

A. which

B. what

C. that

D. how

解析:本题考查的是非限制性定语从句。在本句中,逗号前面是一个完整的句子,即“员工对老板说的话置若罔闻”,后面的句子为非限制性定语从句,缺少主语,选用which,which在此处指代“这件事让老板很恼火”。

9.The flowers looked as if they______for a long time.(C)

A. haven’t watered

B. didn’t water

C. hadn’t been watered

D. watered

解析:本题考查的是虚拟语气。as if表示“仿佛”,后面跟虚拟语气,这道题的题干中主句谓语动词looked是过去式,所以此处as if是对过去情况的虚拟,应用过去完成时。此处flower和动作water(浇水)之间是被动关系,C项符合题意。本句意为:这些花儿看上去似乎好长时间没有浇水了。

10.______, he has achieved great success in the field of information technology.(C)

A. As he is young

B. Young is he

C. Young as he is

D. Young he is though

解析:本题考查的是让步状语从句。as引导的让步状语从句放于句首,应部分倒装,被倒装的部分可以是表语、状语或动词原形。本句意为:尽管他很年轻,但他已经在信息科技领域里取得了巨大的成功。

11.Had it not been for his carelessness, David______ the first prize in the mathematics contest.(B)

A. would win

B. would have won

C. will win

D. won

解析:本题考查的是虚拟语气。此处前半句是省略if的对过去情况表示虚拟的非真实条件句,由于从句是过去完成时态had been,因此主句的时态应选用B项。本句意为:如果当初不是因为他的粗心大意,大卫本来可能会赢得数学竞赛的第一名。

12.I bought two shirts for my teenage son, but he did not like______.(C)

A. both of them

B. two of them

C. either of them

D. neither of them

解析:本题考查否定的表达用法。本句表达的意思是“两者当中,我任何一个都不喜欢”。either of表示两者中的任何一个。

13.______of an unhappy marriage, she felt greatly relieved and was eager to embrace a new life.(D)

A. To be free

B. Freeing

C. To free

D. Freed

解析:本题考查的是非谓语动词。动作free和后面的主句主语she之间的关系是动宾关系,free of表示“摆脱了”的意思,所以选过去分词freed。本句意为:摆脱了一场不幸的婚姻,她感到如释重负并渴望迎接一个崭新的生活。

14.______was because of his misjudgment that the company got involved in financial difficulties.(A)

A. It

B. That

C. What

D. Which

解析:本题考查的是强调句。强调句的典型特征是,删掉it was和that之后,句子仍然成立。本句意为:因为他判断失误,这家公司陷入了财务困难。

15.It is essential that you ______train tickets as early as possible before the Spring Festival.(D)

A. must book

B. will book

C. are booking

D. book

解析:本题考查的是虚拟语气。在it is+adj.+that引导的主语从句中,如果形容词是important,necessary,urgent,essential,vital,natural,strange,proper等时,that引导的主语从句要用虚拟语气,即为should+动词原形,should可以省略。本句意为:在春节之前你要尽早预定火车票,这很重要。

16.I am sorry! I kept______for such a long time, for the machine didn’t work properly.(D)

A. you waited

B. you wait

C. you to wait

D. you waiting

解析:本题考查的是非谓语动词。此处考查的结构是keep sb doing/done,如果sb和后面的动词do之间是主动关系,就用现在分词结构;如果是被动关系,就用过去分词。本题中wait和其逻辑主语you之间是主动关系,所以用现在分词waiting做宾语补足语。本句意为:很抱歉,因为这个机器运转不太正常,让你久等了。

17.We______on the isolated island for thirty hours when the rescue team finally came.(B)

A. stayed

B. had been staying

C. have been staying

D. have stayed

解析:本题考查的是过去完成进行时。根据句意,此处表达的是在救援队到达这个岛之前,我们已经在这呆了30个小时。表示的是从过去的某个时间开始延续的动作。本句意为:在救援队最终到达的时候,我们已经在这个与世隔绝的岛屿上滞留了30个小时。

18.Not only______the nurses want a pay increase, they wanted reduced hours as well.(A)

A. did

B. do

C. have

D. had

解析:本题考查的是部分倒装。将not only否定连词放在句首引起部分倒装,句中的时态应该和wanted一致,A项符合题意。本句意为:护士们不但希望涨工资,而且还希望减少工作时间。

19.She______that it was very cold on the mountain top, because she just came down from there.(D)

A. would know

B. used to know

C. can know

D. ought to know

解析:本题考查的是情态助动词。后半句原因状语从句表达的意思是“因为她刚刚从那儿(山顶)下来”,由此可以推断出她“应该”知道“山顶是很冷的”,ought to意为“应该”,符合题意。本句意为:她应该知道山顶上很冷,因为她刚刚从那下来。

20.By the time you get up, I______for work.(B)

A. would be leaving

B. shall have left

C. have already left

D. am leaving

解析:本题考查的是时态。by the time引导表示将来的时间状语从句,表示“等到你起床的时候”,然后在这个将来的时间之前发生完成的动作要用将来完成时,即使用shall/will have+v-ed,主语是第一人称。本句意为:等到你起床的时候,我已经出发去工作了。

21.Johnson decided to quit his job______ accept the new rules.(D)

A. more than

B. other than

C. better than

D. rather than

解析:more than意为“比……多”;better than意为“比……好”;other than意为“除了”;rather than意为“而不是,宁可……也不愿……”。本句意为:Johnson决定宁可辞去工作也不愿意接受新的规则。

22.______ most people in the office, I go to work by bus.(A)

A. Unlike

B. Dislike

C. Liking

D. Alike

解析:unlike是介词,表示“不像,不同于”;dislike是动词,表示“不喜欢”;liking是名词,表示“嗜好,爱好”;alike可形容词也可做副词,表示“相同的,相似的”。本句意为:与办公室的大多数人不同的是,我坐公交车上班。

23.The chairman______unexpectedly at the meeting. We thought he was still in hospital.(C)

A. turned in

B. turned over

C. turned up

D. turned down

解析:本题考查动词短语意思的区分。turn in意为“上交,归还”;turn over意为“翻转,移交,仔细考虑”;turn up意为“把声音调大,出现”;turn down意为“把声音调小,拒绝”。本句意为:出乎意料,主席出现在会议上,我们原以为他仍在医院。

24.Waving goodbye to his family, he ran into the crowd and______from the sight.(A)

A. vanished

B. escaped

C. melted

D. varied

解析:本题考查动词词意的区分。vanish意为“消失”;escape意为“逃跑,逃脱”;melt意为“融化,消融”;vary意为“变化,改变”。结合题干,本句表达的是“消失”在视线中。本句意为:他挥手向他的家人告别,跑进了人群中,消失在家人的视线中。

25.Although her parents didn’t like the man, she got married to him______their wishes.(D)

A. of

B. for

C. after

D. against

解析:本题考查介词的用法。本句意为:尽管她的父母不喜欢这个男人,但是她依然违背父母的意愿和他结婚了。四个选项中,只有against可以表示“违背,反对”的意思。

26.Nowadays many young couples ______their parents to take care of their babies.(B)

A. count in

B. count on

C. count with

D. count off

解析:本题考查动词短语意思的区分。count in意为“把……计算在内,算进去”;count on意为“指望,依靠”;count off意为“报数”。本句意为:今天,许多年轻夫妇都指望他们的父母来帮他们照顾孩子。

27.The friends of his roommate were so noisy that he couldn’t______them any more.(D)

A. adapt

B. adopt

C. comprehend

D. stand

解析:本题考查动词词意的区分。adapt意为“适应,改编”;adopt意为“采纳,收养”;comprehend意为“理解”;stand意为“站,忍受”。本句意为:他室友的朋友们是如此得吵闹以至于他再也不能忍受他们了。

28.Only 10 out of the 97 passengers______the plane crash in Russia last month.(D)

A. retained

B. endured

C. maintained

D. survived

解析:本题考查动词词意的区分。retain意为“保持,记住”;endure意为“忍受,容忍”;maintain意为“维持,继续,维修”;survive意为“幸存,生还”。本句意为:在上个月俄罗斯的空难事件中,97名乘客中,仅有10名乘客幸存。

29.Young people tend to keep______with social changes more quickly than older people.(C)

A. step

B. progress

C. pace

D. touch

解析:本题考查固定搭配。keep pace with sth.意为“与……保持一致,保持同步”;keep touch with意为“与……保持联系”。本句意为:相比老年人,年轻人在与社会变化保持同步方面要更胜一筹。

30.It’s so pleasant to stand in the forest and______fresh air.(A)

A. take in

B. take out

C. bring in

D. come out

解析:本题考查动词短语意思的区分。take in意为“吸收,理解,欺骗”;take out意为“取出,出发”;bring in意为“引进,增加”;come out意为“出现,出版,结果是”。本句意为:站在森林里呼吸新鲜的空气真是让人感到神清气爽、心旷神怡。

31.He kept walking up and down, which was a sure______that he was worried.(A)

A. sign

B. character

C. nature

D. end

解析:本题考查名词词意的区分。sign意为“迹象,记号”;character意为“性格,品质”;nature意为“自然,本质”;end意为“结束,尽头,末端”。本句意为:他总是来来回回地走动,这是表明他很担心的一个很明显的迹象。

32.Recently a kind of traditional Chinese medicine is quite popular in the United States, for it is effective to______patients of their cough.(D)

A. treat

B. mend

C. recover

D. cure

解析:本题考查固定搭配。treat意为“治疗,对待,请客”;mend意为“修补,修理”;recover意为“恢复,弥补”,cure意为“治疗;治愈”。cure sb of sth.表示“治愈某人……”,为固定搭配。本句意为:最近,一种传统中药在美国非常受欢迎,因为这种药对治愈病人的咳嗽非常有效。

33.While convenient for communication, mobile phones may have a negative ______on children.(B)

A. affect

B. effect

C. perfect

D. defect

解析:本题考查固定搭配。have a negative effect on sth./sb.为固定搭配,表示“对某人、某物有着消极的影响”。affect做动词使用,意为“影响”;perfect是形容词,意为“完美的”,defect是名词,意为“瑕疵,缺点”。本句意为:尽管手机很方便我们进行通讯,但它可能会对孩子产生消极的影响。

34.The great scientist worked 10 hours a day______his old age.(A)

A. in spite of

B. in spite

C. despite of

D. despite with

解析:in spite of和despite均可表示“尽管”的意思,本句意为:尽管他年纪很大了,但是这位科学家每天工作10小时。

35.In Chinese culture, \(B)

A. stands

B. represents

C. presents

D. resents

解析:本题考查动词词意的区分。stand意为“站着,忍受”,如果要表示“代表”的意思,必须与for连用;represent意为“代表”;present意为“呈现,提出,介绍”;resent意为“怨恨,厌恶”。本句意为:在中国的文化里,红色代表着幸福、喜庆,然而在一些西方国家,红色则大多与危险、警告紧密相关。

36._____spring is a favorite season for people to be close to nature.(D)

A. Later

B. Last

C. Latter

D. Late

解析:本题考查形容词词意的区分。late spring表示晚春、暮春,为固定用法。later是late的比较级,可以做副词,也可以做形容词,表示“后来,更迟的,更后的”;last意为“最后的,最新的”;latter意为“(两者中)后者的,后面的”。本句意为:暮春是人们贴近大自然的最好时节。

37.Men are usually quite good at map-reading, but Tom is the______.(C)

A. inspection

B. reception

C. exception

D. expectation

解析:本题考查名词词意的区分。inspection意为“检查,视察”;reception意为“接待,接收”;exception意为“例外”;expectation意为“期待,期望”。本句意为:男人通常很擅长地图阅读,但汤姆却是个例外。

38.As I changed my plan, I phoned the hotel to______ my reservation.(B)

A. accept

B. cancel

C. refuse

D. reach

解析:本题考查动词词意的区分。accept意为“接受”;cancel意为“取消”;refuse意为“拒绝”;reach意为“到达”。本句意为:因为我改变了计划,所以我给宾馆打电话取消了我的预定。

39.People are not allowed to talk loudly in the library so as not to______ other readers.(B)

A. prevent

B. distract

C. attract

D. appeal

解析:本题考查动词词意的区分。prevent意为“预防”;distract意为“转移,分心”;attract意为“吸引”;appeal意为“呼吁,上诉,有吸引力”。本句意为:图书馆里不允许人们大声讲话,目的是不让其他读者分心。

40.Asking about a lady’s age is considered to be an_____ question in western cultures.(A)

A. embarrassing

B. interesting

C. embarrassed

D. interested

解析:分词用作形容词时,V-ing分词修饰没有生命的物;V-ed分词往往修饰有生命的人。embarrassing意为“使人感到尴尬的,令人为难的”;interesting意为“有趣的”;embarrassed意为“尴尬的,窘迫的”;interested意为“感兴趣的”。本句意为:在西方文化里,询问一位女士的年龄被认为是一个使人感到尴尬的问题。

常规阅读

There are some people who actually enjoy work—in fact, they love to work. They spend many extra hours on the job each week and often take work home with them. These workaholics are as addicted to their jobs as other people are to drugs or alcohol.

In some city centers, workaholism is so common that people do not consider it unusual. They accept the lifestyle as normal.

Workaholism can be a serious problem. Because true workaholics would rather work than do anything else, they probably don’t know how to relax; that is, they might not enjoy movies, sports, or other types of entertainment. Most of all, they hate to sit and do nothing. The lives of workaholics are usually stressful, and this stress can cause health problems. In addition, typical workaholics don’t pay much attention to their families. They spend little time with their children, and marriages may end.

Is workaholism always dangerous? Perhaps not. There are, certainly, people who work well under stress. Some studies show that many workaholics have great energy and interest in life. Their work is so pleasurable that they are actually very happy. For most workaholics, work and entertainment are the same thing. Their jobs provide them with a challenge; this keeps them busy and creative. Other people retire from work at age sixty-five, but workaholics usually prefer not to quit. They are still interested in work and life in their eighties and nineties.

Perhaps some people are forced to work, but their addiction to work seems to be a safe, even an advantageous one.

41.The word \(D)

A. who are always under stress and don’t know how to get rid of it

B. who do not have a good relationship with their children and wives

C. who don’t know how to enjoy movies or do sports in their spare time

D. who spend as much time working as possible and have no interest in other things

解析:第一段的这个词前面有these这一指示代词,再加上workaholics本身是复数,所以指代的是前面提到的人,也就是说第一句话里的some people who actually enjoy work—in fact,they love to work。由此可以推断出他们是一群喜欢工作、喜欢加班的人,即工作狂。故选D项。

42.A problem workaholism may cause is that______.(B)

A. life under stress might be dull and boring

B. people’s health might be damaged by overwork

C. the chance to live together with families may be good

D. the ability to get along with people is not developed

解析:根据文章第三段中的句子“The lives of workaholics are usually stressful,and this stress can cause health problems”可以推断出B项为正确答案。B项中的overwork表示“过度工作”,即加班。

43.According to the fourth paragraph, what keeps a workaholic always busy is______.(C)

A. the money his job provides

B. the entertainment in life

C. the challenge in his job

D. the stress in his life

解析:本题可通过文章第四段“Their jobs provide them with a challenge;this keeps them busy and creative”选出C项。

44.Workaholics are not willing to leave their posts at age sixty-five mainly because______.(D)

A. they want more money

B. they are still in good health

C. they want to meet new people

D. they feel work means a lot to them

解析:本题为细节题,可采用排除法做题,因为A、B、C三项明显是错误的,有的是文章中没有提到,有的是过度推断。D项“他们觉得工作对于他们而言非常重要”符合题意。

45.Which of the following might be the best title for this article?(A)

A. Workaholism.

B. An Addiction.

C. Work and Entertainment.

D. Work and Health.

解析:本文都是围绕workaholism展开论述,讲述了这样一类人,以及他们为什么喜欢工作,甚至讨论了加班是否对身体健康及家庭生活带来危害等,故选A项。

Old people are always saying that the young are not what they were. The same comment is made from generation to generation and it is always true. It has never been truer than it is today. The young are better educated. They have a lot more money to spend and enjoy more freedom. They grow up more quickly and are not so dependent on their parents. They think more for themselves and do not blindly accept the ideas of their elders. Events which the older generation remembers vividly are nothing more than past history.

The old always assume that they know best for the simple reason that they have been around a bit longer. They don’t like to feel that their values are being questioned or threatened. And this is precisely what the young are doing. They are question the assumptions of their elders and disturbing their complacency. Who said that human differences can best be solved through conventional politics or by violent means? Why have the older generation so often used violence to solve their problems? Why are they so unhappy and guilty in their personal lives? Can anything be right with the rat-race? Haven’t the old lost touch with all that is important in life?

Traditionally, the young have turned to their elders for guidance. Today, the situation might be reversed. The old—if they are prepared to admit it—could learn a thing or two from their children. One of the biggest lessons they could learn is that enjoyment is not ‘sinful’. It is surely not wrong to live in the present rather than in the past or future.

46.According to the passage, the young today______.(C)

A. are forced to remember the old events

B. are more dependent on family

C. have more money and freedom

D. have more restrictions and problems

解析:本题可直接定位原文第一段,现在的年轻人受过更好的教育,有更多的零花钱,能享受更多的自由。故选C项。

47.It can be inferred from the passage that______.(A)

A. the differences between the young and the old are the greatest

B. today the old complain more about the young’s behaviors

C. the young are better educated and know more

D. the old remember many old events

解析:本题是推理判断题。A项表达的是“老一辈人和年轻人之间的差异是最大的”,结合全文可知,无论从什么地方看,老一辈人和年轻人处理问题的方式亦或是对待事物的看法都是有很大差异的,该项正确。B项表达的是“现在的老一辈人抱怨年轻人的行为”,这个在文章中并未提及。C项表达的是“年轻人受到更好的教育,并且知道得多。”这只是作者在文章中陈述的一个事实,不是推断出来的,本题题干中写的是infer,即从文章中可以推断出来的,故C项不符合。D项表达的是“老一辈人能记住很多过去发生的事情。”这个其实是对第一段句子“Events which the older generation remembers vividly are nothing more than past history.”的错误解读,这句话的实际意思是“上一代人所记住的那些历历在目的事件不过是过去的历史而已。”

48.The young cannot understand______ .(D)

A. why they should remember those old events

B. why their parents are so possessive of them

C. why they should receive better education

D. why the old often resort to violence or war to solve problems

解析:结合原文第二段,A、B、C三项都不符合文章意思,只有D项中的短语resort to表示“采取……,诉诸于……”,所以D项的意思是“为什么老一辈人总是采取暴力和战争来解决问题”,这个可以定位原文中的第二段“Why have the older generation so often used violence to solve their problems?”这里的used其实就是resort to的意思。

49.Which of the following statements is the reason why the old always assume they know best?(D)

A. They are richer than the young.

B. They are happier than the young.

C. They have better memory than the young.

D. They have lived longer than the young.

解析:题干问的是,老年人为什么会认为他们知道得多并了解得更深刻呢?根据常识以及结合文章的意思可知,老一辈人会有这种想法,无非是认为自己是老人,有经历,走过的路比年轻人吃过的盐还多。再结合文章第二段的段首句“The old always assume that they know best for the simple reason that they have been around a bit longer.”在这里,they have been around a bit longer就是D项表达的意思,即:他们认为自己活得长一点,经历多一点。

50.According to the passage, what the old can learn from the young is that______.(A)

A. one has reason to enjoy life

B. conventional politics is going out the way

C. receiving better education is very important

D. happiness is the most important thing in life

解析:推理判断题。根据文章最后一段的倒数第二句“One of the biggest lessons they could learn is that enjoyment is not‘sinful’.”这句话意思是“老一辈人能够从年轻人身上学到的一个最大的教训就是享受生活不是有罪的。”这里sinful表示“罪恶的,有罪的”,所以结合文章,A项符合题目要求,即“每一个人都有理由去享受人生,活在当下,而不要拘泥于传统的观点和思想。”B、C两项在文章中没有提及。最容易构成干扰的是D项,“快乐是生活中最重要的事情”,这属于过度推断,文章中没有提及这个意思,只是告诉我们每一个人都应该有理由去享受生活,而不是说快乐就是生活中最重要的。

Human needs seem endless. When a hungry man gets a meal, he begins to think about an overcoat, when a manager gets a new sports car, a big house and pleasure boats dance into view. The needs of mankind are thought to be made up several levels. When there is money enough to satisfy one level of needs, another level appears.

The first and most basic level of needs involves food. Once this level is satisfied, the second level of needs, clothing and some sort of shelter, appears. By the end of World War II, these needs were satisfied for a great majority of Americans. Then a third level appeared. It included such items as automobiles and new houses. By 1957 or 1958 this third level of needs was fairly well satisfied. Then, in the late 1950s, a fourth level of needs appeared; the \

51.According to the passage, man will begin to think about such needs as housing and clothing only when______.(C)

A. he has saved up enough money

B. he has grown dissatisfied with his simple shelter

C. he has satisfied his hunger

D. he has learned to build houses

解析:本题为细节题。题目问的是人类会在什么时候开始考虑需要房子和衣服。本题可以定位原文的第二段的段首句和第二句“The first and most basic level of needs involves food.Once this level is satisfied,the second level of needs,clothing and some sort of shelter,appears.”。在第二句话中,shelter表示“庇护,避难所”,代指房子housing,也就是人们对食物的需求得到满足,才开始产生对衣服和房子的需求,故选C项。

52.It can be inferred from the passage that by the end of the World War A most Americans______.(D)

A. were very rich

B. lived in poverty

C. had the good things on the first three levels

D. did not own automobiles

解析:推理判断题。本题问的是,从本文中可以推断出第二次世界大战结束的时候,大多数美国人是如何的?定位文章第二段“By the end of World War Ⅱ,these needs were satisfied for a great majority of Americans”,即二战结束后,关于第二层次的衣服和住宿的需求已经得到解决。然后Then a third level appeared。这说明第三层次的需求出现了,即这个时候第三层次的需求还没有满足。由此可以推断出D项,即这个时候大多数美国人还没有拥有汽车这个第三层次的需求。

53.Which of the following is NOT related to \(A)

A. A successful career.

B. A cozy home.

C. A good meal.

D. A family car.

解析:本题问的是选项中哪一个与physical satisfaction无关。而文章中第二段中间提到的是“While the other levels involve physical satisfaction,that is,the need in comfort,safety,and transportation,this level stresses mental needs for recognition,achievement,and happiness.”这里说的是physical satisfaction与comfort,safety,transportation有关,而第四个层次mental needs关注的是recognition,achievement,and happiness。纵观四个选项,B、C、D三项都是指具体的物质的需求,而不是mental needs(精神需求),故选A项。

54.What is the main concern of man on the fourth level?(B)

A. The more goods the better.

B. The more mental satisfaction the better.

C. The more \

D. The more earnings the better.

解析:根据上题的解析可知需求的第四个层次是精神方面的需求,即mental needs,也就是人们看中的是service而不是goods,A项错误。人们在这一层次需求的重点应该是mental satisfactions,B项符合题意。

55.The author is inclined to think that a fifth level______.(B)

A. would be little better than the fourth level

B. may be a lot more desirable than the first four

C. can be the last and most satisfying level

D. will become attainable if the government takes actions

解析:根据文章第三段最后一句话“…we now may seek to ensure the health,safety,and leisure to enjoy more fully the good things on the first four level.”,可以推断出我们人类在满足了胃、衣服、车库、牙齿、思想之后,会更加关注第五层次的需求。也就是说,人类认为第五层次的需求比前面四个层次要更好、更加令人向往。

Scientists are trying to make the deserts into good land again. They want to bring water to the deserts, so people can live and grow food. They are learning a lot about the deserts. But more and more of the earth is becoming desert all the time. Scientists may not be able to change the desert in time. Why is more and more land becoming desert? Scientists think that people make deserts. People are doing bad things to the earth. Some places on the earth don’t get much rain. But they still don’t become deserts. This is because some green plants are growing there. Small green plants and grass are very important to dry places. Plants don’t let the sun make the earth even drier. Plants don’t let the wind blow the dirt away. When a bit of rain falls, the plants hold the water. Without plants, the land can become desert more easily.

A man decides to make a farm in a very dry place. He digs in the earth and takes away the grass and plants that are already growing on the dry land. He makes a farm. He puts plants in rows. The sun is very hot. It makes the land even drier. When the rain comes, it runs between the rows of plants. It washes the good dirt away. When the wind comes, it blows between the rows of plants. It blows the good dirt away. Soon the land is not good enough for a farm any more. The man lets his animals eat all the plants on it. Now the land does not have any plants on it. The sun and wind dry the land and all of the good dirt away. Now the land is a desert.

56.It can be inferred from the passage that______.(A)

A. it is bad to plant in rows in a dry place

B. it is better to raise animals on dry land than to make a farm

C. it is bad to make a farm in a dry place, but it is good to raise animals there

D. all lands that don’t get very rain are deserts

解析:文章第二段通过举例,讲述了建立农场和养动物都是不明智之举,这样对土地沙漠化都有影响,可排除B、C两项。D项中间有个all,虽然与not连用,表示的是部分否定,但是过于绝对。因为“不是雨水少就会是沙漠”。故选A项,即“在干旱的地方种植成排的植物不明智”。

57.What’s the purpose of the writer to give an example of the man?(C)

A. To criticize him.

B. To tell an interesting story.

C. To prove that man makes deserts.

D. To prove the hot sun makes a desert.

解析:本文的写作目的是要提醒人们要认识到树木植物对于土壤的重要性,因为它们能够保持水分、不让风把土壤吹走,防止土壤沙漠化。因此,作者第二段的举例就是要证明一个事实,即:我们人类最终将土地沙漠化了。故选C项。

58.Which of the following is NOT the reason why small green plants are very important to dry places?(C)

A. They keep the earth from becoming even drier.

B. They do not let wind blow the earth away.

C. They add color to the dry places.

D. They hold water.

解析:本题题干问的是下列哪个选项不属于小的绿色植物对干旱地方重要的原因。根据文章第一段后面“Plants don’t let the sun make the earth even drier”可知A项是原因之一;根据第一段后面“Plants do not let the wind blow the dirt away”可知B项是原因之一;根据第一段倒数第二句“When a bit of rain falls,the plants hold the water”可知D项是原因之一。故选C项。

59.Land is becoming desert because of lack of______.(D)

A. rain

B. wind

C. people

D. plants

解析:文章中第一段中已经说明了“But they still don’t become deserts.This is because some green plants are growing there.Small green plants and grass are very important to dry places”,这句话表达的意思是,小的绿色植物和草对干燥的地方十分重要,如果没有它们,土地就会变成沙漠。故选D项。

60.A desert is probably______.(B)

A. grassy

B. treeless

C. wet

D. muddy

解析:根据生活常识可以判断,沙漠里是没有树的。A项意为“长满草的,草绿色的”;C项意为“潮湿的”;D项意为“泥泞的”,这些都不符合生活常识。B项treeless意为“无树木的”,符合文意。

阅读填空

阅读理解大题型虚题型

To be a good teacher, you need some of the gifts of a good actor, you must be able to【C1】______the attention and interest of your students, you must be a【C2】______speaker, with a good, strong, 【C3】______voice which is fully under your control; and you must be able to【C4】______what you are teaching, in order to make its meaning clear.【C5】______a good teacher, and you will see that he does not sit still【C6】______his class: he stands the whole time he is teaching; he walks about, using his【C7】______, hands and fingers to help him in his explanations, and his face to express feeling. Listen to him, and you will【C8】______the loudness, the quality and the musical note of his voice always【C9】______according to what he is【C10】______about. The fact that a good teacher has some of the gifts of a good actor doesn’t【C11】______that he will indeed be able to act【C12】______on the stage, for there are very important【C13】______between the teacher’s work and the actor’s. The actor has to speak words which he has learnt by heart; he has to repeat exactly the【C14】______words each time he plays a certain part, 【C15】______his movements and the way in which he uses his voice are usually【C16】______beforehand. What he has to do is to make all these carefully learnt words and actions seem【C17】______on the stage.

A good teacher【C18】______in quite a different way. His students take an active part in his【C19】______; they ask and answer questions, they obey orders, and if they don’t obey something, they will say no. The teacher therefore has to suit his act to the needs of the students. He cannot learn his part by heart, but must【C20】______it as he goes along.

61.【C17】(A)

A. natural

B. pleasant

C. false

D. clear

解析:根据文章,此处表达的是“演员所要做的就是要把所有这些精心背诵的台词和准备好的动作在舞台上很自然地表演出来”,natural意为“自然”,符合句意。pleasant意为“令人愉悦的”;false意为“错误的”;clear意为“清晰的”。

62.【C18】(D)

A. is

B. has

C. teach

D. works

解析:主语是第三人称单数形式,C项谓语动词复数形式,不合题意。此处要表达的是“一位优秀的老师以完全不同的方式工作”,work(工作)符合题意。

63.【C19】(D)

A. group

B. party

C. class

D. play

解析:本题的四个选项中,class和play中较难做决策,如果选class,则表达的是“很多人认为学生应该积极地参与老师的课”,但是既然本文讲的是老师要像一个演员一样去上课、去表演,所以这里表述的是学生应该在老师表演的剧中扮演好他们的角色。

64.【C20】(A)

A. invent

B. discover

C. teach

D. continue

解析:根据文章,此处表达的是“老师上课不能像演员一样去记台词,所以只能是即兴创作”,四个选项中,invent可表示“创造,创作”。

65.【C16】(C)

A. read

B. known

C. fixed

D. written

解析:结合上题解析,此处选fixed(固定好的)。

66.【C15】(C)

A. just

B. never

C. even

D. ever

解析:此处要选一个表示递进关系的副词,即表达“甚至演员的动作和他说话的方式通常都是事前固定好的”,even意为“甚至”,符合句意。

67.【C14】(B)

A. different

B. same

C. above

D. following

解析:根据上下文,此处表达的是“演员的任务就是要把他每次所扮演的角色的话准确地重复而已”,the same words符合句意。

68.【C13】(B)

A. things

B. differences

C. points

D. jobs

解析:结合上下文,此处表达的是“老师和演员之间还是有很多重要的区别”,difference意为“区别”,符合题意。thing意为“事情,事物”;point意为“要点”;job意为“工作”。

69.【C12】(C)

A. good

B. badly

C. well

D. actively

解析:此处需要一个副词修饰动词act,A项为形容词不符合题意。结合上题解析,well符合句意。

70.【C11】(D)

A. tell

B. express

C. know

D. mean

解析:根据表达的是“有了演员天赋的好老师并不意味着他就能够像演员一样在舞台上表演得很好”,mean意为“意味着”,符合句意。tell意为“告诉,辨别”;exprss意为“表达”;know意为“知道”。

71.【C10】(A)

A. talking

B. thinking

C. hearing

D. saying

解析:结合上题解析,talking about在此处表示“讲述的(内容)”,符合句意。

72.【C9】(B)

A. making

B. changing

C. expressing

D. giving

解析:结合上下文,此处表达的是“侧耳倾听,你会发现他声音的轻重、嗓音的特质以及音乐般的语调总是随着所讲内容的改变而改变。”

73.【C8】(B)

A. see

B. hear

C. think

D. guess

解析:前半句提到listen to him,既然是听老师上课,你就会hear(听到)很多东西。

74.【C7】(D)

A. tongue

B. words

C. sound

D. arms

解析:根据句意,老师上课要用到各种肢体语言,要用到手、手指等等。arm(胳膊)属于肢体的一部分,符合句意。

75.【C6】(C)

A. for

B. behind

C. before

D. with

解析:结合上下文,此处表达的是“好的老师应该不会是坐在班级前面上课,而是站着上课,而且走来走去的”,before表示“在……前面”,符合句意。

76.【C5】(B)

A. Listen

B. Watch

C. Look

D. Glance

解析:本句是一个并列句,形式为:祈使句+and+陈述句(用一般过去时),因此选用的动词应使用原形,结合上下文,此处表达的是“看看一个好老师是如何上课的”,先排除A项。glance意为“一瞥”;look表示“看”,要和介词连用。综上,B项符合句意。

77.【C4】(A)

A. act

B. talk

C. say

D. tell

解析:上文提到,老师要像一个演员一样,结合一下,可推断出此处表达的是“老师应该能够去表演(act)他所教的内容”。

78.【C3】(D)

A. frightening

B. surprising

C. fearing

D. pleasing

解析:结合上下文,此处表达的是“一个好的老师的声音应该是让人愉悦的(pleasing)”。frightening和fearing意为“令人害怕的”;surprising意为“令人惊讶的”。

79.【C2】(A)

A. clear

B. slow

C. quick

D. aloud

解析:结合上下文,此处表达的是“老师要讲话清晰”,clear意为“清晰的,清楚的”,符合句意。slow意为“慢的”;quick意为“快的”;aloud意为“大声的”。

80.【C1】(C)

A. pay

B. give

C. hold

D. know

解析:从上下文推断出,此处表达的应该是“要想成为一名好的老师,你需要具备一些好演员的天赋,你要能够保持(hold)学生的注意力和兴趣。”pay意为“支付”;give意为“给予”;know意为“知道”。

词汇

英译汉

81.They want to bring water to the deserts, so people can live and grow food.

他们想把水引进沙漠,这样人们就能在这里生活并种植粮食。

解析:

82.In some city centers, workaholism is so common that people do not consider it unusual.

在一些城市中心,工作狂现象非常普遍,人们已经对此习以为常。

解析:

83.They grow up more quickly and are not so dependent on their parents.

他们成长得更快,而且也不怎么依赖父母。

解析:

84.When there is money enough to satisfy one level of needs, another level appears.

当有足够的钱来满足某一层次的需求时,另一个层次的需求就出现了。

解析:

85.It includes a variety of goods and services, many of which could be called \

它包括一系列的商品和服务,其中有许多就是所谓的“奢侈品”。

解析:

汉译英

86.她建议我来负责培训新员工。

She suggests that I should be in charge of training the new employees.

解析:

87.教我们英语口语的外教要离开了。

The foreign teacher who teaches us oral English is going to leave.

解析:

88.我不知道他是否已经找到工作。

I don’t know whether he has found a job.

解析:

89.著名电影导演大卫被邀请来参加电影节。

The famous film director David has been invited to take part in the film festival.

解析:

90.现在的自然环境比10年前好多了。

Nowadays, the natural environment is much better than that of ten years ago.

解析:

翻译大题型虚题型

91.For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write an essay with the title My View on Artificial Intelligence. You are required to write at least 120 words. Following the outline given below.

1.我所了解的人工智能的现状;

2.人工智能的利弊;

3.我对人工智能发展前景的看法。

My View on Artificial Intelligence

My View On Artificial Intelligence

Recently, as the rapid development of social science and technology, artificial intelligence has drawn much public attention. Artificial intelligence has many advantages as following. Firstly, it brings our life more convenience. Secondly, artificial intelligence is very beneficial to enhancing our life quality and improving efficiency.

As an old saying goes, each coin has two sides. There is no exception to artificial intelligence. The negative aspects of artificial intelligence are also obvious. On one hand, people may rely on artificial intelligence to a large degree, which may arouse a lot of problems. On the other hand, artificial intelligence will lead to a large amount of unemployment in the future.

As far as I’m concerned, artificial intelligence is a symbol of society progress, so I am fully convinced that advantages outweigh disadvantages. More importantly, government should encourage public to look at artificial intelligence in a reasonable way. In that case, people can make full use of artificial intelligence in the future.

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