考研英语(一)模拟试卷227附答案解析

考研英语(一)模拟试卷227

完型填空(含10小题)

词汇题

挑错题

语法

完型填空

How men first learned to invent words is unknown; in other words, the origin of language is a mystery. All we really know is that men,【C1】______animals, somehow invented certain【C2】______to express thoughts and feelings, actions and things,【C3】______they could communicate with each other; and that later they agreed 【C4】______ certain signs, called letters, which could be 【C5】______ to represent those sounds, and which could be 【C6】______ down. Those sounds, whether spoken, 【C7】______ written in letters, we call words.

The power of words, then, lies in their【C8】______—the things they bring up before our minds. Words become【C9】______with meaning for us by experience;【C10】______the longer we live, the more certain words【C11】______the happy and sad events of our past to us; and the more we read and【C12】______, the more the number of words that mean something to us【C13】______.

Great writers are those who not only have great thoughts but also express these thoughts in words which appeal【C14】______to our minds and emotions. This【C15】______and telling use of words is what we call【C16】______style. Above all, the real poet is a master of【C17】______. He can convey his meaning in words which sing like music, and which【C18】______their position and association can【C19】______men to tears. We should, therefore, learn to choose our words carefully and use them accurately, or they will【C20】______our speech or writing silly and vulgar.

1.【C1】(B)

A. above

B. unlike

C. excluding

D. besides

解析:本句意为“我们所知道的不过是人类______其他动物”。根据文章第一句话,我们可以了解到这篇文章主要探究人类语言的发源。该题目考查人和动物在语言上的关系。众所周知,人类和动物在语言上是有区别的,ualike“不同于”符合题意。故本题选B。

2.【C2】(A)

A. sounds

B. gestures

C. signs

D. movements

解析:本句意为“不知怎地发明了一些特定的______来表达思想和情感、动作和事物”。根据本句末尾处的represent those sounds可知,A项符合题意。故本题选A。

3.【C3】(C)

A. such that

B. as that

C. so that

D. in that

解析:本句意为“______使他们可以互相交流”。such that表示某事的“重要性、价值”;as that“例如”;in that“因为,原因在于”,引导原因状语从句。空格后的内容“他们可以相互交流”是前文引出的结果,故空格处应填引导结果状语从句的衔接词,C项符合题意。故本题选C。

4.【C4】(D)

A. to

B. with

C. in

D. upon

解析:本句意为“之后他们(赞成)______一些符号”。agree可以与介词to,with,on(upon)搭配。这里句意是“人们商定了一些特定的符号”,故D项agree upon“对某事有同样看法,商定某事”符合题意。agree to sth.“答应(某事物)”其后通常为表示“计划”“建议”的词,agree with sb.“与某人意见一致”和agree in“在……方面意见一致”均不符合题意。故本题选D。

5.【C5】(B)

A. spelt

B. combined

C. pronounced

D. copied

解析:本句意为“并将它们______起来代表一些声音”。spelt“拼写”,combined“组合”,pronounced“发音”,copied“复制”。显然字母能够组合在一起代表声音,B项正确,其他项均不符合题意。故本题选B。

6.【C6】(A)

A. written

B. handed

C. remembered

D. observed

解析:本句意为“或者把它们______下来”。根据句意和常识可知,字母既可以代表声音,也可以被写下来。且下句中的written in letters也给出了提示,A项正确。B项handed“上交”、C项remembered“记得”和D项observed“观察”均不符合题意。故本题选A。

7.【C7】(D)

A. and

B. yet

C. also

D. or

解析:本句意为“这些声音______写出来的字母,被我们叫做单词”。本句考查固定搭配whether…or…“是……还是……,不管……还是……”。且本句想要表达的含义是:不论是被说出来的,还是用字母记录下来的,故D项正确。A项and、B项yet和C项also均不能与whether搭配。故本题选D。

8.【C8】(B)

A. function

B. association

C. roles

D. links

解析:本句意为“语言的力量在于它的______——它们在我们的头脑中所引发的事物”。function“功能”,association“联想”,roles“作用,职责,角色”,links“环节,联系,纽带”。原句破折号后的内容是对空格处进行解释说明,B项association正确。其它三项均与破折号后的内容不符。故本题选B。

9.【C9】(A)

A. filled

B. fulfilled

C. live

D. active

解析:本句意为“随着经历的增加,词语对于我们来说意义愈加______”。纵观四个选项,filied“充满的”,live“精力充沛的”,active“积极的”,fulfilled“满足的”,只有filled符合,其他三项均不符合文意。故本题选A。

10.【C10】(D)

A. but

B. or

C. yet

D. and

解析:本句意为“______我们生活得越久,某些词语越能______我们更多的或喜或忧的往事”。通过分析可知,本句与上句之间是并列关系,故D项正确。but引导转折关系,or引导选择关系,yet引导转折关系,均不符合题意。故本题选D。

11.【C11】(B)

A. reappear

B. recall

C. remember

D. recollect

解析:本句意为“我们生活得越久,某些词语越能______我们更多的或喜或忧的往事”。reappear“再出现”,recall“回想起,召回”,remember“记得,记住”,recollect“重新集合,恢复”。本句指“语言让我们回想起往事的快乐和悲伤”,故本题选B。

12.【C12】(C)

A. think

B. collect

C. learn

D. recite

解析:本句意为“我们的阅读和______越丰富,对我们来说有意义的词语数量也______”。空格处所填词应与read构成并列关系。think“思考”,collect“收集”,learn“学习”,recite“背诵”。代入可知,只有通过阅读和学习,我们掌握的词汇才会更多,且read and learn是常用固定搭配,C项符合题意。故本题选C。

13.【C13】(B)

A. raises

B. increases

C. improves

D. emerges

解析:本句意为“我们的阅读和______越丰富,对我们来说有意义的词语数量也______”。分析可知,空格处应填不及物动词,故首先排除raises。improve“改善”和emerge“出现”均不符合题意。本句指词汇量的增加,只有increase“增加”符合题意,故本题选B。

14.【C14】(D)

A. intensively

B. extensively

C. broadly

D. powerfully

解析:本句意为“伟大的作家不仅有着伟大的思想,而且还能用语言将这些思想表达出来,引起我们在思想和情感上的______共鸣”。intensively“加强地,集中地”,extensively“广泛地;彻底地”,broadly“宽广地;明白地;概括地”,powerfully“非常地,强有力地”,代入原文可知,D项最符合题意。故本题选D。

15.【C15】(A)

A. charming

B. academic

C. conventional

D. common

解析:本句意为“这种______生动的词语用法,就是我们所说的______体裁”。charming“迷人的,有吸引力的”,academic“学术的”,conventional“传统的”,common“普通的”。此处的that指上文“作家的作品能引起读者的共鸣”,所以它是“有吸引力的”,A项符合题意。故本题选A。

16.【C16】(C)

A. written

B. spoken

C. literary

D. dramatic

解析:本句意为“这种______生动的词语用法,就是我们所说的______体裁”。这里指作家的文学文体,C项literary“文学的”符合题意。written“书面的”,spoken“口头的”,dramatic“戏剧的”,均不符合题意。故本题选C。

17.【C17】(B)

A. signs

B. words

C. style

D. sound

解析:本句意为“首先,一个真正的诗人是______大师”。本题考查固定搭配,master of“精通……的能手”,通过下文:He can convey his meaning in words…,可知B项words正确。A项signs“符号;手势”、C项style“风格,类型”和D项sound“声音”均不符合题意。故本题选B。

18.【C18】(D)

A. in

B. on

C. over

D. by

解析:本句意为“他可以用音乐般的词汇来表达自己的思想,这些词汇______其所用环境和联系性使人______得落泪”。介词by表示“通过”,D项正确。其他几项均不符合题意,排除。故本题选D。

19.【C19】(A)

A. move

B. engage

C. bring

D. force

解析:本句意为“他可以用音乐般的词汇来表达自己的意思,这些词汇______其所用环境和联系性使人______得落泪”。move sb.to tears是固定搭配,意为“使某人感动得落泪”,A项正确。B项engage“从事”、C项bring“带来”和D项force“迫使”,均不符合题意。故本题选A。

20.【C20】(C)

A. transform

B. change

C. make

D. convert

解析:本句意为“我们应该仔细选择我们的词语,并精确地使用,______我们的语言不再愚蠢和粗俗”。make后可接宾补成分,表示使宾语变为某种状态,C项正确。transform和change后面不能接宾补,故排除。convert与介词to搭配,表示“转变到另一种状态”,排除。故本题选C。

阅读(常规阅读理解)

The difficulties facing British Steel have quickly become part of the Brexit debate. Business is naturally cautious about entering into political debates, but it should not remain silent when it features so prominently in the public discourse. Industry has a responsibility to ensure its views are accurately represented.

There can be no doubt that the ongoing Brexit uncertainty has contributed significantly to British Steel’ s problems. Unable to decipher what the UK/EU trading relationship will be in just five months’ time, planning has become fiendishly complicated for both UK exporters and their EU customers. The timing is particularly bad, with the EU having recently imposed \

21.According to the passage, what is the most influential factor to the development of the UK’s steel industry?(C)

A. The fierce competition of other countries.

B. The \

C. The uncertainty of the ongoing Brexit.

D. The inadequacy of its own structure.

解析:根据题干关键词定位到第二段。第二段讲述了一系列对英国钢铁行业有影响的因素。题干询问“最重要的因素”和原文中的has contributed significantly为同义复现,故C项“英国退欧的不确定性”正确,A项“其他国家的激烈竞争”和B项“欧盟的‘保护’政策”虽然也是影响因素之一,但并非最重要的影响因素。D项“自身结构的缺陷”,文中未提及,无中生有,排除。故本题选C。

22.The word \(B)

A. friendly

B. devilishly

C. ferociously

D. beneficially

解析:根据题干关键词定位到第二段。包含本单词的前一句中有unable,后一句中有bad,由此可以推断,本句中的单词并非褒义,所以排除A项“友好地”和D项“有益地”。C项“凶猛地”更倾向于动作的粗暴,B项“极其地,非常地”倾向于表示程度,可修饰后面的“complicated”,故本题选B。

23.There are many reasons that prohibit the rising of the UK’s steel industry after the Brexit except ______.(D)

A. it is related with the restriction of aid support provided by the UK

B. the UK should be in consistent with the FTA standards on the state aid

C. UK’s industrial electricity prices is costly, which is higher than other countries

D. business and industry remain silent on the development of the UK’s steel industry

解析:根据题干关键词定位到第四、五段。本题可以采用排除法。A项提到和英国限制补贴有关,和文意一致。B项提到是因为FTA的限制,文中同样也有提及。C项提到了工业用电价格的昂贵,可以在第五段中找到对应的描述。因此,只有D项“工商业对英国钢铁工业的发展保持沉默”是对其的态度,而非阻碍,故本题选D。

24.From the description from paragraph 4 to 6, what can we learn about the UK’s steel industry?(A)

A. The Brexit will be harmful and cause large numbers of problems to the UK’s steel industry.

B. The disorderly no-deal Brexit will bring positive effect to UK’s economy.

C. The prohibition of the state aid will be restrained by the WTO clause, so the UK need to make its own articles to support the steel industry.

D. By entering the WTO membership, the UK is not required to prohibit certain subsidies.

解析:根据题干关键词定位到第四至六段。A项“脱欧给钢铁工业带来很多问题,造成许多麻烦”与原文的第五段意思表述一致。B项的positive与文意相反,文中提到的是turmoil,意为“焦虑”,故排除。C项的因果关系和文中相反,文中提到如果继续受到限制,英语需要提高自身制定条约的能力,而非选项中的逻辑关系,排除。D项和文意相反.文中提到英国被要求不能提供特定的国家补贴。故本题选A。

25.Which of the following would be the author’s attitude towards the UK’s steel industry?(B)

A. Skeptical.

B. Supportive.

C. Critical.

D. Opposed.

解析:本题考查作者对于英国钢铁工业的态度。从文中可以看出作者对其在英国脱欧后的发展有些担忧,但通过一系列的分析,最终也提出了对英国钢铁工业发展的展望。A项“怀疑的”,C项“批评的”和D项“反对的”均错误,故本题选B。

The economist George Akerlof found himself faced with a simple task: mailing a box of clothes from India, where he was living, to America. The clothes belong to his friend and colleague Joseph Stieglitz, Akerlof was eager to send the box off. But he delayed dealing with it, week after week. This went on for more than eight months and it was only shortly before Akerlof himself returned to America that he managed to mail this box: another friend happened to be sending some things back to the U.S., and Akerlof was able to add the box to the shipment. Given the vagaries of intercontinental mail, it is possible that Akerlof made it back to the United States before Stieglitz’ s shirt.

Even Nobel-winning economists procrastinate! Akerlof saw this familiar experience as mysterious. He actually intended to send the box to his friend, yet, as he wrote in a paper called \

26.From the first paragraph, we can learn______.(D)

A. Akerlof had difficulty in mailing his friend’s clothes from India to the United States

B. Indian shipment service made simple things much more complicated

C. Akerlof arrived in the U.S. before his friend clothes did

D. Akerlof postpones mailing his friend’ s clothes until eight months later

解析:根据题干关键词定位到文章第一段。A项“阿克洛夫很难把他朋友的衣服从印度寄到美国”,文章指出“阿克洛夫在邮寄东西方面没有什么困难,只是他一直在拖延”,故A项错误。B项“印度的货运服务使简单的事情变得复杂”并未在原文中提及,故错误。C项“阿克洛夫在他的朋友的衣服邮到之前到达了美国”,其是对该段最后一句话的错误解读,文章用的是推测的口吻,故错误。D项“阿克洛夫推迟了邮寄他朋友的衣服,直到8个月后”,符合原文含义,故本题选D。

27.What is the meaning of the word \(B)

A. Anticipate.

B. Delay.

C. Identify.

D. Rationalize.

解析:根据题干关键词定位到文章第二段首句Even Nobel-winning economists procrastinate。本题中,even一词承接上文阿克洛夫拖延邮寄衣服的事情。第二段进一步描述阿克洛夫的心理状态,因此可推断出procrastinate的含义,即“拖延”,因此B项“耽搁,推迟”符合题意。A项“预期”、C项“确认,辨别”和D项“使……合理化”均不符合词义,故本题选B。

28.In Paragraph 2 and 3, we can learn the things demonstrated through procrastination EXCEPT______.(D)

A. the limits of rational thinking

B. the fluidity of human identity

C. the relationship between human beings and time

D. people’ s tendency to lacking

解析:根据题干关键词定位到文章二、三段。由this issue illustrates the fluidity of human identity and the complicated relationship human beings have to time可推断出B、C两项正确。由第二段的procrastination might be more than just a bad habit,and it might be something important about the limits of human rational thinking可推断出A项“理性思考的局限性”正确。D项“人们有关缺乏的倾向”未在文中提及,故本题选D。

29.According to the passage, which of the following statement is TRUE?(C)

A. Procrastination is no more than a bad habit.

B. Many academics write papers to rationalize people’ s laziness.

C. Postponing in daily life increases the cost of people’ s life.

D. Early modern people care less about the impact of slacking.

解析:根据题干关键词定位到文章最后一段。最后一段首句明确指出Procrastination is also a surprisingly costly one,C项“日常生活中的拖延增加了人们的生活成本”是该句的同义替换,故正确。A项“拖延症仅仅是一种坏习惯”、B项“许多学者写论文来解释人们的懒惰”和D项“早期现代人不关心拖延的影响”原文中都未提及,故本题选C。

30.Procrastination as a social problem is extremely costly in the fields of______.(C)

A. education

B. science and technology

C. health care

D. psychology

解析:根据题干关键词定位到文章最后一段70% of patients suffering from glaucoma risk of blindness because they don’t use their eye-drops regularly,其说明“拖延造成的后果对医疗造成的代价最大”,C项“卫生保健”符合题意。A项“教育”、B项“科技”和D项“心理”均不符合题意,故本题选C。

The robots are coming. The second decades of the 21 st century will see the rise of merchandized army that will revolutionize the private and public life as radically as the internet and social media have shaken up the past ten years. Or so says Marina Gorbis, futurologist and head of Califor-nian think-tank the Institute for the Future (IFTF).

Gorbis says robots will increasingly dominate everything. Robots are likely to prompt a political storm to equal the row over immigration as they increasingly replace workers. But it’s not bad news. \

31.Most people’ s attitude towards robots is_____.(D)

A. skeptical

B. positive

C. indifferent

D. negative

解析:根据题干关键词定位到文章第五段。该段指出,机器人的名声并不好,机器人在媒体上和影视作品中的形象都是负面的,经常受到批评……在电影中机器人一直都是邪恶的角色。故D项“否定的”符合人们对机器人的印象。skeptical“怀疑的”、positive“积极的”和indifferent“漠不关心的”都不是对机器人的态度,故本题选D。

32.Gorbis feels paradoxical herself because______.(C)

A. humans may be replaced by the computers or robots

B. technology will make people reliable on robots

C. the indiscriminate use of technology may cause some disasters

D. human will provide right direction for robots’ future

解析:根据题干关键词定位到文章最后一段。该段指出,Gorbis说她感觉自己有些矛盾,因为科技的发展也确实造成了某种程度上的破坏。所以机械的发展还是需要人类的正确引导。因此,C项“技术的滥用可能会造成一些灾难”是其自我矛盾的原因,符合题意。A项“人类可能被电脑或机器人取代”和B项“科技会让人依赖机器人”都不符合题意。D项“人类将为机器人的未来提供正确的方向”虽然表述与原文一致,但并非Gorbis矛盾的原因,故本题选C。

33.The first two sentences in Paragraph 4 implies______.(D)

A. robots will compete for jobs with people

B. the unemployment rate will keep steady in the future

C. we can’ t adapt to the coming industrial age

D. high unemployment will soon be over

解析:根据题干关键词定位到文章第四段。文章提到农业在机械化的过程中也经历了一段高失业率时期,但是失业人口可以通过学习另谋生路。由此可以推断出D项“高失业率很快就会结束”符合题意。A项“机器人将和人类竞争工作岗位”、B项“未来失业率将保持稳定”和C项“我们无法适应即将到来的工业时代”均不符合题意,故本题选D。

34.In the second paragraph, the author uses the underlined sentence to show that______.(C)

A. computers can defeat people easily

B. robots can defeat people easily

C. robots can finish some works faster than man

D. robots are more thoughtful than us

解析:根据题干关键词定位到文章第二段。画线处后面内容指出.机器人在处理信息的时候确实快于人类,但是并不意味着他们思维能力也胜人一筹。C项“机器人能比人类更快地完成某些工作”是对原文的同义替换,符合题意。A项“电脑可以轻易打败人类”、B项“机器人可以轻易打败人类”和D项“机器人比我们更有想法”都不符合题意,故本题选C。

35.The advancement in robotics mentioned in the first two paragraphs is to show robots can______.(D)

A. accelerate the development of the social media

B. make private and public life more interesting

C. reduce the unemployment rate

D. dominate our furture

解析:根据题干关键词定位到文章第一、二段。这两段指出,在21世纪的第二个十年中,机器人将对人类的生活产生如网络和社交媒体一样彻底的影响。第二段的第一句话Gorbis says robots will increasingly dominate everything也表明机器人已经涉及人们生活的方方面面。D项“主导我们的未来”是原文内容的同义替换。A项“促进社交媒体的发展”、B项“让私人和公共生活更有趣”和C项“降低失业率”均不符合题意,故本题选D。

Cigarette smoking is a health hazard of sufficient importance in the United States. It was 50 years ago this month that America’s Surgeon General sounded that warning, marking the beginning of the end of cigarette manufacturing—and of smoking itself—as a respectable activity.

Some 20 million Americans have died from the habit since then. But advertising restrictions and smoking bans have had their effect: the proportion of American adults who smoke has dropped from 43% to 18%; smoking rates among teenagers are at a record low. In many other countries the trends are similar.

The current Surgeon General marked the half-century with a report on January 17th, declaring smoking even deadlier than previously thought. He added diabetes, colorectal cancer and other ailments to the list of ills it causes, and promised end-game strategies to extinguish cigarettes altogether.

New technologies such as e-cigarettes promise to deliver nicotine less riskily. E-cigarettes give users a hit of vapour infused with nicotine. In America, sales of the manufacturer, who is the fastest e-cigarettes-adopter, have jumped from nearly nothing five years ago to at least 1 billion in 2013.

At first, it looked as if e-cigarettes might lure smokers from the big tobacco brands to startups such as NJOY. But tobacco companies have bigger war chests, more knowledge of smokers’ habits and better ties to distributors than the newcomers. Some experts reckon Americans will puff more e-cigarettes than normal ones within a decade, but tobacco folk are skeptical. E-cigarettes account for just 1% of America’s cigarette market. In Europe 7% of smokers had tried e-cigarettes by 2012 but only 1% kept them up.

And no one knows what sort of restrictions regulators will eventually place on reduced risk products, including e-cigarettes. If these companies can manage the transition to less harmful smokes, and convince regulators to be sensible, the tobacco giants could keep up the sort of performance that has made their shares such a fine investment over the years. But some analysts are not so sure.

Many tobacco firms are struggling to deliver the consistency of the earnings-per-share model we’ve seen in the past. If that persists, investors may fall out of love with the industry. A half-century after the Surgeon General’ s alarm, they, and hopeless smokers, are its last remaining friends.

36.What is the passage mainly about?(C)

A. The potency of tobacco’ s advertising bans.

B. The hostile regulatory climate of tobacco in the U.S.

C. The current situation and challenge of big tobacco firms.

D. The introduction and growth of e-cigarettes.

解析:根据题干关键词需纵观全文。文章前三段讲吸烟的危害在美国引起重视,并加大了广告限制及禁烟标志力度。第四段引出电子香烟。第五段指出电子香烟所占的市场份额。后面谈到烟草公司的反应及发展趋势。所以C项“烟草巨头的现状及挑战”为正确答案。A项“禁烟广告的效力”、B项“美国严苛的烟草监管环境”和D项“电子香烟的引入和发展”均不符合文意,排除。故本题选C。

37.The smokers’ attitude toward the consumption of e-cigarettes is______.(D)

A. pessimistic

B. uncertain

C. optimistic

D. doubtful

解析:此题考查态度,根据关键词定位到文章第五段。第三句意为“一些专家预测在未来的十年里,美国人将消费更多的电子香烟,但是烟民们对此却持怀疑态度”。doubtful“怀疑的”与文中skeptical意思相符,故D项为正确答案。pessimistic“悲观的”、uncertain“不确定的”和optimistic“乐观的”均不符合文意,排除。故本题选D。

38.The phases \(B)

A. space

B. funds

C. networks

D. competitors

解析:根据题干关键词定位到第五段。其中war“战争”和chests“胸部”对考生来说并不陌生,但war chests的含义需要通过上下文运用排除法来确定。本句将烟草公司和新兴公司作比较,But表转折,因此考生需要参考前文。第四段讲了运用电子香烟这一技术的新兴公司销售额激增,故本句涉及的比较,第一个内容可能就是“资金”方面。war chests合在一起意为“战争基金;(为竞争等筹措的)资金”,故B项为正确答案。A项“空间”、C项“网络”和D项“竞争者”均不是该词的正确释义,排除。故本题选B。

39.According to the passage, e-cigarettes______.(A)

A. supply smokers with nicotine more safely

B. help the fastest e-cigarettes-adopter gain sales 1 billion times

C. are mastered by all tobacco firms as a new technology

D. have lured smokers from the big tobacco brands to startups

解析:根据题干关键词定位到第四、五段。第四段首句指出“一些新的技术,比如电子香烟承诺提供危害风险更小的尼古丁”,A项中的supply和more safely是首句中的deliver和less riskily的同义替换,故A项为正确答案。B项“帮助最先采用这种方式的厂家获得销售量10亿倍的增长”与文意“销售量……已经达到至少10亿美元”不符,故排除。C项“作为一种技术被所有的烟草公司采纳”错在all一词。D项“已经诱导烟民们从大的烟草品牌转向新兴公司”忽视了原文中修饰成分it looked as if和might,是对原文意思的误解.排除。故本题选A。

40.It can be learned from Paragraph 1 that cigarette manufacturing in the United States______.(D)

A. was of sufficient importance

B. was put forward by America’ s Surgeon General

C. began to go downhill

D. used to be an honorable activity

解析:根据题干关键词定位到文章第一段。该段第二句后半部分讲到“其实50年前的这个月美国卫生部部长发出的警告。这一警告标志着卷烟制造业……不再是一项让人尊敬的活动”,故D项“曾是一项令人尊敬的活动”与原文相符,为正确答案。A项“十分重要”是对首句的曲解,且第一段中并没有此信息,故排除。B项“由美国卫生部部长提出”和C项“开始走下坡路”与首段第二句内容不符,排除。故本题选D。

阅读(补全短文)

[A] That world is not yet on offer. But a semblance of it might be one day. Senescence, the general dwindling of prowess experienced by all as time takes its toll, is coming under scrutiny from doctors and biologists. Suspending it is not yet on the cards. But slowing it probably is. Average lifespans have risen a lot over the past century, but that was thanks to better food, housing, public health and some medicines. This, optimists claim, will extend life for many people to today’ s ceiling of 120 or so. But it may be just the beginning. In the next phase not just average lifespans but maximum lifespans will rise. If a body part wears out, it will be repaired or replaced altogether. DNA will be optimised for long life. Add in anti-ageing drugs, and centenarians will become two a penny.

[B] One concern is that long life will exacerbate existing social and economic problems. The most challenge will be access to anti-senescence treatment. If longer life is expensive, who gets it first? Already, income is one of the best predictors of lifespan. Widening the gap with treatments inaccessible to the poor might deepen divisions that are already straining democracies.

[C] Imagine as a world in which getting fitted with a new heart, liver or set of kidneys, all known from your own body cells, was as commonplace as knee and hip replacements are now. Or one in which you celebrated your 94th birthday by running a marathon with your school friends. Imagine, in other words, a world in which ageing had been abolished.

[D] Longevity is known to run in families, which suggests that particular varieties of genes prolong life. Some are investigating this, with the thought that modern gene-editing techniques might one day be used to make crucial, life-extending tweaks to the DNA of those who need them. From an individual’ s viewpoint, this all sounds very desirable. From society as a whole, though, it will have profound effects. Most of them will be good, but not all.

[E] Such speculation is fun, and mostly optimistic. The promise of a longer life, well lived, would round a person out. But this vision of the future depends on one thing—that a long existence is also a healthy one. Humanity must avoid the trap fallen into by Tithonus, a mythical Trojan who was granted eternal life by the gods, but forgot to ask also for eternal youth. Eventually, he withered into a cicada.

[F] Will older workers be discriminated against, as now, or will numbers give them the whip hand over the young? Will bosses cling on, hampering the careers of their underlings, or will they grow bored, quit and do something else entirely? And would all those old people cease to consider themselves elderly, retaining youthfully vigorous mental attitudes as well as physical ones—or instead make society more conservative (because old people tend to be)?

[G] To this end, many hopeful repairmen are now setting up shop. Some of them want to upgrade worn-out tissues using stem cells (precursors to other sorts of cell). Such bio-renovation is the basis of an unproven, almost vampiric, treatment in vogue in some circles: transfusion into the old of the blood of the young. The business of growing organs from scratch is also proceeding. At the moment, these \

41.

F

解析:本题需要确定第六段。根据E段首句衔接词such speculation可知,上一段是在猜测,F段每句话以问句形式阐述,是不确定的内容,表示猜测,可以跟E段衔接,故本题选F。

42.

B

解析:本题需要确定第五段。通过分析B、F两个备选段落可知,浏览发现F段都是问句,而B段反复出现的表达是long life,longer life,lifespan等,说明B段是在探讨长寿的问题,可以与上一段紧密衔接,故本题选B。

43.

D

解析:本题需要确定第四段。根据所给的G段得知,这一段在探讨寿命延长的一些生物技术,出现了stem cell,organ等表示生物方面的词汇,分析其余段落发现,D段在探讨与生物相关的内容,因为出现了gene,DNA等词汇,并且D段反复在说长寿(longevity,long-life),在内容也与G段紧密衔接,故本题选D。

44.

A

解析:本题需要确定第二段。根据所给G段首句的代词this end得知,上文在探讨“这个目标”,同时通过首句many hopeful repairmen are now setting up shop可知,目标的内容跟repairment(修复)有关,分析其余选项,段落尾句讨论修复的是A段,并且A段首句中的that world与首段中的a world紧密衔接,故本题选A。

45.

C

解析:本题需要确定首段。首段应当是一个提纲挈领式的开始,能够引出文章后面的内容或者概括文章内容。同时能充当首段的原则就是该段落没有上文,浏览五个段落发现C、D、F三段都可以是没有上文的段落,但是C段讲述老龄化的世界已经不存在了,D段讲述长寿的方法,F段讲述老龄化带来的问题,所以C段应该在D、F两段之前,故本题选C。

阅读9翻译句子)

Vallone, a professor of childhood studies at Rutgers University, combines readings of children’s literature with social history (she has written a lively book about Queen Victoria’ s girlhood). She gives a bold reading of Tom Thumb’ s multiple appearances in 18th and 19th-century literature.

【T1】Entering palaces, circuses, music halls and world fairs, Vallone records the ways in which princes, explorers and performers collected people who were physically extraordinary and put them on show for public recreation. In 1626 the Duke of Buckingham staged a banquet for the young queen, Henrietta Maria; its many courses included an enormous pastry from which, just as in \

46.【T5】

通过追踪历史上人们对身体差异的态度是如何改变的,她期待更多的宽容,少一些像在马塞蒂电影中匪帮们所冷漠地表现出来的嘲笑。

解析:句中tracking the way…是动词分词作方式状语,可译为“通过……的方式”;句子后半部的the kind the gang…实际上是一个省略了that的同位语从句,修饰less mockery,翻译时切勿将more tolerance当作被修饰的成分。mockery意为“嘲笑,嘲弄”。

47.【T4】

她穿越了高度敏感的地带,那里有许多当今最激动人心的问题——种族、性别、年龄、生殖技术、残疾和肥胖——棘手且悬而未决。

解析:句中包含where引导的非限定性定语从句,先行词为highly sensitive terrain,翻译时可用“那里”代替;句子中出现了两个破折号,都是用来解释说明issue的,故直接翻译即可。agitative意为“煽动性的”;thornily意为“棘手地”。

48.【T3】

这并不能说服我:这个长成了小个子的男孩,展现出一种异常的奇迹,就像贝壳,或者说是白色孔雀一样是收藏品,是赠与权势之人的礼物。

解析:本句包含两个定语从句,第一个定语从句的先行词是tiny child,这与从句中的tiny man意思需区分开来,根据本段第二句的描述,这个七岁男孩身高只有45厘米左右,因此前面的tiny child是用于形容这个人的年龄,译为“小男孩”,后者是说他的个子矮小,译为“小个子”;第二个从句的先行词是someone,从句不可直译为拥有所有的人。根据上下文可知,收藏身体异常者的通常都是有权有势的人,因此翻译为有权势之人。singular意为“异常的;非凡的”。

49.【T2】

在范-戴克的画中,一只宠物猴子栖息在哈德森的肩膀上;女王,一个戴着阔边帽的女巨人,心不在焉地爱抚着这只动物,一边傲慢地看着我们。

解析:本句话前半部分,方位名词提前,句子部分倒装,翻译时调整语序即可;后半部分句子中的giantess意为“女巨人”,可根据giant联想得出释义;a picture hat意为“一顶阔边帽”;absently意为“心不在焉地”。

50.【T1】

瓦隆走进宫殿、马戏团、音乐厅和世界博览会,记录下王子、探险者和表演者是如何收集身体异常的人,并展示给公众供其娱乐的。

解析:本句中含动词分词作伴随状语,与主句的动作同时发生,翻译时顺序不变:之后包含一个先行词为the way的定语从句,可译为“……的方法”“是……的”。在定语从句中,又包含一个由先行词who引导的定语从句。

常规阅读理解(含4小题)

判断题

阅读大题型

51. Suppose your friend, Anne, has been promoted to the monitor. And she asked for your advice on how to serve as an excellent class leader. Write her a letter to congratulate her and give your advice.

You should write about 100 words neatly on the ANSWER SHEET.

Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use \

Dear Anne,

I am writing this letter to express my sincere congratulation to you for the promotion. And I hope you could be an outstanding class leader.

As to your request of some suggestions on how to be a qualified monitor, it is advisable for you to take part in more school and social activities, because they can help to improve your ability to associate with other students. In addition, choosing the most efficient way to work is another suggestion for you. And sometimes it’ s OK to ask some classmates for help.

Once again, congratulate to you for this promotion. And I hope that you will find these suggestions helpful.

Yours sincerely,

Li Ming

解析:本题要求写一封信。其写作背景是“你的朋友安妮晋升为了班长,向你咨询如何能成为一位优秀的班干部”。内容是:第一,对对方表示祝福;第二,针对对方的问题,提出自己的建议;第三,再次表示祝福,希望自己能帮到对方。该作文题材属于祝贺信加建议信范畴,考生要掌握此类应用文的写作方式。

大作文

52. Write an essay of 160~200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay, you should

1) describe the drawing briefly,

2) explain its intended meaning, and

3) give your comments.

You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (20 points)

From the picture, we can know that the girl plans to read some books on postgraduate entrance examination, but it turns out that she is reading cartoons. The phenomenon reflected in the picture deserves our attention.

From where I stand, self-discipline is very important to college students for the following reasons. First of all, self-discipline can encourage college students to achieve their goals set in study, rather than give up halfway. Also, self-discipline can enable college students to get rid of the sense of loss caused by the unfinished study goals and thus face life with a positive and optimistic mind. Finally, self-discipline plays an essential role in the future employment of college students. It can help college students overcome the difficulties in finding jobs.

In short, we should attach great importance to the cultivation of college students’ self-discipline, which is not only beneficial to college students themselves, but also conducive to the formation of a good social atmosphere.

In my point of view, it is indispensable for us to improve people’s awareness of this issue. It is timely and necessary to regulate the market of online car-hailing services. Only in this way can we get the utmost use of online car-hailing services and embrace a bright future.

解析:本题要求考生根据所给漫画论述大学生自律的重要性。全文可分为三段去写:第一段对漫画做简要描述,第二段分析自律对学生的种种好处,第三段再次强调自律的重要性。

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