考研英语(一)模拟试卷229附答案解析

考研英语(一)模拟试卷229

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完型填空

Despite your best intentions and efforts, it is【C1】______: At some point in your life, you will be wrong. 【C2】______ can be hard to digest, so sometimes we double down rather than【C3】______them. Our confirmation bias kicks in, causing us to 【C4】______ out evidence to prove what we already believe. The car you 【C5】______ off has a small dent in its bumper,【C6】______obviously means that it is the other driver’ s fault.

Psychologists call this cognitive dissonance—the stress we experience when we hold two【C7】______beliefs, opinions or attitudes. For example, you might believe you are a kind and【C8】______person, so when you rudely cut someone off, you experience【C9】______. To【C10】______with it, you deny your mistake and insist the other driver【C11】______have seen you, or you had the right of way even if you didn ‘t.

When we apologize for being wrong, we have to accept this dissonance, and that is【C12】______. On the other hand, research has shown that it can feel good to stick【C13】______our guns. One study found that people who refused to apologize felt more in control than those who did not refuse. Feeling【C14】______may be an attractive short-term benefit,【C15】______there are long-term consequences. Refusing to apologize could potentially【C16】______the trust on which a relationship is based. So how exactly do you change your behavior and learn to【C17】______your mistakes? The first step is to learn to recognize your usual justification and【C18】______.

Mr. Okimoto said it also helped to remember that people were often more【C19】______than you might think. On the flip side, if it is undeniably clear that you are in the wrong, refusing to apologize【C20】______low self-confidence.

1.【C1】(B)

A. realizable

B. inevitable

C. remarkable

D. available

解析:本句意为“不管你的意愿如何强烈,又做出多大努力,这是______的:在生命的某个时候,你会犯错”。纵观四个选项,inevitable“不可避免的”符合题意。remarkable“卓越的;非凡的”、available“可获得的”和realizable“可实现的”均不符合题意。故本题选B。

2.【C2】(A)

A. Mistakes

B. Failure

C. Trouble

D. Loss

解析:通过第一段首句“……这是不可避免的:在生命的某个时候,你会犯错”可知,空格处所需单词应与wrong表达意义相同。纵观下文,全篇讲述与“错误”相关的内容,故A项Mistakes为正确答案。Failure“失败”、Trouble“麻烦,烦恼”和Loss“损失”均不符合题意。故本题选A。

3.【C3】(B)

A. save

B. face

C. conquer

D. control

解析:本句意为“错误难以消化,所以我们有时会孤注一掷,而非______它们”,本句中代词them指代mistakes。故B项“面对”为正确答案。save“挽救”和conquer“征服”均无法与mistakes搭配。control“控制”不符合题意。故本题选B。

4.【C4】(D)

A. turn

B. set

C. put

D. seek

解析:本句意为“这时候,我们在确认事物的认知上会:有偏误,导致我们______证据来证明自己已有的信念”。根据句意可知,D项构成seek out“找出,寻求”符合要求。turn out“出席,参加;结果是”、set out“出发,开始”和put out“出版;熄灭”均不符合题意。故本题选D。

5.【C5】(C)

A. give

B. take

C. cut

D. turn

解析:本句意为“被你______的车的保险杠上有一个小凹痕,这显然意味着是那个司机的错”。纵观四个选项所构成的短语中,cut off“隔断;切断”符合题意,此处可意译为“加塞”。give off“散发”、take off“起飞,离开”和turn off“关闭”均不符合题意。故本题选C。

6.【C6】(B)

A. what

B. which

C. that

D. where

解析:本题考查非限制性定语从句。纵观四个选项,只有which可做关系代词引导非限制性定语从句,指代前面整个句子,并在从句中做主语。即which指代“被你加塞挡在后面的车的保险杠上有一个小凹痕”这件事。what、that、where均不符合题意。故本题选B。

7.【C7】(A)

A. contradictory

B. significant

C. similar

D. consistent

解析:本句意为“心理学家称之为认知失调,即当我们持有两种______的信念、观点或态度时所感受的压力”。破折号后空格处所在的句子是对第二段首句内容的解释说明。通过“失调”一词可知,consistent“一致的”和similar“相似的”均不符合题意。下文进一步阐述“认知失调”的含义,通过范例可知,contradictory“相互对立的,矛盾的”更符合文意。significant“重要的,有意义的”与文章表述无关。故本题选A。

8.【C8】(D)

A. sympathetic

B. humble

C. brave

D. fair

解析:本句意为“比如,你可能认为自己是个善良的、______的人,那么当你粗暴地加塞到其他人前面时……”。通过连词and可知,空格处所填词应与kind的感情色彩一致。纵观四个选项,其均是描述人的品质的形容词,fair“公平的”可与“车辆加塞”这种不良行为构成“失调”,符合题意。sympathetic“同情的”、humble“谦逊的”和brave“勇敢的”均不符合题意。故本题选D。

9.【C9】(B)

A. regret

B. dissonance

C. guilty

D. pain

解析:联系上文可知,空格处所在的句子进一步阐述“认知失调”的含义。所以,dissonance“失调,不和谐”符合文意。regret“遗憾”、guilty“内疚”和pain“痛苦”均与题意不符。故本题选B。

10.【C10】(D)

A. finish

B. comply

C. go

D. cope

解析:本句意为“为了______它,你会否认自己的错误,坚称那个司机……”。其中代词“它”指代前文“车辆加塞”这件事,纵观四个选项,只有cope with“应付,处理”符合题意。finish with“完成”、comply with“服从,遵从”和go with“相伴”均不符合题意。故本题选D。

11.【C11】(C)

A. must

B. would

C. should

D. might

解析:本句意为“为了______它,你会否认自己的错误,坚称那个司机______看见你,或你有先行权,尽管事实并非如此”。should have done(本来应该做某事,而实际没做)符合题意,其暗含责备之意,以此来否认自己的错误,为自己辩解。might have done(表示对发生过的事情的推测,意思是“可能已经”或“也许已经”)、must have done(表示对过去事情的肯定推测,译成“一定做过某事”)和would have done(表示虚拟,对过去事情的假设)均不符合题意。故本题选C。

12.【C12】(A)

A. unpleasant

B. unfriendly

C. unconsidered

D. universal

解析:本句意为“当我们为错误道歉,就必须接受这种失调,那是______的”。故unpleasant“令人不愉快的”符合题意。unfriendly“不友好的”、unconsidered“不值得考虑的”和universal“普遍的”均不符合题意。故本题选A。

13.【C13】(A)

A. to

B. on

C. out

D. at

解析:本题考查stick的固定搭配。stick to one’s guns“固执己见,坚守立场”符合题意。stick on“继续做……”、stick out“使突出,伸出”和stick at“坚持;踌躇”均无法与guns构成固定搭配。故本题选A。

14.【C14】(D)

A. positive

B. useful

C. wonderful

D. powerful

解析:本句意为“短期看,感觉______或许是一个对人有吸引力的好处”。通过上文“研究发现,相比于不拒绝道歉的人,犯错后拒绝道歉的人会感觉自己更有掌控力”可知,空格处所填词应是felt more in control的同义替换,故powerful“强有力的”符合题意。positive“积极的”、useful“有用的”和wonderful“美妙的”均不符合题意。故本题选D。

15.【C15】(C)

A. as

B. and

C. but

D. therefore

解析:本句意为“短期看,感觉______或许是一个对人有吸引力的好处,______它也会带来长期的后果”。通过本句关键词short-term benefit和long-term consequences可知,空格处所表达的逻辑关系为转折关系,故but符合文意。as表示“原因”、and表示“并列”和therefore表示“因果关系”均不符合题意。故本题选C。

16.【C16】(A)

A. jeopardize

B. build

C. betray

D. maintain

解析:本句意为“拒绝道歉可能会______建立在关系基础上的信任”。通过上文“拒绝道歉会带来长期的后果”可知,空格处所填词应具有“危及”的意思。故jeopardize“损害”符合题意。build“建立”和maintain“维持”不符合该句句意。betray“辜负,背叛”表述太过绝对。故本题选A。

17.【C17】(C)

A. discard

B. correct

C. embrace

D. avoid

解析:本句意为“所以你到底该如何改变自己的行为,学会______自己的错误呢?”。通过上文可知,当人们在不可避免地犯错之时,其往往会孤注一掷,拒绝承认自己的错误,而非面对它们。embrace your mistakes在此处意为“接受错误”,符合题意。discard“丢弃”、correct“改正”和avoid“避免”均不符合题意。故本题选C。

18.【C18】(C)

A. negotiation

B. motivation

C. rationalization

D. association

解析:通过并列连词and可知,空格处所填的单词在语义上应与justifications“理由;辩护”相似。纵观四个选项,rationalization“合理化”符合题意。negotiation“谈判”、motivation“动机”和association“联想”均不符合题意。故本题选C。

19.【C19】(C)

A. creative

B. modest

C. forgiving

D. warmhearted

解析:本句意为“记住人们往往比你以为的更______可能有所帮助”。通过上文可知,本篇文章主要阐述人们会犯错,但往往不能正确面对自己所犯的错误,心理学家称这种现象为“认知失调”。纵观四个选项,forgiving“宽恕的”符合题意。creative“有创造力的”、modest“谦逊的”和warmhearted“热心肠的”均不符合题意。故本题选C。

20.【C20】(A)

A. reveals

B. forges

C. transfers

D. explains

解析:本句意为“另一方面,如果你毫无疑问是过错方,那么拒绝道歉反而会“你不够自信”。根据句意可知,reveal“显示;揭露”符合题意。forge“伪造”、transfer“转移”和explain“解释说明”均不符合题意。故本题选A。

阅读(常规阅读理解)

The people who run Facebook are furious about a new movie that depicts the existence of Facebook. They’ re upset because much of the story about The Social Network is just completely made up. But the really interesting thing about this movie is that the story tells a lager truth about Silicon Valley’ s get-rich-quick culture and the kind of people—like Mark Zuckerberg—who thrive in this environment.

The Valley used to be a place run by scientists and engineers. But now the Valley has become a casino, a place where smart kids arrive hoping to make an easy fortune building companies that seem at least not as serious as old-guard companies.

The three hottest tech companies today are Facebook, Twitter, and Zynga. Facebook lets you keep in touch with your friends; it will generate about $1.5 billion in revenue this year by bombarding its 500 million members with ads. Twitter is a noisy circus of spats and celebrity watching, and its hapless founders still can’ t figure out how to make money. The biggest of Facebook app-makers, reportedly will rake in $500 million this year by getting people addicted to cheesy games like Farmville and Mafia Wars.

Meanwhile, among some longtime techies, there’ s a sense that something important has been lost. \

21.The people who run Facebook are furious because______.(D)

A. there is fierce competition between Facebook and Twitter

B. the movie slandered Facebook

C. the movie disclosed Facebook’ s secrets

D. what the movie show about Facebook is untrue

解析:根据题干关键词定位到文章首段前两句话,通过原文They’re upset because much of the story about The Social Network is just completely made up可知,《社交网络》这部电影很多内容都是虚构的,所以,人们愤怒的根源在于电影脱离实际,故D项“电影所展示的脸书网是不真实的”符合题意。A项“脸书网和推特之间存在激烈的竞争”、B项“这部电影诽谤了脸书网”和C项“这部电影揭露了脸书网的秘密”均不符合题意,故本题选D。

22.We can infer from Paragraph 2 that______.(C)

A. the Valley is no longer the place for hard science and making things

B. the Valley has been converted into a casino

C. making an easy fortune prevails today’ s Silicon Valley

D. semiconductor got its name from Silicon Valley

解析:根据题干关键词定位到文章第二段。通过原文“现在的硅谷好像一个赌场,人们渴望成立公司一夜暴富,并不再像之前那样追求严肃的科技创新”可推断出,C项“轻松赚取财富在今天的硅谷大行其道”符合题意。A项“硅谷不再是硬科学和创造事物的地方”过于夸大事实。B项“硅谷已经变成了一家赌场”错误,其在原文只是一个比喻,并不是实指。D项“半导体公司得名于硅谷”在原文中并未提及,故本题选C。

23.From the third paragraph, the author’s attitude towards Facebook, Twitter and Zynga is______.(A)

A. critical

B. slightly complimentary

C. positive

D. neutral

解析:根据题干关键词定位到文章第三段。作者介绍这三家公司的主流业务,如提到Twitter时,用noisy circus(喧闹的马戏团)来比喻。提到Zynga时,用到cheesy game(蹩脚游戏)来形容。可见作者对于这三家企业的态度存在批判性。故critical“批判的”符合题意。slightly complimentary“略有称赞的”、positive“积极的”和neutral“中立的”均不符合题意。故本题选A。

24.What Myhrvold worries about the Silicon Valley is______.(D)

A. how to get sufficient entrepreneurs and investors

B. everyone in the Valley hardly looks for a gold rush

C. Facebook or Zynga makes lots of technical bets

D. a sense of solving really hard problems is declining

解析:根据题干关键词定位到文中第四、五段。第四段的第二句话指出:硅谷应该切实解决复杂的问题,实现技术方面的巨大进步,然而Facebook或者Zynga主营的业务并没有太多的技术进步包含其中。反而越来越多地纷纷效仿Facebook或者Zynga,将技术创新抛诸脑后。故D项“解决难题的能力正在下降”与上述分析相符。A项“如何获得足够的企业家和投资者”、B项“硅谷的每个人都不追求淘金热”和C项“Facebook或Zynga进行了大量技术押注”均不是Myhrvold担心的内容,不符合题意,故本题选D。

25.The main idea about this text is______.(C)

A. America’ s lag in areas like alternative energy, better batteries and nanotechnology

B. an untrue movie about Facebook and Social Network

C. a tale about Silicon Valley’ s get-rich-quick

D. the negative impact on Silicon Valley from success of companies, like Facebook

解析:本题为主旨题,答题需要纵览全文。文章主要讲:述硅谷盛行快速致富的氛围,越来越多的人已经忽略了硅谷科技创新的传统追求,从而引发人们更深入的讨论。C项“一个关于硅谷快速致富的故事”符合题意。A项“美国在替代能源、更好的电池和纳米技术等领域的落后”、B项“一部关于Facebook和社交网络的不真实电影”和D项“Facebook等公司的成功对硅谷的负面影响”都只是文章部分内容的概括,不能成为主旨,故本题选C。

Speaking two languages rather than just one has obvious practical benefits. In recent years, scientists have begun to show that being bilingual makes you smarter. It can have a profound effect on your brain, improving cognitive skills not related to language and even shielding against dementia in old age.

Researchers, educators and policy makers in 20 century considered a second language to be an interference, cognitively speaking, that hindered a child’ s academic and intellectual development. There is ample evidence that in a bilingual’ s brain both language systems are active even when he is using only one language, thus creating situations in which one system obstructs the other. But this interference isn’t so much a handicap as a blessing in disguise. It forces the brain to resolve internal conflict, giving the mind a workout that strengthens its cognitive muscles. The collective evidence from a number of such studies suggests that the bilingual experience improves the brain’ s so-called executive function. These processes include ignoring distractions to stay focused, switching attention willfully from one thing to another and holding information in mind—like remembering a sequence of directions while driving.

Why does the tussle between two simultaneously active language systems improve these aspects of cognition? Researchers thought the bilingual advantage stemmed primarily from an ability for in hibition that was honed by the exercise of suppressing one language system. But that explanation in creasingly appears to be inadequate, since studies have shown that bilinguals perform better than monolinguals even at tasks that do not require inhibition, like threading a line through an ascending series of numbers scattered randomly on a page.

The key difference between bilinguals and monolinguals may be more basic: a heightened ability to monitor the environment. \

26.According to the passage, which of the following is NOT the advantage of speaking two languages?(D)

A. Improving other fields’ cognitive skills.

B. Benefiting to the brain and making people smarter.

C. Protecting against Alzheimer’ s disease.

D. Enhancing the reactivity and memory.

解析:由题干关键词定位到文章第一段。A项“提高其他领域的认知技能”与文中improving cognitive skills not related to language表述一致。B项“对大脑有益.让人更聪明”与文中have a profound effect on your brain表述一致。C项“预防老年痴呆症”符合shielding against dementia in old age。D项“提高反应性和记忆力”并未在原文提及。故本题选D。

27.The underlined sentence in Paragraph 2 means______.(A)

A. this interference may help develop our brain

B. our brain will face more challenges from bilingual learning

C. bilingual experience could improve speaker’ s comprehension

D. speaking two languages obstructs people’ s memory of driving

解析:由题干关键词定位到文章第二段。前文表示第二语言会造成认知上的干扰,该句后的内容则指出这种干扰作用反而会带来益处,它迫使大脑解决内在矛盾,让大脑进行锻炼,增强认知技能。由此可知,双语能力表面上是一种干扰,实则大有裨益。故A项“这种干扰可能会有助于我们开发大脑”正确。B项“我们的大脑将面临双语学习带来的更多挑战”、C项“双语体验能提高说话者的理解能力”和D项“说两种语言会干扰人们开车时的记忆”均不符合题意。故本题选A。

28.The key difference between bilinguals and monolinguals is that______.(D)

A. the basic ability restrains two languages

B. they pay attention to the changes of their own conditions

C. bilinguals are more efficient and cautious

D. bilinguals are more sensitive to surroundings

解析:根据题干关键词定位到文章第四段,根据首句“而双语者和单语者的关键差别可能表现在更基本的层面上:监测环境的能力”可知,双语者更能迅速敏锐感知周围环境的变化。故D项“双语者对环境更敏感”与原文相符。A项“约束两种语言的基本能力”并不是关键差别。B项“注意他们自身条件的变化”与文中“注重的是周围环境的变化”表述相悖。C项“双语者更有效率,更谨慎”,其中“更谨慎”并未在原文提及。故本题选D。

29.According to the text, which of the following is TRUE?(C)

A. People believe that monolingual learning positively affects the brain.

B. Monolinguals need to neglect brains’ internal conflict and stay focused.

C. Bilinguals could do better in observing the changes of environment.

D. Bilingual experience affects children more than old people.

解析:题干中并未提及与段落相关的关键词,需要纵览全文。C项“双语者在观察环境变化方面做得更好”与文中第四段句首表述一致。A项“人们相信单语学习会对大脑产生积极的影响”与原文表述矛盾。B项“单语者需要忽视大脑内部的冲突并保持专注”并未在原文提及。本题D项“双语体验对儿童的影响比老年人更大”并不符合最后一段表述的内容。故本题选C。

30.What is the most suitable subject of the passage?(A)

A. Bilingual learning could benefit from their ability.

B. Bilingual could work effectively without disturbance.

C. Two active language systems make people smarter.

D. It is never too late to learn a second language.

解析:本题为主旨题,纵览全文可知,A项“双语学习者可以通过他们的能力受益”是对全文大意的整体概括。B项“双语者能有效地工作而不受干扰”、C项“两种活跃的语言系统使人更聪明”和D项“学习第二语言永远不会太迟”都只是对文中部分内容的总结,均不能完美地概括整篇文章。故本题选A。

Most online fraud involves identity theft, which is why businesses that operate on the web have a keen interest in distinguishing impersonator from genuine customers. Passwords help. But many can be guessed or are jotted down imprudently. Newer phones, tablets, laptops and desktop computers often have beefed-up security with fingerprint and facial recognition. But these can be spoofed. To overcome these shortcomings, the next level of security is likely to identify people using things which are harder to copy, such as the way they walk.

Many online security services already use a system called device finger printing. This employs software to note things like the model type of a gadget employed by a particular user; its hardware configuration; its operating system; the apps which have been downloaded onto it; and other features, including sometimes the Wi-Fi networks it regularly connects through hand devices like headsets it plugs into.

The results are sufficient to build a profile of both the device and its user’ s habits. If something unusual is then spotted—say, a bank detects access to an account from a phone with a different profile from that which a customer usually uses—it can take appropriate measures. For example, additional security questions can be posed.

LexisNexis Risk Solutions, an American analytics firm, has catalogued more than 4bn phones, tablets and other computers in this way for banks and other clients. Roughly 7% of them have been used for shenanigans of some sort. But device fingerprinting is becoming less useful. Apple,Google and other makers of equipment and operating systems have been steadily restricting the range of attributes that can be observed remotely. The reason for doing this is to limit the amount of personal information that could fall into unauthorised hands. But such restrictions also make it harder to distinguish illegitimate from legitimate users.

That is why a new approach, behavioural biometrics, is gaining ground. It relies on the wealth of measurements made by today’ s devices. These include data from accelerometers and gyroscopic sensors that reveal how people hold their phones when using them, how they carry them and even the way they walk. Touch screens, keyboards and mice can be monitored to show the distinctive ways in which someone’ s fingers and hands move. Sensors can detect whether a phone has been set down on a hard surface such as a table or dropped lightly on a soft one such as a bed. If the hour is appropriate, this action could be used to assume when a user has retired for the night. These traits can then be used to determine whether someone attempting to make a transaction is likely to be the device’ s habitual user.

Behavioural biometrics make it possible to identify an individual’s \

31.According to the author, what is NOT true about the security related to the digital products?(D)

A. The online business focuses more on the identify security to prevent cheat.

B. The update of the digital system will strengthen the security of digital products.

C. The way we walk is hard to duplicate and which can be an efficient way to guarantee our security.

D. During the online fraud, password could be guessed or cracked, so it is useless.

解析:根据题干关键词可定位到文章第一段。题干意为“有关电子产品安全性的描述,不正确的是哪一项?”A项“网上经营的企业更注重欺诈”与第一段第一句意思一致。B项“数码产品系统的更新增强了电子产品的安全性”与第一段第四句意思一致。C项“我们走路的方式很难复制,这可以有效保障我们的安全”与文意符合。D项“密码被猜中或破解,所以没有用”的后半句属于过度推断,文中并未提到useless,只提到help,与文意相反。故本题选D。

32.What will the product do if there is something unusual in device fingerprinting system?(B)

A. It will send messages to the user.

B. It will pose additional security questions.

C. It will observe remotely for an opportunity to revise.

D. It will do in accordance with its natural tendency.

解析:根据题干关键词可定位到文章第二、三段。题干意为“如果在设备指纹识别系统中出现异常情况,该产品将如何处理?”由文意可知,第三段最后一句是本题答案所在,即“如果有不寻常的事情发生——比如说.银行检测到从与客户通常使用的手机配置不同的账户访问——它可以采取适当的措施。例如,可以提出其他安全问题”,只有B项“它将提出额外的问题(以保障账户安全)”与文意一致,所以B项正确。A项“它将向用户发送消息”、C项“它将远程观察,寻找修正的机会”和D项“它会顺其自然”均不符合文意。故本题选B。

33.What’s the meaning of the underlined phrase \(C)

A. To be a freelancer.

B. To lose sleep.

C. To go to bed.

D. To turn off the phone.

解析:根据题干关键词可定位到文章第五段。画线句子的前一句提到了bed,后一句紧接着提到了“如果时间合适的话”,根据上下文语义连接及语境,可推知短语意为“就寝,睡觉”。考生也需要注意本短语也是go to bed的正式用法,可作适当积累,其他三项均与文意无关。故本题选C。

34.What can be inferred from the last two paragraphs?(A)

A. There are advantages and disadvantages about the application of new behavioural biometrics.

B. Behavioural biometrics will be the leading trend in the near future.

C. Compared with device fingerprinting, the new behavioural biometrics could bring into more security.

D. Behavioural biometrics could identify an individual comprehensively.

解析:根据题干关键词可定位到文章的最后两段。A项和文意相符,文章分别提到了新的识别技术的两个方面。B项的leading“引领”在文中未提到,无中生有,排除。文中并未将设备指纹识别和行为生物识别技术进行对比,并说明二者的优势,排除。D项的identify符合文意,但后面的comprehensively“全面地”不符合文章的表述,排除。故本题选A。

35.What is the author’s attitude about the behavioural biometrics?(C)

A. Oppose.

B. Radical.

C. Neutral.

D. Approval.

解析:根据题干关键词可定位到文章第六、七段。这两段分别讲述了行为识别技术的优缺点,首先可以排除B项“激进的”,因其为贬义词,不符合文意。同时,文中作者并没有使用能够明显表示支持或者反对的词汇,所以可以排除A项“反对”和D项“支持”,针对优缺两方面,作者站在客观的立场进行讲述,所以C项“中立的”符合文意。故本题选C。

The bastion of excellence in American education is being destroyed by state budget cuts and mounting costs. Whatever else it is, higher education is shot through with waste, lax academic standards and mediocre teaching and scholarship.

Higher education is a bloated enterprise. Too many professors do too little teaching to too many ill-prepared students. Costs can be cut and quality improved without reducing the number of graduates. Many colleges and universities should shrink. Some should go out of business.

Even so, our system has strengths. It boasts many top-notch schools and allows almost anyone to go to college. But mediocrity is pervasive. We push as many freshmen as possible through the door, regardless of qualifications. We create more graduate degrees of dubious worth. Does anyone believe the MBA explosion has improved management?

You won’ t hear much about this from college deans or university presidents. They created this mess and are its biggest beneficiaries. Large enrollments support large faculties. More graduate students liberate tenured faculty from undergraduate teaching to concentrate on writing and research.

Private schools will, for better or worse, be influenced by state actions. The states need to do three things.

First, create genuine entrance requirements. States should raising tuitions sharply and coupling the increase with generous scholarships based on merit and income. To get scholarships, students would have to pass meaningful entrance exams. Ideally, the scholarships should be available for use at in-state private schools. All schools would then compete for students on the basis of academic quality and costs. Today’ s system of general tuition subsidies provides aid to well-to-do families that don’t need it or to unqualified students who don’t deserve it.

Next, states should raise faculty teaching loads. This would cut costs and reemphasize the primacy of teaching at most schools. \

36.According to Paragraph 2, which of the following is NOT the author’s suggestion to universities?(D)

A. Decreasing the cost and improving their quality.

B. Downsizing their own scale.

C. Keeping away from commerce.

D. Changing the standards of scholarship.

解析:根据题干关键词定位到文章第二段。第二段针对高校的现状提出了若干建议。A项“降低成本,提高质量”与文中Costs can be cut and quality improved表述一致。B项“缩小自己的规模”与文中Many colleges and universities should shrink表述相符。C项“远离商业”是末句Some should go out of business的同义改写。D项“改变奖学金标准”并不是作者提出的建议。故本题选D。

37.The author believe that mediocrity is pervasive, because______.(D)

A. there are too many excellent private universities in America

B. most graduate degrees are dubious and useless

C. MBA has no use in improving management

D. the requirements for admission is too easy to meet

解析:根据题干关键词定位到文章第三段。D项“入学的要求太容易满足了”与原文allows almost anyone to go to college和We push as many freshmen as possible through the door,regardless of qualifications表述相符,表示大学门槛太低。A项“美国有太多优秀的私立大学”并未在原文中提及。B项“大多数研究生学位都是可疑的、无用的”表述错误。C项“MBA在改善管理方面毫无用处”,表述过于绝对化。故本题选D。

38.The author’s attitude towards college deans and university presidents is one of______.(B)

A. sympathy

B. dissatisfaction

C. objectiveness

D. tolerance

解析:根据题干关键词定位到文章第四段。作者表示“你不会从学院院长或大学校长那里听到这些。就是他们制造了这些混乱,他们是最大的受益者”。由此可见,作者对这两类人的态度并不友好,所以B项“不满”更符合文意。sympathy“同情”、objectiveness“客观”和tolerance“容忍”均不恰当。故本题选B。

39.Fairweather is mentioned to______.(A)

A. stress the importance of teaching

B. lessen the teaching work of teachers

C. show his attitude toward education reform

D. explain the important role of universities

解析:根据题干关键词定位到文章倒数第三段“你不能为了多做研究而减少教学工作。教师们在努力工作,这正是他们工作的地方”。结合前文提到的“各州应该增加教师的教学任务”和“反复强调教学的首要作用”可以得知,A项“强调教学的重要性”符合题意。B项“减少教师的教学工作”、C项“显示他对教育改革的态度”和D项“解释大学的重要作用”均不是提到Fairweather的目的。故本题选A。

40.Which of the following would be the main idea of this passage?(A)

A. States should help universities improve the environment of education.

B. Mediocrities are abounding in today’ s American universities.

C. Private schools should change their standards of enrollment.

D. It is necessary to reform the graduate programs in America.

解析:本题为主旨题,需要纵览全文。本文主要阐述美国的高等教育存在着问题,平庸无处不在,各州应该帮助高校解决问题,并提出了相关的建议。A项“各州应该帮助大学改善教育环境”符合原文的主旨。B项“现在的美国大学中,平庸无处不在”、C项“私立学校应该改变他们的入学标准”和D项“有必要改革美国的研究生课程”都只是原文内容的一部分,不能代表全文。故本题选A。

阅读(补全短文)

阅读9翻译句子)

Have there always been cities? The trend is cities are increasingly becoming the dominant mode of man’s social existence. 【T1】It is virtually impossible to imagine that universities, hospitals, large businesses or even science and technology could have come into being without cities to support them, and cities have traditionally been the areas where there was a concentration of culture as well as of opportunity. 【T2】In recent years, however, people have begun to become aware that cities are also areas where there is a concentration of problems. Actually, long before this century started, there had begun a trend toward the concentration of the poor of the American society into the cities. Each great wave of immigration from abroad and from the rural areas made the problem worse. Within the cities, sections may be sharply divided into high and low rent districts, the \

41.【T1】

我们几乎难以想象没有城市的支持,就不会出现大学、医院、大型商业甚至是科学技术,传统意义上城市既是文化的集中地也是机会的汇集地。

解析:连词that引导从句that universities…support them,作动词imagine的宾语。连词or并列连接universities,hospitals,large businesses和science and technology这四项,共同在宾语从句中充当主语。介词短语without cities to support them作状语,修饰谓语could have come into being。come into being译为“形成,出现”。分句2是简单句,of culture和of opportunity并列,concentration译为“聚集地”。

42.【T2】

然而,近些年来,人们开始意识到城市也是问题的聚集地。

解析:该句主干为people have begun to become aware that cities are also areas。become 在这里是系动词,译为“变得”。that cities are also areas是that引导的宾语从句。where there is a concentration of problems是where引导的定语从句.修饰限定areas.其中介词短语of problems作定语限定concentration。

43.【T3】

但是,一个基本的意见分歧是关于这座城市是否需要保留下来的问题。

解析:该句主干为one basic difference of opinion concerns the question。concern译为“涉及”。介词短语of whether…be preserved作后置定语,修饰限定the question。preserve译为“保护”。介词短语as such作定语,修饰限定the city。

44.【T4】

并且还有一种反对观点认为城市一直是文化进步辐射的中心,但在有便利交通和快速通讯的今天,这是否依然是个问题?

解析:本句是一个并列句。分句1是复合句,主干为there is the objection。连词that引导同位语从句that the city has always been the core,其解释说明an objection。objection在此表示“反对”。from which引导定语从句from which cultural advancement has radiated,修饰限定the core。分句2是简单句,is this…the case today…是句子主干,in the presence of…是修饰today的介词短语,在此处作定语。

45.【T5】

遗憾的是,虽然过去我们的关于总目标的意见一致,但进展到具体目标时,意见就无法统一,因此也就没有什么行动力。

解析:本句是一个简单句,主干是we have proceeded to disagreement on specific goals,and to total inaction,这里连词and连接的两个短语proceeded to disagreement on specific goals 和to total inaction并列作谓语,但在第二个短语中省略了proceeded。proceed译为“推进,进行”,specific译为“具体的”,inaction译为“无行动,不作为”。介词短语from agreement on this general goal和from there都作状语,修饰proceeded。介词短语in the past作时间状语。

常规阅读理解(含4小题)

判断题

阅读大题型

46. Write an email to your friend Jimmy to tell him about whether it is necessary to have English level test and how to prepare it efficiently.

You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET.

Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use \

Dear Jimmy,

I am writing to you in the hope that I may provide some suggestions for you about the English level test. As to whether to take the test, I’ d like to recommend you to take it for during the process, you can improve your English level.

With the increasing of the world globalization, English, as an international language, plays a more and more important role in the modern society. And whatever jobs you take, you need to have some knowledge of English. With regards to the preparation, to begin with, it is important to memorize certain amount of vocabularies. Besides, to understand the rules of the test by analyzing the past exam papers is also an essential part during the process.

I hope you will find these suggestions useful and I would be ready to discuss this matter with you to further details. I am looking forward to your reply.

Yours sincerely,

Li Ming

解析:本题要求写一篇混合型书信,它将不同类型的书信作用结合在一起,需要考生掌握各种书信的书写特色及常用句型。本篇书信主要讲述是否应该参加英语考试以及就如何准备考试提出意见,可分为三段进行书写。第一段对所提出的问题进行回答,第二段提出具体的帮助建议,第三段就建议的反馈进行说明,并期待和对方的进一步交流。

大作文

47. Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay, you should

1) describe the drawing briefly,

2) explain its intended meaning, and

3) give your comments.

You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (20 points)

Here is a picture, interesting but with profound implication. As is vividly depicted in the photo, a youngster is playing weiqi with a computer, which successfully captures our eyes. After a closer watch, it is not difficult to find that the man seems confused about the game. Apparently, this photo subtly conveys the implication that nowadays human can hardly defeat computers. The increasing influences on our life are supposed to be given further analysis.

There is a general discussion over the Internet in recent years. Certainly, no one can doubt the essential fact that computers are becoming smarter. Naturally, it brings us both advantages and disadvantages. As for my part, the former outweighs its latter. On the top of list is that we can take the advantage of them to improve work efficiency. In addition, it is universally admitted that computers can replace humans to do hard and dangerous work in some situations.

According to the analysis above, it is advisable for us to take steps to promote the development of science and technology. Only in this way can we make the best value of computer and let it contribute to our life.

解析:本题要求考生根据所给图片分析计算机技术发展的现状。考生在文章第一段可简要描述图中信息;第二段就人机大战事件产生的原因进行分析;第三段发表自己的观点。

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