Despite your best intentions and efforts, it is【C1】______: At some point in your life, you will be wrong. 【C2】______ can be hard to digest, so sometimes we double down rather than【C3】______them. Our confirmation bias kicks in, causing us to 【C4】______ out evidence to prove what we already believe. The car you 【C5】______ off has a small dent in its bumper,【C6】______obviously means that it is the other driver’ s fault.
Psychologists call this cognitive dissonance—the stress we experience when we hold two【C7】______beliefs, opinions or attitudes. For example, you might believe you are a kind and【C8】______person, so when you rudely cut someone off, you experience【C9】______. To【C10】______with it, you deny your mistake and insist the other driver【C11】______have seen you, or you had the right of way even if you didn ‘t.
When we apologize for being wrong, we have to accept this dissonance, and that is【C12】______. On the other hand, research has shown that it can feel good to stick【C13】______our guns. One study found that people who refused to apologize felt more in control than those who did not refuse. Feeling【C14】______may be an attractive short-term benefit,【C15】______there are long-term consequences. Refusing to apologize could potentially【C16】______the trust on which a relationship is based. So how exactly do you change your behavior and learn to【C17】______your mistakes? The first step is to learn to recognize your usual justification and【C18】______.
Mr. Okimoto said it also helped to remember that people were often more【C19】______than you might think. On the flip side, if it is undeniably clear that you are in the wrong, refusing to apologize【C20】______low self-confidence.
解析：本句意为“这时候，我们在确认事物的认知上会：有偏误，导致我们______证据来证明自己已有的信念”。根据句意可知，D项构成seek out“找出，寻求”符合要求。turn out“出席，参加；结果是”、set out“出发，开始”和put out“出版；熄灭”均不符合题意。故本题选D。
解析：本句意为“被你______的车的保险杠上有一个小凹痕，这显然意味着是那个司机的错”。纵观四个选项所构成的短语中，cut off“隔断；切断”符合题意，此处可意译为“加塞”。give off“散发”、take off“起飞，离开”和turn off“关闭”均不符合题意。故本题选C。
解析：本句意为“为了______它，你会否认自己的错误，坚称那个司机……”。其中代词“它”指代前文“车辆加塞”这件事，纵观四个选项，只有cope with“应付，处理”符合题意。finish with“完成”、comply with“服从，遵从”和go with“相伴”均不符合题意。故本题选D。
解析：本句意为“为了______它，你会否认自己的错误，坚称那个司机______看见你，或你有先行权，尽管事实并非如此”。should have done(本来应该做某事，而实际没做)符合题意，其暗含责备之意，以此来否认自己的错误，为自己辩解。might have done(表示对发生过的事情的推测，意思是“可能已经”或“也许已经”)、must have done(表示对过去事情的肯定推测，译成“一定做过某事”)和would have done(表示虚拟，对过去事情的假设)均不符合题意。故本题选C。
解析：本题考查stick的固定搭配。stick to one’s guns“固执己见，坚守立场”符合题意。stick on“继续做……”、stick out“使突出，伸出”和stick at“坚持；踌躇”均无法与guns构成固定搭配。故本题选A。
解析：本句意为“短期看，感觉______或许是一个对人有吸引力的好处”。通过上文“研究发现，相比于不拒绝道歉的人，犯错后拒绝道歉的人会感觉自己更有掌控力”可知，空格处所填词应是felt more in control的同义替换，故powerful“强有力的”符合题意。positive“积极的”、useful“有用的”和wonderful“美妙的”均不符合题意。故本题选D。
解析：本句意为“短期看，感觉______或许是一个对人有吸引力的好处，______它也会带来长期的后果”。通过本句关键词short-term benefit和long-term consequences可知，空格处所表达的逻辑关系为转折关系，故but符合文意。as表示“原因”、and表示“并列”和therefore表示“因果关系”均不符合题意。故本题选C。
解析：本句意为“所以你到底该如何改变自己的行为，学会______自己的错误呢?”。通过上文可知，当人们在不可避免地犯错之时，其往往会孤注一掷，拒绝承认自己的错误，而非面对它们。embrace your mistakes在此处意为“接受错误”，符合题意。discard“丢弃”、correct“改正”和avoid“避免”均不符合题意。故本题选C。
The people who run Facebook are furious about a new movie that depicts the existence of Facebook. They’ re upset because much of the story about The Social Network is just completely made up. But the really interesting thing about this movie is that the story tells a lager truth about Silicon Valley’ s get-rich-quick culture and the kind of people—like Mark Zuckerberg—who thrive in this environment.
The Valley used to be a place run by scientists and engineers. But now the Valley has become a casino, a place where smart kids arrive hoping to make an easy fortune building companies that seem at least not as serious as old-guard companies.
The three hottest tech companies today are Facebook, Twitter, and Zynga. Facebook lets you keep in touch with your friends; it will generate about $1.5 billion in revenue this year by bombarding its 500 million members with ads. Twitter is a noisy circus of spats and celebrity watching, and its hapless founders still can’ t figure out how to make money. The biggest of Facebook app-makers, reportedly will rake in $500 million this year by getting people addicted to cheesy games like Farmville and Mafia Wars.
Meanwhile, among some longtime techies, there’ s a sense that something important has been lost. \
21.The people who run Facebook are furious because______.(D)
A. there is fierce competition between Facebook and Twitter
B. the movie slandered Facebook
C. the movie disclosed Facebook’ s secrets
D. what the movie show about Facebook is untrue
解析：根据题干关键词定位到文章首段前两句话，通过原文They’re upset because much of the story about The Social Network is just completely made up可知，《社交网络》这部电影很多内容都是虚构的，所以，人们愤怒的根源在于电影脱离实际，故D项“电影所展示的脸书网是不真实的”符合题意。A项“脸书网和推特之间存在激烈的竞争”、B项“这部电影诽谤了脸书网”和C项“这部电影揭露了脸书网的秘密”均不符合题意，故本题选D。
22.We can infer from Paragraph 2 that______.(C)
A. the Valley is no longer the place for hard science and making things
B. the Valley has been converted into a casino
C. making an easy fortune prevails today’ s Silicon Valley
D. semiconductor got its name from Silicon Valley
23.From the third paragraph, the author’s attitude towards Facebook, Twitter and Zynga is______.(A)
B. slightly complimentary
解析：根据题干关键词定位到文章第三段。作者介绍这三家公司的主流业务，如提到Twitter时，用noisy circus(喧闹的马戏团)来比喻。提到Zynga时，用到cheesy game(蹩脚游戏)来形容。可见作者对于这三家企业的态度存在批判性。故critical“批判的”符合题意。slightly complimentary“略有称赞的”、positive“积极的”和neutral“中立的”均不符合题意。故本题选A。
24.What Myhrvold worries about the Silicon Valley is______.(D)
A. how to get sufficient entrepreneurs and investors
B. everyone in the Valley hardly looks for a gold rush
C. Facebook or Zynga makes lots of technical bets
D. a sense of solving really hard problems is declining
25.The main idea about this text is______.(C)
A. America’ s lag in areas like alternative energy, better batteries and nanotechnology
B. an untrue movie about Facebook and Social Network
C. a tale about Silicon Valley’ s get-rich-quick
D. the negative impact on Silicon Valley from success of companies, like Facebook
Speaking two languages rather than just one has obvious practical benefits. In recent years, scientists have begun to show that being bilingual makes you smarter. It can have a profound effect on your brain, improving cognitive skills not related to language and even shielding against dementia in old age.
Researchers, educators and policy makers in 20 century considered a second language to be an interference, cognitively speaking, that hindered a child’ s academic and intellectual development. There is ample evidence that in a bilingual’ s brain both language systems are active even when he is using only one language, thus creating situations in which one system obstructs the other. But this interference isn’t so much a handicap as a blessing in disguise. It forces the brain to resolve internal conflict, giving the mind a workout that strengthens its cognitive muscles. The collective evidence from a number of such studies suggests that the bilingual experience improves the brain’ s so-called executive function. These processes include ignoring distractions to stay focused, switching attention willfully from one thing to another and holding information in mind—like remembering a sequence of directions while driving.
Why does the tussle between two simultaneously active language systems improve these aspects of cognition? Researchers thought the bilingual advantage stemmed primarily from an ability for in hibition that was honed by the exercise of suppressing one language system. But that explanation in creasingly appears to be inadequate, since studies have shown that bilinguals perform better than monolinguals even at tasks that do not require inhibition, like threading a line through an ascending series of numbers scattered randomly on a page.
The key difference between bilinguals and monolinguals may be more basic: a heightened ability to monitor the environment. \
26.According to the passage, which of the following is NOT the advantage of speaking two languages?(D)
A. Improving other fields’ cognitive skills.
B. Benefiting to the brain and making people smarter.
C. Protecting against Alzheimer’ s disease.
D. Enhancing the reactivity and memory.
解析：由题干关键词定位到文章第一段。A项“提高其他领域的认知技能”与文中improving cognitive skills not related to language表述一致。B项“对大脑有益．让人更聪明”与文中have a profound effect on your brain表述一致。C项“预防老年痴呆症”符合shielding against dementia in old age。D项“提高反应性和记忆力”并未在原文提及。故本题选D。
27.The underlined sentence in Paragraph 2 means______.(A)
A. this interference may help develop our brain
B. our brain will face more challenges from bilingual learning
C. bilingual experience could improve speaker’ s comprehension
D. speaking two languages obstructs people’ s memory of driving
28.The key difference between bilinguals and monolinguals is that______.(D)
A. the basic ability restrains two languages
B. they pay attention to the changes of their own conditions
C. bilinguals are more efficient and cautious
D. bilinguals are more sensitive to surroundings
29.According to the text, which of the following is TRUE?(C)
A. People believe that monolingual learning positively affects the brain.
B. Monolinguals need to neglect brains’ internal conflict and stay focused.
C. Bilinguals could do better in observing the changes of environment.
D. Bilingual experience affects children more than old people.
30.What is the most suitable subject of the passage?(A)
A. Bilingual learning could benefit from their ability.
B. Bilingual could work effectively without disturbance.
C. Two active language systems make people smarter.
D. It is never too late to learn a second language.
Most online fraud involves identity theft, which is why businesses that operate on the web have a keen interest in distinguishing impersonator from genuine customers. Passwords help. But many can be guessed or are jotted down imprudently. Newer phones, tablets, laptops and desktop computers often have beefed-up security with fingerprint and facial recognition. But these can be spoofed. To overcome these shortcomings, the next level of security is likely to identify people using things which are harder to copy, such as the way they walk.
Many online security services already use a system called device finger printing. This employs software to note things like the model type of a gadget employed by a particular user; its hardware configuration; its operating system; the apps which have been downloaded onto it; and other features, including sometimes the Wi-Fi networks it regularly connects through hand devices like headsets it plugs into.
The results are sufficient to build a profile of both the device and its user’ s habits. If something unusual is then spotted—say, a bank detects access to an account from a phone with a different profile from that which a customer usually uses—it can take appropriate measures. For example, additional security questions can be posed.
LexisNexis Risk Solutions, an American analytics firm, has catalogued more than 4bn phones, tablets and other computers in this way for banks and other clients. Roughly 7% of them have been used for shenanigans of some sort. But device fingerprinting is becoming less useful. Apple,Google and other makers of equipment and operating systems have been steadily restricting the range of attributes that can be observed remotely. The reason for doing this is to limit the amount of personal information that could fall into unauthorised hands. But such restrictions also make it harder to distinguish illegitimate from legitimate users.
That is why a new approach, behavioural biometrics, is gaining ground. It relies on the wealth of measurements made by today’ s devices. These include data from accelerometers and gyroscopic sensors that reveal how people hold their phones when using them, how they carry them and even the way they walk. Touch screens, keyboards and mice can be monitored to show the distinctive ways in which someone’ s fingers and hands move. Sensors can detect whether a phone has been set down on a hard surface such as a table or dropped lightly on a soft one such as a bed. If the hour is appropriate, this action could be used to assume when a user has retired for the night. These traits can then be used to determine whether someone attempting to make a transaction is likely to be the device’ s habitual user.
Behavioural biometrics make it possible to identify an individual’s \
31.According to the author, what is NOT true about the security related to the digital products?(D)
A. The online business focuses more on the identify security to prevent cheat.
B. The update of the digital system will strengthen the security of digital products.
C. The way we walk is hard to duplicate and which can be an efficient way to guarantee our security.
D. During the online fraud, password could be guessed or cracked, so it is useless.
32.What will the product do if there is something unusual in device fingerprinting system?(B)
A. It will send messages to the user.
B. It will pose additional security questions.
C. It will observe remotely for an opportunity to revise.
D. It will do in accordance with its natural tendency.
33.What’s the meaning of the underlined phrase \(C)
A. To be a freelancer.
B. To lose sleep.
C. To go to bed.
D. To turn off the phone.
解析：根据题干关键词可定位到文章第五段。画线句子的前一句提到了bed，后一句紧接着提到了“如果时间合适的话”，根据上下文语义连接及语境，可推知短语意为“就寝，睡觉”。考生也需要注意本短语也是go to bed的正式用法，可作适当积累，其他三项均与文意无关。故本题选C。
34.What can be inferred from the last two paragraphs?(A)
A. There are advantages and disadvantages about the application of new behavioural biometrics.
B. Behavioural biometrics will be the leading trend in the near future.
C. Compared with device fingerprinting, the new behavioural biometrics could bring into more security.
D. Behavioural biometrics could identify an individual comprehensively.
35.What is the author’s attitude about the behavioural biometrics?(C)
The bastion of excellence in American education is being destroyed by state budget cuts and mounting costs. Whatever else it is, higher education is shot through with waste, lax academic standards and mediocre teaching and scholarship.
Higher education is a bloated enterprise. Too many professors do too little teaching to too many ill-prepared students. Costs can be cut and quality improved without reducing the number of graduates. Many colleges and universities should shrink. Some should go out of business.
Even so, our system has strengths. It boasts many top-notch schools and allows almost anyone to go to college. But mediocrity is pervasive. We push as many freshmen as possible through the door, regardless of qualifications. We create more graduate degrees of dubious worth. Does anyone believe the MBA explosion has improved management?
You won’ t hear much about this from college deans or university presidents. They created this mess and are its biggest beneficiaries. Large enrollments support large faculties. More graduate students liberate tenured faculty from undergraduate teaching to concentrate on writing and research.
Private schools will, for better or worse, be influenced by state actions. The states need to do three things.
First, create genuine entrance requirements. States should raising tuitions sharply and coupling the increase with generous scholarships based on merit and income. To get scholarships, students would have to pass meaningful entrance exams. Ideally, the scholarships should be available for use at in-state private schools. All schools would then compete for students on the basis of academic quality and costs. Today’ s system of general tuition subsidies provides aid to well-to-do families that don’t need it or to unqualified students who don’t deserve it.
Next, states should raise faculty teaching loads. This would cut costs and reemphasize the primacy of teaching at most schools. \
36.According to Paragraph 2, which of the following is NOT the author’s suggestion to universities?(D)
A. Decreasing the cost and improving their quality.
B. Downsizing their own scale.
C. Keeping away from commerce.
D. Changing the standards of scholarship.
解析：根据题干关键词定位到文章第二段。第二段针对高校的现状提出了若干建议。A项“降低成本，提高质量”与文中Costs can be cut and quality improved表述一致。B项“缩小自己的规模”与文中Many colleges and universities should shrink表述相符。C项“远离商业”是末句Some should go out of business的同义改写。D项“改变奖学金标准”并不是作者提出的建议。故本题选D。
37.The author believe that mediocrity is pervasive, because______.(D)
A. there are too many excellent private universities in America
B. most graduate degrees are dubious and useless
C. MBA has no use in improving management
D. the requirements for admission is too easy to meet
解析：根据题干关键词定位到文章第三段。D项“入学的要求太容易满足了”与原文allows almost anyone to go to college和We push as many freshmen as possible through the door，regardless of qualifications表述相符，表示大学门槛太低。A项“美国有太多优秀的私立大学”并未在原文中提及。B项“大多数研究生学位都是可疑的、无用的”表述错误。C项“MBA在改善管理方面毫无用处”，表述过于绝对化。故本题选D。
38.The author’s attitude towards college deans and university presidents is one of______.(B)
39.Fairweather is mentioned to______.(A)
A. stress the importance of teaching
B. lessen the teaching work of teachers
C. show his attitude toward education reform
D. explain the important role of universities
40.Which of the following would be the main idea of this passage?(A)
A. States should help universities improve the environment of education.
B. Mediocrities are abounding in today’ s American universities.
C. Private schools should change their standards of enrollment.
D. It is necessary to reform the graduate programs in America.
Have there always been cities? The trend is cities are increasingly becoming the dominant mode of man’s social existence. 【T1】It is virtually impossible to imagine that universities, hospitals, large businesses or even science and technology could have come into being without cities to support them, and cities have traditionally been the areas where there was a concentration of culture as well as of opportunity. 【T2】In recent years, however, people have begun to become aware that cities are also areas where there is a concentration of problems. Actually, long before this century started, there had begun a trend toward the concentration of the poor of the American society into the cities. Each great wave of immigration from abroad and from the rural areas made the problem worse. Within the cities, sections may be sharply divided into high and low rent districts, the \
解析：连词that引导从句that universities…support them，作动词imagine的宾语。连词or并列连接universities，hospitals，large businesses和science and technology这四项，共同在宾语从句中充当主语。介词短语without cities to support them作状语，修饰谓语could have come into being。come into being译为“形成，出现”。分句2是简单句，of culture和of opportunity并列，concentration译为“聚集地”。
解析：该句主干为people have begun to become aware that cities are also areas。become 在这里是系动词，译为“变得”。that cities are also areas是that引导的宾语从句。where there is a concentration of problems是where引导的定语从句．修饰限定areas．其中介词短语of problems作定语限定concentration。
解析：该句主干为one basic difference of opinion concerns the question。concern译为“涉及”。介词短语of whether…be preserved作后置定语，修饰限定the question。preserve译为“保护”。介词短语as such作定语，修饰限定the city。
解析：本句是一个并列句。分句1是复合句，主干为there is the objection。连词that引导同位语从句that the city has always been the core，其解释说明an objection。objection在此表示“反对”。from which引导定语从句from which cultural advancement has radiated，修饰限定the core。分句2是简单句，is this…the case today…是句子主干，in the presence of…是修饰today的介词短语，在此处作定语。
解析：本句是一个简单句，主干是we have proceeded to disagreement on specific goals，and to total inaction，这里连词and连接的两个短语proceeded to disagreement on specific goals 和to total inaction并列作谓语，但在第二个短语中省略了proceeded。proceed译为“推进，进行”，specific译为“具体的”，inaction译为“无行动，不作为”。介词短语from agreement on this general goal和from there都作状语，修饰proceeded。介词短语in the past作时间状语。
46. Write an email to your friend Jimmy to tell him about whether it is necessary to have English level test and how to prepare it efficiently.
You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET.
Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use \
I am writing to you in the hope that I may provide some suggestions for you about the English level test. As to whether to take the test, I’ d like to recommend you to take it for during the process, you can improve your English level.
With the increasing of the world globalization, English, as an international language, plays a more and more important role in the modern society. And whatever jobs you take, you need to have some knowledge of English. With regards to the preparation, to begin with, it is important to memorize certain amount of vocabularies. Besides, to understand the rules of the test by analyzing the past exam papers is also an essential part during the process.
I hope you will find these suggestions useful and I would be ready to discuss this matter with you to further details. I am looking forward to your reply.
47. Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay, you should
1) describe the drawing briefly,
2) explain its intended meaning, and
3) give your comments.
You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (20 points)
Here is a picture, interesting but with profound implication. As is vividly depicted in the photo, a youngster is playing weiqi with a computer, which successfully captures our eyes. After a closer watch, it is not difficult to find that the man seems confused about the game. Apparently, this photo subtly conveys the implication that nowadays human can hardly defeat computers. The increasing influences on our life are supposed to be given further analysis.
There is a general discussion over the Internet in recent years. Certainly, no one can doubt the essential fact that computers are becoming smarter. Naturally, it brings us both advantages and disadvantages. As for my part, the former outweighs its latter. On the top of list is that we can take the advantage of them to improve work efficiency. In addition, it is universally admitted that computers can replace humans to do hard and dangerous work in some situations.
According to the analysis above, it is advisable for us to take steps to promote the development of science and technology. Only in this way can we make the best value of computer and let it contribute to our life.