考研英语(二)模拟试卷186附答案解析

考研英语(二)模拟试卷186

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A new economics paper has some old-fashioned advice for people navigating the stresses of life: Find a spouse who is also your best friend. Social scientists have long known that 【C1】______ people tend to be happier, but they debate whether that is because marriage causes happiness or simply because happier people are more 【C2】______ to get married. The new paper, 【C3】______ by the National Bureau of Economic Research, controlled for pre-marriage happiness levels. It 【C4】______ that being married makes people happier and more satisfied 【C5】______ their lives than those who remain single—particularly during the most stressful periods, like 【C6】______ crises.

Even as fewer people are marrying, the disadvantages of remaining single have broad 【C7】______. It’s important 【C8】______ marriage is increasingly a force behind inequality. 【C9】______ marriages are more common among educated, high-income people, and increasingly out of reach for those who are not. That divide appears to【C10】______not just people’s income and family stability, but also their happiness and stress levels.

A quarter of today’s young adults will have never married by 2030, which would be the highest【C11】______in modern history, according to Pew Research Center.【C12】______both remaining unmarried and divorcing are more common among less-educated, lower-income people.【C13】______, high-income people still marry at high rates and are less likely to divorce.

Those whose lives are most difficult could【C14】______most from marriage, according to the economists who wrote the new paper, John Helliwell and Shawn Grover. \

1.【C1】(C)

A. single

B. engaged

C. married

D. divorced

解析:此处意为“社会科学家向来知道,______人士往往更幸福”。空格后面的because marriage causes happiness暗示此处应为“已婚人士”。故C.married符合题意.为正确答案。single“单身的”,engaged“订婚的”,divorced“离婚的”均不符合题意,故排除。

2.【C2】(B)

A. eager

B. likely

C. easy

D. excited

解析:此处意为“但对于这是因为婚姻带来了幸福,还是越幸福的人越______走进婚姻,他们意见不一”。be more likely to为固定搭配,意为“更可能”,符合题意,故B.likely为正确答案。be more eager to“更盼望,渴望”;easy要构成比较级前面不加more,直接用easier就可以;be more excited to“更兴奋”均不符合题意,故排除。

3.【C3】(D)

A. made

B. studied

C. found

D. published

解析:此处意为“美国国家经济研究局新近______的一篇论文,将婚前的幸福水平作为控制变量”。论文当然是被“发布,发表”,故D.published为正确答案。made“制作”,不与paper搭配;studied前面通常加研究结果;found前面也可加发现事物或研究观点。故此三项均不符合题意,排除。

4.【C4】(B)

A. denied

B. concluded

C. doubted

D. imagined

解析:此处意为“文章的______是,婚姻使人们比孑然一身者更幸福……”。it指代上一句的主语The new paper,故B.concluded“得出结论;推论出”符合题意,为正确答案。deny“否认”,doubt“怀疑”,imagine“想象”均不符合题意,故排除。

5.【C5】(A)

A. with

B. from

C. by

D. in

解析:此处意为“文章的结论是,婚姻使人们比孑然一身者更幸福.对生活更______”。satisfied with为固定搭配,意为“对……满意”,符合题意,故A.with为正确答案。其他三个介词均不符合题意,故排除。

6.【C6】(B)

A. financial

B. midlife

C. academic

D. quarterlife

解析:此处意为“……特别是在压力最大的时期,如______危机”。联系上下文,可知,本文主要围绕“婚姻与幸福”展开论述,再结合本段具体内容,可推知the most stressful periods应指“人生阶段中压力最大的时期”,中年时期,人不仅要赡养老人,还要照顾妻儿,是公认的压力最大的时期,故B.midlife“中年”为正确答案。financial“财政的,金融的”,academic“学术的”,quarterlife“四分之一人生,青年”不符合题意,故排除。

7.【C7】(C)

A. necessities

B. transmissions

C. implications

D. significances

解析:此处意为“尽管结婚的人减少了,但单身的弊端______广泛”。implication“可能引发的后果;影响”符合题意,故C.implications为正确答案。necessities“必需品”,transmissions“传送;传递;传播”,均不符合题意;significance“重要性。意义”不和disadvantage搭配,故排除。

8.【C8】(B)

A. when

B. because

C. so

D. if

解析:此处意为“这一点颇为重要,______婚姻越来越成了不平等背后的一个因素”。联系上下文可知,it指代上文的“尽管结婚的人减少了,但单身的弊端影响广泛”,it’s important与下半句构成因果关系。故B.because为正确答案。when“当……时候”,so“因此”,if“如果”,均不符合题意,故排除。

9.【C9】(A)

A. Stable

B. Normal

C. Constant

D. Poor

解析:此处意为“______的婚姻在受过教育的高收人人群中更普遍,而情况与之相反的人则越来越难获得稳定的婚姻”。联系末句的income and family stability和四个选项可知,stable“稳定的;稳固不变的”符合题意,为正确答案。normal“正常的”,constant“不断的,持续的”,poor“糟糕的”,均不符合题意,排除。

10.【C10】(A)

A. affect

B. promote

C. lower

D. control

解析:此处意为“这一差异______的似乎不仅是人们的收入和家庭的稳定,还有他们的幸福和压力状况”。affect“影响,使改变”符合题意,故A.affect为正确答案。promote“促进,提升”,lower“降低,减少”和control“控制”在原文都没有体现,故排除。

11.【C11】(D)

A. figure

B. rate

C. score

D. share

解析:此处意为“皮尤研究中心称,当下的年轻人中,有四分之一不会在2030年前结婚,这一比例将是现代历史上的最高______”。share“一份;(分担或应得的)一部分,份额”,在此处可意译为“水平”,故D.share为正确答案。figure“数字”一般不和high连用;rate“比率”和score“得分”均不符合题意,故排除。

12.【C12】(C)

A. Even

B. Still

C. Yet

D. And

解析:此处意为“______在受教育较少、收入较低的人群中,未婚和离异都更普遍”。根据上下文,可知此处与上文为转折关系,故C.Yet“但是”符合题意,为正确答案。Even“甚至”和Still“还是,仍然”表示递进关系,And“并且”表示并列关系,均不符合题意,故排除。

13.【C13】(A)

A. Educated

B. Intelligent

C. Dignified

D. Knowledgeable

解析:此处意为“______的高收入人群结婚的比例依然较高,离婚的可能性也更小”。根据上文的less-educated和lower-income people可知,此处需要填一个和less-educated相对的词,故A.Educated“受过教育的,有教养的”符合题意,为正确答案。Intelligent“聪明的,理解力强的”,Dignified“体面的,尊贵的”和Knowledgeable“博学的”均不符合题意,故排除。

14.【C14】(C)

A. steal

B. choose

C. benefit

D. suffer

解析:此处意为“这篇文章的作者是两名经济学家,他们认为生活最困难的人从婚姻中______最大”。benefit from“从……中获益”,符合题意,故C.benefit为正确答案。steal from“从……偷窃”,choose from“从……选择”,suffer from“遭受;受……之苦”,均不符合题意,故排除。

15.【C15】(A)

A. wrong

B. bad

C. great

D. well

解析:此处意为“当生活中出现了压力,有了______时,婚姻可能是最重要的”。go wrong“出毛病:发生故障”与and前的“出现了压力”对应,故A.wrong为正确答案。没有go great这一用法;go well表示“一切顺利”方向错误;go bad“变酸;开始腐坏”不符合题意,故排除。

16.【C16】(C)

A. Fortunately

B. Unexpectedly

C. Intriguingly

D. Surprisingly

解析:此处意为“______,婚姻带来的幸福远比蜜月期更长久”。此题可采用排除法。Fortunately“幸运地”明显不符合题意,排除。Unexpectedly“意外地”和Surprisingly“令人惊讶地”属于同义词,且表达的程度较强,故排除。Intriguingly“有趣的是”符合题意,故C.Intriguingly为正确答案。

17.【C17】(D)

A. Unless

B. Hence

C. Until

D. Though

解析:结合选项,可知此题考查逻辑关系。分析此句空格所在句可知,前半句在讲“幸福感是与生俱来的,后半句讲述“婚姻带来的益处会持续下去”两者暗含转折关系。选项中D.Though“虽然,不过”可表示转折语气,故D项为正确答案。Unless“除非”表示条件,Hence“因此”,Until“直到”,均不符合题意,故排除。

18.【C18】(A)

A. after

B. before

C. during

D. within

解析:此处意为“……因而在令人高兴或苦恼的事情______,人们会回归天生的幸福感。但研究人员发现,婚姻带来的益处会持续下去”。根据return to“回归”可知,应该是在令人高兴或苦恼的事情之后,故A.after符合题意,为正确答案。before“在……之前”,during“在……期间”,within“在……范围内”,均不符合题意,故排除。

19.【C19】(B)

A. option

B. reason

C. result

D. tendency

解析:此处意为“______之一或许是婚姻中的友谊所起的作用”。联系上下文,可知此句中的that指代上文的“婚姻带来的益处会持续下去”,二者是因果关系,故C.reason“原因”符合题意,为正确答案。option“选择,选项”,result“结果”,tendency“倾向,趋势”,均不符合题意,故排除。

20.【C20】(C)

A. believe

B. see

C. consider

D. regard

解析:此处意为“研究发现,______配偶或伴侣为至交的人,从婚姻中获得的生活满足感大约是其他人的两倍”。consider sb.to be为固定用法,意为“认为……是”符合题意.故C.consider符合题意,为正确答案。believe“相信,认为”一般加从句;see和regard的用法为see sb.as或regard sb.as,均不符合题意,故排除。

阅读理解

Gentz, a 34-year-old German who is a co-founder of Zalando—a European clone of Zappos, the online US shoes and fashion retailer owned by Amazon. He wanted to expand his company into the world’s largest digital market. But after the meetings with Chinese, Gentz decided China’s approach to online fashion was far ahead of anything available elsewhere. He marveled at how Chinese consumers freely chatted with—and bought from—brands and stylists on WeChat, a local Internet messenger, while online retailers, independent delivery companies and fashion houses routinely joined forces. We wanted to take that experience back to Europe, Gentz said.

Zalando’ s approach of borrowing from its Chinese counterparts represents a new strategy of looking East, not West, for inspiration. In overhauling its successful European online fashion store into a digital platform, Zalando differs from others trying to match Amazon and its logistics and technological prowess. The German company previously focused on handling all sales and inventory by itself. But in addition to selling directly to consumers, it now wants to remake itself into a digital shopping mall, allowing fashion houses and retailers to make sales as well, often with limited input from Zalando. These efforts are made in roughly a year.

Zalando’s inspiration from China, though, comes with challenges. Despite domestic dominance, Chinese players like Alibaba have yet to successfully replicate their business model overseas. Alibaba just has hired local country managers and brought its payment service to Europe, mostly to serve Chinese visitors. Online shopping habits in Europe also are somewhat different from those in China. And Amazon and European competitors, including ASOS and Yoox Net-a-Porter, may yet outmuscle Zalando with their traditional takes on e-commerce.

To compete with Amazon and others, Zalando has spent heavily on a network of logistics hubs that dot the European landscape. For Nicolas Borg, a Zalando strategy executive who previously worked at eBay, the next stage will most likely be chatbots, or humanlike interactions powered by artificial intelligence, to offer fashion advice to consumers on the likes of Facebook Messenger. \

21.After Gentz’s meeting with Chinese, the following aspect of Chinese way to online fashion makes Gentz feel so surprised EXCEPT that______.(C)

A. Chinese consumers can buy goods from stylists directly

B. Chinese consumers can communicate with designer freely

C. fashion companies have their own delivery companies

D. independent delivery companies cooperate with fashion companies

解析:细节题。根据题干关键词定位到文章第一段第三、四句But after the meetings….He marveled…。题干中surprised是原文关键词marveled的同义转换。A、B两项均是原文的同义改写,C项“时尚公司有自己的物流公司”与原文independent delivery companies and fashion houses routinely joined forces(独立的物流公司与时尚公司通力合作)表述不一致,D项内容与原文independent delivery companies and fashion houses routinely joined forces所表达意思一致,故本题选C。

22.According to Paragraph 2, what efforts have been made by Zalando in roughly a year?(D)

A. Expanding retailers.

B. Focusing on handling sales.

C. Concentrating on inventory.

D. Making a digital mode.

解析:细节题。根据题干关键词定位到文章第二段最后一句These efforts are made in roughly a year。该句前面内容为Zalando公司具体所做出的努力,A项“零售商的扩张”在文中并未提及。根据第二段倒数第三句The German company previously focused on handling all sales and inventory by itself及其关键词previously(先前地)可知,B、C两项所提内容为公司以前所注重的业务,均与题意不符。D项a digital mode是原文a digital platform的同义替换,故本题选D。

23.According to Paragraph 3, which of the following statements is NOT true?(D)

A. Alibaba has made a great achievement in China.

B. Alibaba’s foreign service is mainly for Chinese visitors.

C. Chinese online shopping habits are not similar to Europe’ s.

D. The competitors may make the Zalando suffer failure with the mode of digital platform.

解析:细节题。根据题干关键词定位到文章第三段。通过关键句Despite domestic dominance,Chinese players like Alibaba…可判断出A项正确。B项内容与原文一致。C项are not similar to与原文are somewhat different from所表达意思一致。D项意为“竞争者凭借数字平台这种模式打败Zalando”,而原文所阐述的方式是with their traditional takes on e-commerce,即“在电商领域的传统收入”,故本题选D。

24.The word \(B)

A. compete

B. conquer

C. connect

D. assist

解析:含义题。根据题干关键词定位到文中第三段最后一句…may yet outmuscle Zalando with their traditional takes on e-commerce(……也许会凭借在电商领域的传统收入打败Zalando)。A项意为“竞争”,B项意为“打败;攻克”,C项意为“与……联系”,D项意为“帮助;援助”,故本题选B。

25.According to Nicolas Borg, the next stage of the online fashion platform is becoming______.(B)

A. accessible

B. intelligent

C. global

D. independent

解析:细节题。根据题干关键词定位到文章第四段第二句For Nicolas Borg,…the next stage will most likely be chatbots,or humanlike interactions powered by artificial intelligence,to offer fashion advice to consumers on the likes of Facebook Messenger(尼古拉斯-博格认为下一个阶段极有可能是通过聊天机器人,或由人工智能实现的类似人类的互动,在脸谱网即时通之类平台上为消费者提供时尚建议),故B项“智能的”为正确答案。A项“易接近的”、C项“全球的”和D项“独立的”均与题意不符。

Parents should not assume that young children’s natural language abilities will lead to true grown-up language skills without a good deal of effort. Erika Hoff, a developmental psychologist who is a professor at Florida Atlantic University and the lead author of a 2015 review article on bilingual development, said: \

26.According to Professor Erika Hoff, when developing a bilingual child, parents______.(A)

A. ought to put great emphasis on language environment

B. need make no great efforts

C. should take their own background into consideration

D. might trust their children’ s innate language ability

解析:细节题。根据题干关键词定位到文章第一段最后一句。由关键信息requires massive exposure to that language可知,培养双语孩子需要孩子大量接触相关语言,把他们放在一定的语言环境中,因此A项正确。B项意为培养双语孩子“不需要做出努力”,而该段第一句则在强调孩子掌握成人语言技能需要做出努力,故错误。C项意为培养双语孩子需要“考虑背景”,由该段最后一句关键信息whatever your background(不管你的背景如何)可知,背景对培养双语孩子来说并不是主要因素,故错误。D项意为培养双语孩子父母“应相信孩子天生的语言能力”,并不需要做出其他努力,与首句表述相悖,故本题选A。

27.According to Paragraph 2, language exposure______.(A)

A. requires parents to communicate with their children

B. counts a little for children with one language

C. asks children to study language on their own

D. includes only content and vocabulary learning

解析:细节题。根据题干关键词定位到文章第二段。该段第一句talk as much as possible,..read to them and sing to them是对“语言接触”的具体说明,即父母应多和孩子交流,因此A项正确。B项意为语言接触对“掌握一种语言的孩子来说并不重要”,这与第二句a major concern even for children growing up with only one language(即便是对从小只使用一种语言的孩子来说,这都是非常重要的)相悖,故错误。C项意为语言接触“要求孩子自学语言”,其言外之意是孩子不需要与其他人交流就能学好语言,其与该段第三句the exposure has to be person-to-person(这种接触必须是面对面的)表述不一致,故错误。D项意为语言接触“仅包括内容和词汇的学习”,不符合题意,故本题选A。

28.Based on the information in Paragraph 3, the following are true EXCEPT______.(D)

A. even though they mix up two languages, children will not get confused

B. adult bilinguals’ language ability is weaker than that of children

C. children who study one language have a larger vocabulary than those with two languages

D. children cannot acquire two languages simultaneously

解析:细节题。根据题干关键词定位到文章第三段。A项意为“尽管孩子们混淆了两种语言,他们也不会感到困惑”,其与文中They may mix the languages,but that doesn’t indicate confusion(他们或许会把两种语言混合起来,但这并不意味着他们感到困惑)相符,故正确。B项意为“成人双语者的语言学习能力比小孩子弱”,根据该段最后一句Adult bilinguals mix their languages all the time(成人双语者总是混用语言)可知,该项正确。C项意为“学习一种语言孩子的词汇量大于学习双语的孩子”,其与该段第一句A child who is learning two languages will have a smaller vocabulary in each than a child who is only learning one(正在学习两种语言的孩子掌握的每一门语言的词汇量,少于只学习一种语言的孩子)相符,故正确。D项意为“孩子们没有同时习得两种语言的能力”,其与文中The children will be fine,though表述不一致,故本题选D。

29.The children in Dr. Hoff’s working place in South Florida are______.(B)

A. more proficient in English than the adults

B. better at English than Spanish when growing up

C. born into miserable families

D. unwilling to study Spanish

解析:细节题。根据题干关键词定位到文章第四段。该题A项意为“在南佛罗里达州,孩子比成人更精通英语”,该段第二、三句分别意为“孩子起初是双语婴儿,但随着年纪渐长,他们的英语水平会日益超过西班牙语”“即便成为优秀的成人双语者,他们的英语水平还是会比西班牙语高得多”。由此可知,作者并不是拿孩子的英语跟成人的英语进行对比,而是孩子长大成人后英语水平要高于西班牙语,故A项错误。C项意为孩子“出生在悲惨的家庭”,其与该段首句中educated and affluent(受教育且是富裕的)相悖,故错误。D项意为孩子“不愿意学习西班牙语”,虽然文中提到孩子“没去过用西班牙语授课的学校,没读过西班牙语书籍”,但其并不意味着他们不愿意学习西班牙语,故错误。B项意为孩子“长大后更擅长英语”,很明显符合文意,故本题选B。

30.In the following part immediately after this text, the author will most probably focus on______.(A)

A. methods for encouraging children to maintain language

B. Dr. Hoff’s view on children’ s learning languages

C. a vivid account of the children’ s language level in South Florida

D. reasons for children studying a specific language

解析:结构题。根据文章第四段最后一句“家长需要多想想用什么办法鼓励孩子一直拥有那种语言技能”可知,A项“鼓励孩子学习一直拥有语言技能的方法”正确,且整篇文章都是在讨论如何培养健康的双语宝宝,故本题选A。

SAN FRANCISCO—The attack had the hallmarks of something researchers had dreaded for years: malicious software using artificial intelligence that could lead to a new digital arms race in which A.I.-driven defenses battled A.I.-driven offenses while humans watched from the sidelines.

But what was not as widely predicted was that one of the earliest instances of that sort of mal-ware was found in India, not in a sophisticated British banking system or a government network in the United States. As India rushes to go online, it provides a fertile testing ground for hackers trying their skills in an environment where they can evade detection before deploying them against a company or state that has more advanced defenses. The cyberattack in India used malware that could learn as it was spreading, and altered its methods to stay in the system for as long as possible. Those were \

31.According to Paragraph 1, the new digital arms race is characterized by______.(D)

A. software’ s testing skill

B. malware’ s hacking

C. human’ s participation

D. artificial intelligence

解析:细节题。根据题干关键词定位到文章第一段后半句…a new digital arms race in which A.I.-driven defenses battled A.I.-driven offenses…,由此可知,D项“人工智能”符合文意。A项“软件的测试技术”、B项“恶意软件的入侵”和C项“人类的参与”均不符合题意,故本题选D。

32.According to Paragraph 2, India is a place where newer A.I. attacks might be seen for the first time, simply because it______.(B)

A. has high-speed Internet

B. possesses an ideal testing ground for those sorts of attacks

C. owns widespread internet penetration

D. lacks security infrastructure

解析:细节题。根据题干关键词定位到文章第二段第二句As India rushes to go online,it provides a fertile testing ground for hackers trying their skills…,其意为“由于印度急于上网,它已为黑客们提供了肥沃的试验场以测试自己的技术……”,故B项“为这种攻击提供了理想的测试场”为正确答案。A项“拥有高速互联网”、C项“大范围的互联网普及率”和D项“缺少安全的基础设施”均未在文中提及,故本题选B。

33.The following are the characteristics of malware used in cyberattack in India EXCEPT that______.(A)

A. it is not a full-fledged A.I.-driven piece of software

B. it can copy the action of the users to blend in

C. it can learn while it was in the system

D. it changes ways to remain undetected for as long as possible

解析:细节题。根据题干关键词定位到文章第二段。B项“模仿用户的行为以蒙混过关”与第二段末句中…mimic the behavior of the system’s users表述一致,其中B项中的copy是mimic的同义替换。C项“侵入系统后进行了自我学习”和D项“改变方法让自己尽可能长时间地不被发现”可从…could learn as it was spreading,and altered its methods to stay in the system for as long as possible中找到相关信息。A项“一个不完全由人工智能主导的软件”并未在原文中提及,故本题选A。

34.Compared with the companies elsewhere, the advantage of the ones in the United States is that they can______.(C)

A. use more than ten infrastructures from security firms

B. defense the attacks independently

C. rely on help from the federal government

D. cooperate with some susceptible victims

解析:细节题。根据题干关键词定位到文章第三段第二句While companies in the United States will often employ half a dozen security firms’products as defensive measures…,该句意为“美国的公司通常会使用六家安全公司的产品作为防御措施……”。由此可知,A项“能够使用来自安全公司的十多个基础设施”不符合原文表述。B项“独立地抵抗网络攻击”所指对象是其他地方的公司,并不是美国的公司,故不符合题意。D项“与许多易受伤害的对象进行合作”并未在原文中提及。由本段末句“美国的公司可以指望得到联邦政府的警告或帮助,而其他地方的公司往往只能靠自己去解决问题”可知,C项“依靠联邦政府的帮助”符合文意,故本题选C。

35.According to the last paragraph, the method cyberattack used against the central bank of Bangladesh is______.(A)

A. destroying the account on Swift

B. hacking into the bank’s computer system

C. stealing $81 million from the bank

D. mimicking the action of the network

解析:细节题。根据题干关键词定位到文章最后一段第三句attackers had taken advantage of…,该句意为“黑客通过破坏银行的Swift账户,利用了银行计算机系统以前不为人知的一个弱点”。由此可知,A项“破坏银行的Swift账户”符合文意,其中A项关键词destroy是undermine的同义替换。B项“入侵银行电脑系统\

UTOPIANISM in politics gets a bad press. The case against the grand-scale, state-directed kind is well known and overwhelming. Utopia, the perfect society, is unattainable, for there is no such thing. Remaking society in pursuit of an illusion not only fails, it leads swiftly to mass murder and moral ruin. So recent history grimly attests.

Although true, that is just half the story. Not all modern Utopians aim to seize the state in order to cudgel the rest of the world back to paradise. Plenty of gentler ones want no more than to withdraw from the mainstream and create their own micro-paradise with a few like-minded idealists. Small experiments in collective living swept America, for example, early in the 19th century and again late in the 20th.

Most failed or fell short. None lasted. All were laughed at. Yet in this intelligent, sympathetic history, Chris Jennings makes a good case for remembering them well. Politics stagnates, he thinks, when people stop dreaming up alternative ways of life and putting them to small-scale test.

Though with occasional glances forward, Mr. Jennings focuses largely on the 19th century. At least 100 experimental communes sprang up across the young American republic in the mid-1800s. Mr. Jennings writes about five exemplary communities: the devout Shakers, Robert Owen’s New Harmony, the Fourierist collective at Brook Farm, Massachusetts, the Icarians at Nauvoo, Illinois, inspired by a French proto-communist, Etienne Cabet, and the Oneida Community in New York state practising \

36.According to Paragraph 1, UTOPIANISM is______.(D)

A. popular in political field

B. easy to be achieved

C. a good social model

D. a fantasy

解析:细节题。根据题干关键词定位到文章第一段。A项意为乌托邦主义“在政治领域受欢迎”,其与第一句“乌托邦主义在政治上不是个好词”相悖,故错误。B项意为乌托邦主义“容易实现”,根据第三句关键词unattainable可知,乌托邦主义是“难以达到的”,故B项错误。C项意为乌托邦主义是“好的社会模式”,根据第三句关键词the perfect society可知,乌托邦是“完美的社会”,然而却是空想出来的,其更谈不上是“好的社会模式”,故C项错误。D项中的fantasy意为“幻想”,其是对第一段第四句关键词illusion的同义替换。故本题选D。

37.By saying \(B)

A. the story of UTOPIANISM is incomplete

B. there are some other Utopians who have different view towards UTOPIANISM

C. UTOPIANISM is just an illusion

D. the pursuit of UTOPIANISM is dangerous

解析:含义题。根据题干关键词定位到文章第二段。Although true,that is just half the story位于该段开头,具有承上启下的作用,即承接第一段中的信息,连接第二段中的内容。A项意为“乌托邦主义故事不完整”,其仅仅是对half the story的字面理解,忽略其深层含义,故错误。C项“乌托邦主义是幻觉”和D项“追求乌托邦主义是危险的”都是第一段中的信息,虽然正确,但并不是that is just half the story所包含的内容,均错误。总结第二段可知,很多温和派乌托邦主义者“只希望退隐俗世,和一群志同道合者建造一个属于自己的微型天堂”,由此可知,他们对乌托邦主义有自己的理解,故本题选B。

38.Chris Jennings thinks that UTOPIANISM______.(D)

A. can’t last long

B. embodies people’ s wisdom

C. deserves people’ s sympathy

D. plays an important part in promoting political development

解析:细节题。根据题干关键词定位到文章第三段。由第二段最后一句话及第三段前两句可知,collective living(群居)现象在美国并没有持续下来。A项意为乌托邦主义“并没有持续很长时间”,与原文有出入,故错误。B项乌托邦主义“象征人们的智慧”和C项乌托邦主义“值得人们的同情”分别是对第三段第三句前半部分关键词intelligent,sympathetic的同义转换,虽然正确,但它们是作者的具体陈述,并非是克里斯-詹宁斯的观点,故错误。由第三段第四句关键词stagnates(停滞)及下文信息可知,乌托邦主义“推动了政治的前进”,至少是人们在推动历史进程中所做的尝试,因此D项plays an important part in…(在……中扮演重要角色)正确,故本题选D。

39.Of the following points, which is NOT true about the Shakers?(C)

A. They believe in human progress.

B. They advocate to be single.

C. They symbolize the Holy Spirit.

D. They follow a special dance.

解析:细节题。根据题干关键词定位到文章第五段,该段详细介绍了震教徒派的情况。A项中human progress是对第五段第三句中human betterment的同义替换,即“震教徒相信人类的进步”,故正确。B项意为“震教徒提倡单身”,由该段第五句中关键词celibacy(独身)可知该项正确。D项意为“震教徒跳一种特别的舞”,其是对第五段最后一句关键词shaking dance的同义替换,故正确。C项意为“震教徒象征圣灵”,Holy Spirit一词出现在文章最后,结合该词前文可知“狂野而颤抖的舞蹈被看作是圣灵良性附身的征兆”,而非“震教徒象征圣灵”,因此该项错误,故本题选C。

40.In the following part immediately after this text, the author will most probably focus on______.(B)

A. a vivid description of the shaking dance

B. Robert Owen’ s New Harmony

C. the Fourierist collective

D. a detailed account of the Shakers’ other features

解析:结构题。由题干关键词the following part(接下来的部分)可知,该题考查的内容与第五段有别,而A项“颤抖舞蹈的生动描述”和D项“震教徒其他特征的具体描述”都是第五段的进一步扩展,故错误。由第四段内容可知,詹宁斯描述了5个典型的社区,前三个分别是虔诚的震教徒、罗伯特-欧文的新和谐村和傅立叶空想社会主义公社。而第五段描述了震教徒的具体特征,根据先后顺序可推出文章接下来将描述罗伯特-欧文的新和谐村,故本题选B。

[A] Pay for home health care, not nursing home

[B] Buy when it’ s inexpensive

[C] Go for a simple and souped-up policy

[D] Work with an independent agent

[E] Start with a budget

[F] Buy sooner, not later

[G] Plan realistically

Years from now many Baby Boomers will need help with the daily stuff of life, like dressing, bathing, eating or remembering to take medication. Regular health insurance, including Medicare, doesn’t pay for with these \

41.【R1】

F

解析:本部分首句是重点句,即The key to long-term care insurance is to apply early while it’s inexpensive(长期护理保险的关键是在费用便宜的时候尽早购买),这是作者引用专家的建议,因此答案将是B项和F项两者中的一个。后文提到在65岁以上的人群中,有28%的人因为健康原因被拒绝购买长期护理保险,作者继续引用专家的建议,认为“到了50岁就应购买长期护理保险”。由此可知,作者并不仅仅局限于费用的昂贵与便宜,而是强调了early,因此本题答案选F。

42.【R2】

D

解析:本部分第二句是重点句,即Work with an agent who can sell一notjust quote—policies from different carriers,作者以此告诉读者应如何挑选agent。而通读全段,作者表达的都是与agent相关的内容,因此本题答案选D。

43.【R3】

E

解析:本部分首句是重点句,作者引用布莱恩-戈登的话来表达观点,即Decide what you’re comfortable spending for coverage,其意为“决定你舒适的支出范围”,结合接下来的内容and ask the insurance agent for quotes that fit your budget(而且要求保险公司的报价符合你的预算)可知,该部分是在表达计划预算的必要性,因此本题答案选E。

44.【R4】

G

解析:本部分最后一句话是重点句,即Look at costs of care in your area to estimate how much coverage to buy,其意为“根据你所在地区的保险价格估算要买多少保险”。由此可知,作者意在找到一种费用更便宜的保险购买方法。本部分反复出现home health care和nursing home,因此考生容易误选A项。但是其要注意第三段的内容。第三段讲的是应该“根据你所在地区的医疗费用估算购买保险的范围”,因此本题答案选G。

45.【R5】

C

解析:本部分第二段第二句是重点句,即Keep it a good,simple,long-term care policy without all the bells and whistles,其是作者援引专家的话来论证自己的观点,出现了good,simple以及policy等词,因此Go for a simple and souped-up policy是正确选项。通读本部分的三个段落可知,作者想要寻找简单的、长期的保险项目,拒绝附加内容的保险项目,符合simple和souped-up的含义,因此本题答案选C。

翻译

46. On April 29th the Supreme Court ordered the next government to come up with a plan by the end of the year to reduce the amount of nitrogen dioxide (NO-2) in the atmosphere. The judgment could have big implications for several large infrastructure projects. It also suggests how dirty air is finally becoming a political issue.

The health effects of NO-2 have not yet been calculated for Britain, but are thought to be as potentially damaging as fine man-made particulate matter, says Gary Fuller. A report from a government advisory group in 2010 estimated that, if all fine particulate matter were removed from the atmosphere, it would increase the average life expectancy of those born in 2008 by six months.

Despite the mounting evidence of the harmful effect of dirty air, there has been little political desire to get it sorted. Politicians could often skirt the issue by pointing out that it was a Europe-wide problem.

4月29日,英国最高法院责令下届政府年底前制定旨在减少大气中二氧化氮含量的方案。这一裁决可能对几项大型基建工程产生巨大影响。同时,它也展现了环境污染最终上升为政治问题的过程。

据加里-富勒称,虽然英国目前尚未统计二氧化氮对国人身体健康的影响,但据估计,其潜在的损害威力堪比人工合成的细微颗粒物。政府某家顾问团在2010年发布的一项报告估计称,如果将大气中的细微颗粒物全部清除,那么2008年出生者的平均寿命会延长6个月。

空气混浊产生的危害日益显著,但政治方面很少显露出治理的意向。政治家们声称空气污染问题需要整个欧洲合力加以解决,其往往借此来逃脱问责。

解析:(1)该句主干为the Supreme Court ordered…to…。其中the Supreme Court为专有名词,译为“英国最高法院”。该句中考生需注意区分两个to的不同用法:第一个to为固定表达.即order sb.to do sth.;第二个to作整句的目的状语。

(2)fine有诸多含义,比如“优良的;细小的,精美的;健康的”,这里它与matter(物质)搭配,故译为“细小的”较为合适。根据语境,文中fine man-made particulate matter译为“细微颗粒物”。

(3)该句是以there开头的句子。despite译为“尽管;任凭”,后面只能跟名词(短语)或doing,相当于in spite of。翻译时,考生需将状语引导词翻译出来。此处代词it指代前文的harmful effect,其中get sorted译为“解决,处理”。

(4)固定搭配skirt the issue译为“避而不谈”,point out译为“指出,指明”。by引导方式状语,that引导的从句作point out的宾语。

作文

47. Write an email of about 100 words to a newspaper editor to advocate people to be responsible for their words on the Internet.

You should include the details you think necessary.

You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET.

Do not use your own name. Use \

Dear Sir / Madam,

I’m writing to advocate netizens to be responsible for their remarks on the Internet, especially microblogs. It’s noticed that some people publicize eye-catching opinions and even gossip about others to attract attention. I’m really worried about it. It’s understandable to compete for attention on the Internet because everyone likes the feeling of being the center of the world. However, the potential risks should not be ignored. The most serious one is that those who create rumors may commit a crime while the major characters in rumors will suffer emotionally. To prevent the risk from becoming a reality one day, netizens should be called on to examine their words carefully.

Yours sincerely,

Li Ming

解析:题目要求给报社编辑写一封倡议信,倡议大家要注意自己的网上言论。倡议信的作用是倡导某项活动,写作应注意以下几点:首先,内容应符合时代精神,切实可行;其次,要说明倡议的理由或重要性;最后,再次发出倡议。语言要措辞贴切,情感真挚,富有鼓动性。

48. Write an essay based on the following chart. In your writing, you should

1) interpret the chart, and

2) give your comments.

You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)

As is clearly reflected by the histogram, the chart records residents’ ways to access the Internet in a certain city, and the residents show totally different inclinations towards the issue of how to surf the web. Especially, in terms of using cellphones, they show the most obvious tendency that 70.6% of them prefer to surf the Internet with mobile phones.

Theoretically, several reasons may trigger the trend that a majority of netizens are prone to use mobile phones to get on the Net, but from my standpoint, the following two are of great importance. First of all, cellphones are equipped with various functions, including surfing the Internet whenever and wherever possible, along with the development of technology. Secondly, it is acknowledged that cellphones are more portable than computers and notebooks, which allows us to take them along and use them unrestrictedly.

All in all, with the advancement of technology, the way of surfing the web is becoming increasingly various. Each way should be respected. Meanwhile we shouldn’t be addicted to surfing the web.

解析:本题是关于某市居民上网方式调查的柱状图。图表反映的是某市居民上网方式的选择差异。考生可分三段写作。第一段描述柱状图信息;第二段分析出现这种上网趋势的原因;第三段总结全文。文章布局不难,考生选词和遣句时要注意多样化。

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