考研英语(二)模拟试卷188附答案解析

考研英语(二)模拟试卷188

完形填空

Despite the temptation for parents to say yes to their children’ s wishes, research shows there’ s an insidious side to chasing after the newest thing others have. It【C1】______a sense of deficiency that can never be fully 【C2】______. First they want the doll, then all of the accessories.

And so I’ve taken on the work of saying no sometimes. At first, not surprisingly, my daughters, aged 4 and 9,【C3】______. They called me a bad father and I got plenty of 【C4】______ looks. But over time, they realized the 【C5】______ that comes from a no. Now my daughters pretend that their Elsa doll plays with a package of Shopkins, 【C6】______ gives both toys a second, and better, life.

It 【C7】______ out that saying no pays off far beyond avoiding raising spoiled kids. When we always 【C8】______ to our children’ s wants, we rob them【C9】______the opportunity to find solutions by adapting what they already have. Kids who learn from【C10】______realize at an early age that they won’t always have the perfect tool for every job.

Youngsters are naturally【C11】______. Give toddlers a frying pan and all sorts of uses come to their minds.【C12】______, as adults, we’re stuck using it to make a stir-fry. Many years of chasing after things we don’t need【C13】______our own ability to make more out of what we already have. It also【C14】______a bad example for our kids.

Each time we acquiesce to our kids’ latest【C15】______to buy something, we subtly condition them that their resources have limited uses. An occasional veto will【C16】______them, in this case literally, to think outside the box. Many people who grow up without much recognize【C17】______as an essential skill to get by. Those of us fortunate to live in relative abundance can【C18】______from occasionally experiencing scarcity. To be sure, I’m not suggesting denying children a generous supply of things they actually need like healthy meals, warm clothes and love. But plenty of wishes we cater to teach the【C19】______message. By having children occasionally experience scarcity, we can help them solve problems more【C20】______.

1.【C1】(A)

A. fosters

B. overstates

C. emphasizes

D. allows

解析:本句意为“它会______一种不满足感”。第一段首句指出“父母总是想满足孩子的愿望,但研究显示,追求其他人所拥有的最新的东西存在有害的一面”。it指代首句提到的这种现象。结合文意,空格处应该选择表示“导致,引起”意思的词,只有A项foster“产生;促进”符合题意。overstate“夸大”、emphasize“重点强调”和allow“允许”均与题意不符。

2.【C2】(B)

A. described

B. satisfied

C. shared

D. explained

解析:本句意为“它会产生一种不满足感,这种感觉永远都无法______”。该句是由that引导的定语从句,修饰先行词deficiency。空格处所填动词应与“感觉”构成动宾关系。根据下文关键信息“他们先是想要一个娃娃,然后是各种装饰品”可知,孩子是永远无法得到满足的,因此satisfy“满足”符合题意。describe“描述”、share“分享”和explain“解释”均与题意不符。

3.【C3】(A)

A. revolted

B. accepted

C. ignored

D. resumed

解析:本句意为“起初,果不其然,我的两个女儿——一个四岁,一个九岁——______”。第二段首句作者提到“我开始时不时地说不”,通过not surprisingly和下文的called me a bad father可知,女儿们对父亲说不的行为表示不接受。故A项revolt“反抗”符合题意。accept“接受”,resume“重新修订”均与题意不符。通过下文可知,孩子们与父亲之间仍旧存在互动,故ignore“忽视”过于绝对化,与题意不符。

4.【C4】(D)

A. good

B. curious

C. mysterious

D. mean

解析:本句意为“她们叫我坏爸爸,经常用______的眼神看我”。该句是由and连接的并列句,故空格处所填形容词的感情色彩应与前文一致,因此mean“埋怨的”符合题意。good“愉悦的”、curious“好奇的”和mysterious“神秘的”均与题意不符。

5.【C5】(C)

A. trouble

B. problem

C. fun

D. boredom

解析:本句意为“但随着时间的流逝,她们意识到了来自反对的______”。通过转折连词but可知,空格处所填词应与上文bad的感情色彩相反,故C项fun“乐趣”为正确答案。trouble“麻烦;烦恼”、problem“问题”和boredom“厌烦”均与题意不符。

6.【C6】(A)

A. which

B. that

C. who

D. what

解析:本题考查非限定性定语从句,关系代词在从句中作主语,故A项which正确。that和who不能引导非限定性定语从句,what引导名词性从句,作主语或者宾语。

7.【C7】(B)

A. comes

B. turns

C. goes

D. works

解析:本句意为“______,说‘不’的好处远不仅限于可以避免培养出被宠坏的孩子”,联系上下文,turn out“结果是;事实证明”符合句意。come out“出来;出现”、go out“熄灭”和work out“解决”均与题意不符。

8.【C8】(C)

A. meet

B. lead

C. yield

D. contribute

解析:本句意为“如果一味______孩子的需求,我们就剥夺了他们通过改造已有的东西找到解决办法的机会”。通过句意可知,空格处所填动词应有“满足”含义且与to构成固定搭配。yield to“屈服于;同意”符合题意,为正确答案。A项meet“满足”为及物动词,后直接加宾语,故不符合题意。lead to“导致”和contribute to“有助于”均不符合该题语境。

9.【C9】(A)

A. of

B. for

C. to

D. from

解析:本题考查rob的搭配。rob sb.of sth.意为“抢走某人某物”。其他介词for、to、from均不能与rob构成搭配关系,故排除。

10.【C10】(D)

A. punishment

B. satisfaction

C. praise

D. denial

解析:本句意为“从______吸取教训的孩子会早早意识到,他们不会永远都具备完美的可适用于每一份工作的工具”。通过上文可知,本段在阐述说“不”,即拒绝孩子要求的好处。故排除satisfaction“满足”和praise“赞扬”。punishment泛指“各种惩罚或处罚”,诸如法律、老师的惩罚等。把拒绝孩子要求的行为看成惩罚,感情色彩过重。故D项denial“拒绝,否认”符合题意。

11.【C11】(A)

A. resourceful

B. complicated

C. conservative

D. troublesome

解析:本句意为“小孩子天生______”。空格处所需形容词应描述小孩子与生俱来的某种特质。根据下文“给咿呀学步的孩子一个煎锅,他们会想到各种各样的用途”可推断出,孩子天生足智多谋,是机敏的,故A项为正确答案。complicated“复杂的”、conservative“保守的”和troublesome“麻烦的”均不符合题意。

12.【C12】(C)

A. Indeed

B. Hence

C. However

D. Therefore

解析:本句意为“______,作为成年人,我们却局限于用它来炒菜”。上文提到“小孩子天生足智多谋。给咿呀学步的孩子一个煎锅,他们会想到各种各样的用途”,所以孩子与成年人在同样一件东西上的想象力不同,故前后两句之间存在转折关系,形成对比,However“然而”符合题意。Therefore,Hence“因此”表示因果关系,Indeed“的确,确实”表示强调,均与题意不符。

13.【C13】(C)

A. develops

B. demonstrates

C. erodes

D. cultivates

解析:本句意为“多年追求自己并不需要的东西,______了我们更充分地利用已有资源的能力”。联系上文“给成年人一个煎锅,我们却局限于用它来炒菜”可知,空格处所填动词应具有否定意义,故erode“削弱”为正确答案。develop、cultivate与ability搭配,均有“培养”之意;demonstrate意为“展示;展现”均与题意不符。

14.【C14】(A)

A. sets

B. gives

C. follows

D. takes

解析:本句意为“也给孩子们______不好的榜样”。give example“举出实例”,follow example“效仿”不符合语义,故排除。take sth.for example意为“以某事物来举例”,take无法与exampie直接搭配。set an example for sb.意为“给某人树立榜样”,根据固定搭配关系可知,A项为正确答案。

15.【C15】(A)

A. request

B. opinion

C. option

D. expression

解析:本句意为“每当同意给孩子买某样东西的最新______时,我们都在隐约让他们习惯自己的智谋用处有限”。acquiesce to意为“默许;勉强同意”,故request“请求”正确。通过句意可知,opinion“建议”、option“选择”和expression“表达”均与题意不符。

16.【C16】(C)

A. stop

B. control

C. compel

D. interfere

解析:本句意为“在这里就是字面上的意思,偶尔的反对会______他们跳出固有的思维模式”。联系上下文可知,作者对偶尔拒绝孩子的要求持支持态度。因此,C项compel“强迫:迫使”为正确答案。stop“阻止”、control“控制”和interfere“干涉;妨碍”均与文意不符。

17.【C17】(D)

A. idea

B. thought

C. intelligence

D. resourcefulness

解析:本句意为“很多在成长过程中拥有的东西并不多的人意识到,______是一项重要的技能,能够让他们利用已有的东西解决问题”。此处much作名词,表示“许多东西”。联系上文可知,作者一直强调resourcefulness(足智多谋)的重要性,故D项为正确答案。A项“观点”、B项“想法”和C项“智力”表示范围太大,且在文中均未提及。

18.【C18】(A)

A. benefit

B. suffer

C. recover

D. keep

解析:本句意为“我们当中那些生活相对富足的幸运儿,可能会从偶尔经历物质短缺中______”。通过句意可知,benefit from“受益”为正确答案。suffer from“遭受”、keep sth.from“阻止”和recover from“痊愈,恢复”均与题意不符。

19.【C19】(C)

A. right

B. timely

C. wrong

D. beneficial

解析:本句意为“但我们满足他们的很多愿望,教给他们的是______信息”。联系下文“通过让孩子偶尔经历短缺,我们可以帮助……”可知,不断满足孩子愿望是有害的,故空格处应填表示否定性质的词。故wrong“错误的”为正确答案。right“正确的”、timely“及时的”和beneficial“有益的”均与题意不符。

20.【C20】(C)

A. naturally

B. wholeheartedly

C. effectively

D. slowly

解析:本句意为“通过让孩子偶尔经历短缺,我们可以帮助他们更______解决问题”。通过上文关键信息“偶尔的反对会强迫他们跳出固有的思维模式”可知,effectively“有效地”符合语义。其他选项均可与solve problems搭配,但wholeheartedly“全心全意地”和naturally“自然地”与题意无关。

阅读理解

Like a tired marriage, the relationship between libraries and publishers has long been reassuringly dull. E-books, however, are causing heartache. Libraries know they need digital wares if they are to remain valuable, but many publishers are too wary of piracy and lost sales to co-operate. Among the big six, only Random House and HarperCollins license e-books with most libraries. The others have either denied requests or are reluctantly experimenting. In August, for example, Penguin will start a pilot with public libraries in New York.

Electronic borrowing is awfully convenient. Unlike printed books, which must be checked out and returned to a physical library miles from where you live, electronic book files can be downloaded at home. Digital library catalogues are often browsed at night, from a comfy sofa. The files disappear from the device when they are due (which means no late fees, nor angst about lost or damaged tomes).

E-lending is not simple, however. There are lots of different and often incompatible e-book formats, devices and licences. Most libraries use a company called OverDrive, a global distributor that secures rights from publishers and provides e-books and audio files in every format. Some 35 million titles were checked out through OverDrive in 2011, and the company now sends useful data on borrowing behavior to participating publishers. Yet publishers and libraries are worried by OverDrive ‘ s market dominance, as the company can increasingly dictate fees and conditions.

Publishers were miffed when OverDrive teamed up with Amazon, the world’ s biggest online bookseller, last year. Owners of Amazon’s Kindle e-reader who want to borrow e-books from libraries are now redirected to Amazon’s website, where they must use their Amazon account to secure a loan. Amazon then follows up with library patrons directly, letting them know they can \

21.The introduction of Random House, HarperCollins, Penguin, Hachette in the last paragraph is to______.(A)

A. find the most appropriate balance

B. adjust their lending arrangements

C. contribute to the Britain government

D. show the story of the library e-book

解析:细节题。根据题干关键词in the last paragraph定位到第五段。该段第二、三、四句指出“兰登书屋在今年早些时候提高了授权价格,哈珀柯林斯出版社限制图书馆借阅条目的次数为26次。在企鹅出版社的计划中,新书从出版后到进入图书馆,至少要等六个月的时间,且一年后就到期。阿歇特出版社正在进行一些秘密实验……”,这些出版社的举措是对该段第一句“因此出版商在不断微调它们的借阅合约以找到最恰当的平衡点”的具体说明。它们的举措是在“不断微调它们的借阅合约”,而目的是“找到最恰当的平衡点”,故排除B,A项为正确答案。C项“为英国政府做出贡献”和D项“展示电子图书馆的故事”均是对原文的曲解,故排除。

22.Judging from the context, the word \(B)

A. excited

B. annoyed

C. worried

D. delighted

解析:含义题。根据题干关键词“miffed”(Para.4)定位到第四段。通读文章可知,第四段是对第三段的进一步延伸,第三段最后一句“因为OverDrive公司可以提高授权费用和条件,所以这家公司的市场占有率让出版商和图书馆担忧”承上启下,所以miffed应与worded“担忧”同义,但程度更深。miffed是形容词,意为“有点儿恼火,有点儿不高兴”,即slightly angry or upset,同义词是annoyed,故B项为正确答案。A项“激动的,兴奋的”、C项“担心的”和D项“高兴的”均不正确。

23.OverDrive’ s market dominance makes publishers and libraries feel anxious because______.(D)

A. OverDrive protects rights from publishers

B. OverDrive offers e-books and audio files

C. OverDrive borrows useful data and sends them

D. OverDrive raises licensing prices and conditions

解析:细节题。根据题干关键词OverDrive’s market dominance定位到第三段。由该段最后一句“因为OverDrive公司可以提高授权费用和条件,所以这家公司的市场占有率让出版商和图书馆担忧”可知,题目中的because和raises licensing prices分别是原文as和increasingly dictate fees的同义替换,故D项为正确答案。A项“OverDrive公司保护出版商的版权”和B项“OverDrive公司提供电子书和音频文件”虽然符合文意,但不是题干所找的原因。C项“OverDrive公司借有用的数据并输出”是对原文第三段倒数第二句的曲解,也不是题干所找的原因。

24.We can learn from the passage that printed books______.(C)

A. can save you a considerable amount of time

B. cannot be browsed at night, from a comfy sofa

C. may produce late fee as they expire

D. won’t be lost or broken especially great works

解析:细节题。根据题干关键词printed books定位到第二段。由Unlike printed books和The files disappear from the device when they are due(which means no late fees,nor angst about lost or damaged tomes)可知,印刷版书籍文件可能因为到期未还而产生滞纳金,故C项为正确答案。A项“(印刷版书籍)会节省你大量的时间”不符合第二段第二句“印刷版书籍需要去离家几英里外的实体图书馆借阅和还书。与印刷版书籍不同,电子书籍文件在家就可以下载”。原文第二段第三句指出“人们常在晚上坐在舒适的沙发上浏览数字图书馆目录”,而并没有涉及印刷版书籍,所以B项“(印刷版书籍)不能在晚上坐在舒适的沙发上浏览”在文中没有提及。D项“(印刷版书籍)不会丢失或损坏,尤其是伟大的作品”是对原文第二段最后一句的过度推断。不符合文意。

25.According to the first paragraph, which of the following is true?(D)

A. E-books make the relationship between libraries and publishers boring.

B. Book digitization is certain to cause piracy and lost sales.

C. Random House and HarperCollins are not willing to co-operate.

D. Penguin is reluctantly experimenting.

解析:细节题。根据题干关键词the first paragraph可定位到第一段。由最后一句的In August,for example,Penguin will start a pilot with public libraries可知,Penguin是对前面的举例说明。倒数第二句指出either denied requests or are reluctantly experimenting,所以可知Penguin的情况符合后者,即“勉强进行试用”,故D项为正确答案。A项“电子书让图书馆和出版商之间的关系无聊”不符合第一句的has long been reassuringly dull“长期存在着无聊的(关系)”。B项“图书数字化一定会引起盗版和失去销量的问题”太过绝对。C项“兰登书屋和哈珀柯林斯出版社不愿意合作”不符合第三句的only Random House and HarperCollins license e-books with most libraries,故排除。

[A] Monitor your alcohol use

[B] Pay attention to table manners

[C] Don’ t be a gossip

[D] Network with higher-ups

[E] Keep the conversation light

[F] Dress appropriately

[G] Make new friends

For young workers, holiday parties can be a wonderful opportunity to celebrate a successful year gone by, catch up with colleagues and hobnob with senior executives to try to get ahead. But a host of challenges confront young employees—from figuring out whom to bring to walking the fine line between being friendly and being flirty. Some do’ s and don’ ts when it comes to these events:

【R1】______

If you’re new to the company, talk to co-workers who have attended previous office functions to get a sense of what you should wear. Dress conservatively, not \

26.【R5】

A

解析:本题所在之处含有两段,根据第一段中的However,just because alcohol is free-flowing at the bar doesn’t mean you should take that as a license to reprise your college frat parties(然而吧台提供可畅饮的酒水并不意味着你可以像在大学联谊会里那样醉醺醺)和第二段最后一句“No.1 rule is:Don’t drink too much,monitor your altohol intake.Usually,one or two drinks is plenty.”(首要原则是,不要喝太多,控制你的酒精摄入量。通常小酌一两杯足矣。)可知A项“不要过度饮酒”符合题意,为正确答案。

27.【R4】

D

解析:本题所在之处含有两段,根据第一段中的don’t pass up the opportunity to meet these people,who could be interviewing you when you’re up for your next promotion.(不要错过与这些人面对面的机会,因为说不定你下一次晋升时他们就会坐在面试官的位置上)和第二段中的Afterward,if you feel like you connected with someone senior,send them a follow-up email saying it was nice to meet them(之后如果你感觉自己和高管们已建立起联系。记得发一封电子邮件向他们表达结识的荣幸),可知D项“高层友谊要建立”,符合题意,为正确答案。

28.【R3】

C

解析:通读全段,不难发现:本段主要讲述了金贝尔先生的建议。即本段第一句While it’s fun to indulge in rumors about colleagues,you don’t want to be known as the person who’s always spreading juicy gossip.“聊同事们的八卦也许的确很有意思,但你不能给人留下喜欢到处传闲话的印象”。故C项“同事八卦要避免”符合题意,为正确答案。

29.【R2】

E

解析:全段由两句话构成,均是芭芭拉-帕赫特给出的建议。本段首句的steer clear of意为“避免,绕开”,全句意为“专家建议要避免谈论类似解雇、工资冻结这种煞风景的话题”。故本段的中心思想为在公司节日聚会上,我们应该谈论些轻松愉快的话题,避免一些敏感和负面的话题。故E项“聊天内容要轻松”符合题意,为正确答案。

30.【R1】

F

解析:通读全段,不难发现本段的主题是“作为新人,初次参加公司的节日盛会,在着装方面应注意什么”。其中Dress conservatively,not“like you’re going to a club in Vegas”和But, he adds,don’t take it“to the point where(you’re) wearing a suit where everybody else is wearing jeans.”更是直接点题。因此F项“着装要得体”符合题意,为正确答案。

How best to solve the pollution problems of a city sunk so deep within sulfurous clouds that it was described as hell on earth? Simply answered: Relocate all urban smoke-creating industry and encircle the metropolis of London with sweetly scented flowers and elegant hedges.

In fact, as Christine L. Corton, a Cambridge scholar, reveals in her new book, London Fog, this fragrant anti-smoke scheme was the brainchild of John Evelyn, the 17th-century diarist. King Charles II was said to be much pleased with Evelyn’ s idea, and a bill against the smoky nuisance was duly drafted. Then nothing was done. Nobody at the time, and nobody right up to the middle of the 20th century, was willing to put public health above business interests.

And yet it’ s a surprise to discover how beloved a feature of London life these multicolored fogs became. A painter, Claude Monet, fleeing besieged Paris in 1870, fell in love with London’s vaporous, mutating clouds. He looked upon the familiar mist as his reliable collaborator. Visitors from abroad may have delighted in the fog, but homegrown artists lit candles and vainly scrubbed the grime from their gloom-filled studio windows. \

31.There were plane trees everywhere in London because they______.(A)

A. could resist fog and haze

B. were related to social history

C. contained a wealth of eccentric detail

D. were shiny and beautified the environment

解析:细节题。根据题干关键词定位到第六段。该段第二句指出“我们从中读到,伦敦之所以到处都有法国梧桐,主要是因为它们闪闪发亮的叶片能够抵御雾霾”,故A项“能够抵御雾霾”为正确答案,其中原文的for表明前后是因果关系,且原因在后。B项“与社会历史有关”、C项“包含丰富的古怪轶闻”和D项“闪闪发亮并能美化环境”均不是题干的原因,故排除。

32.The author mainly shows in the last but one paragraph that______.(D)

A. Great Killer Fog led to huge mortality

B. The British press was also playing a big role

C. It was a long way for Clean Air Act to be passed

D. reducing the air pollution worked though it was in the primary stage

解析:细节题。根据题干关键词定位到倒数第二段。该段前两句指出两个为治理雾霾而努力的具体事件,第三句做总结,指出“短短几年之内,虽然反对污染的战斗还处于初级阶段,但可怕的浓雾已经开始退去”。故D项“尽管处于初期,但减少空气污染奏效了”为正确答案。A项“‘杀人大雾’导致巨大的死亡”和C项“通过《空气清洁法案》曾是一个漫长的过程”只是表层示例。B项“英国媒体也发挥了重要作用”并不是作者主要想表达的内容。

33.Which of the following would be most heavily affected by London’ s pollution according to Corton’ s book?(C)

A. Rich dwellers in the east.

B. The underclass in the west.

C. East London’ s slum dwellers.

D. Servants of furnace owners.

解析:推断题。根据题干关键词定位到第四段。根据该段第二句A prevailing westerly wind meant that those dwelling to the east were always at most risk可知,由于风向,住在东边的人受污染的影响更大。所以排除B项。再结合第三句Those who could afford it lived elsewhere可知有钱人会搬家,故A项不符合。因此C项“东伦敦的贫民区居民们”为污染影响最严重的群体,为正确答案。D项“大熔炉主人们的佣人”在原文并没有提及。

34.The word \(B)

A. fog

B. dirt

C. frost

D. paint

解析:含义题。根据题干关键词定位到第三段。该段第二句提到London’s vaporous,mutating clouds“伦敦蒸汽缭绕、如同变异的雾霭”,再结合第一段的sulfurous clouds“硫黄雾霾”和urban smoke-creating industry“城市里所有制造浓烟的工业”可知,在画室窗上的是煤尘污垢。故B项“污垢;灰尘”为正确答案。A项“雾”、C项“霜”和D项“颜料,涂料;绘画作品”均不符合题意,故排除。

35.Which of the following can be inferred from Paragraph 2?(D)

A. The fragrant anti-smoke scheme was inspired by John Evelyn’s child.

B. King Charles II was not actually satisfied with Evelyn’ s idea.

C. The process of drafting the bill against the smoky nuisance was slow.

D. It wasn’t until the middle of the 20th century that someone willingly put public health above commercial interests.

解析:推断题。根据题干关键词定位到第二段。根据该段最后一句Nobody at the time,and nobody right up to the middle of the 20th century,was willing to put public health above business interests.可知,20世纪中叶之前,没有人愿意把公共健康置于商业利益之上。由此可推断出D项“直到20世纪中叶才有人愿意把公共健康置于商业利益之上”为正确答案,D项运用了强调句和not until,反向推断可能发生的现象。A项“芬芳抗烟方案的灵感来自约翰-伊夫林的孩子,原文只是说“芬芳抗烟方案是17世纪日记作家约翰-伊夫林的想法”,所以A项错误。B项“查理二世国王其实不满意伊夫林这个点子”与原文的much pleased with相反。C项“拟定抗烟雾公害法案的过程比较慢”与原文的duly“按时地:适当地”不符。

As a wise man once said, we are all ultimately alone. But an increasing number of Europeans are choosing to be so at an ever earlier age. This isn’t the stuff of gloomy philosophical contemplations, but a fact of Europe’s new economic landscape, embraced by sociologists, real-estate developers and ad executives alike. The shift away from family life to solo lifestyle, observes a French sociologist, is part of the \

36.What is the author’s purpose in writing the passage?(C)

A. To review the impact of women becoming high earners.

B. To contemplate the philosophy underlying individualism.

C. To examine the trend of young people living alone.

D. To stress the rebuilding of personal relationships.

解析:主旨题。本文主要是关于新一代的年轻人受到社会和经济的影响更加趋于独自生活的原因。作者主要讨论欧洲大陆单身化趋势、单身族的特征以及选择单身的原因。C项“审视年轻人单独生活的趋势”很好地概括了这一内容,故正确。其他三项均概括不正确,不能体现作者的意图。

37.The author quotes Eppendorf to show that______.(A)

A. some modern women prefer a life of individual freedom

B. the family is no longer the basic unit of society in present-day Europe

C. some professional people have too much work to do to feel lonely

D. most Europeans conceive living a single life as unacceptable

解析:推断题。文中最后一段引用Eppendoff的话说“I’ve always done what I wanted to do:live a self-determined life.”(我只做自己想做的,过自己做主的生活),这说明了新单身族的生活主张。故A项“一些现代女性喜欢自由自在的生活”正确。B项属于过度推断。C项与这个例子无关。D项与文意不符。

38.According to Para. 3, the newest group of singles are .(D)

A. warm and lighthearted

B. on either side of marriage

C. negative and gloomy

D. healthy and wealthy

解析:推断题。根据第三段最后一句“They were young,beautiful,strong!Now,young people want to live alone.”(他们年轻,漂亮,强壮!现在年轻人喜欢单独生活)及第三段第二句中的“the newest crop of singles are high earners in their 30s and 40s who increasingly view living alone as a lifestyle choice.”(最新的单身者是那些越来越多的选择独身生活的三四十岁的高收人群体),可以得知D项“健康、富有的”是新一代单身族的特征。A项“热情、愉快的”不正确。第三段第一句提到“Once upon a time,people who lived alone tended to be those on either side of marriage…”(从前,单身生活的人要么是未婚,要么是曾经结过婚……),因此,B项要么是未婚,要么是曾经结过婚,是指过去的单身族,不是指新一代的单身族。C项“消极、阴郁的”,也是指过去的单身生活。

39.What is said about European society in the passage?(B)

A. It has fostered the trend towards small families.

B. It is getting closer to American-style capitalism.

C. It has limited consumer choice despite a free market.

D. It is being threatened by irresistible privatization.

解析:细节题。第二段第二句话提到“The current generation of home-aloners came of age during Europe’s shift from social democracy to the sharper,more individualistic climate of American-style capitalism.”(现在单身生活的这一代人成年时,欧洲正处在由社会民主向更加鲜明,个人气息更浓的美式资本主义转换的时代。)即欧洲正在向美式资本主义转变。因此,B项“它越来越接近美式资本主义”正确。其他三项均属于文中未提及的内容。

40.More and more young Europeans remain single because______.(A)

A. they are driven by an overwhelming sense of individualism

B. they have entered the workforce at a much earlier age

C. they have embraced a business culture of stability

D. they are pessimistic about their economic future

解析:推断题。通过第一段第三句“The shift away from family life to solo lifestyle,observes a French sociologist,is part of the‘irresistible momentum of individualism’”(从家庭生活向单身生活方式的转变是个人主义不可阻挡的潮流的一部分。)可以推断出人们的这种选择是受到整个社会的这种趋势的影响,故A项“他们被压倒性的个人主义驱使”正确。

In a famous lab trial, a chimp named Sultan put two interlocking sticks together and pulled down a bunch of bananas hanging just out of arm’s reach. Nearly a century later, eager tourists have conducted their own version of the experiment. Equipped with the camera extender known as a selfie stick, they can now reach for flattering CinemaScope selfies wherever they go.

Art museums have watched this development nervously, fearing damage to their collections or to visitors, as users swing their sticks. Now they are taking action. One by one, museums across the United States have been imposing bans on using selfie sticks for photographs inside galleries (adding them to existing rules on umbrellas, rucksacks, tripods and monopods), yet another example of how controlling overcrowding has become part of the museum mission.

The Hirshhorn Museum in Washington prohibited the sticks this month, and the Museum of Fine Arts in Houston plans to impose a ban. In New York, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, which has been studying the matter for some time, has just decided that it, too, will forbid selfie sticks. \

41.Selfie sticks have been banned in case of all the following problems EXCEPT______.(C)

A. invasion of personal space

B. damage to the artwork

C. waste of printed guidelines

D. danger to camera users

解析:细节题。根据题干关键词定位到第四、五段。第四段“其他游客的私人空间只是其中一个问题,艺术品则是另一个问题”承上启下,涵盖了使用自拍杆带来的两个问题,A、B两项分别进行了概括。第五段首句是该段的中心句,指出带来的问题还有“自拍杆对使用者同样有威胁”,D项也是问题之一。C项“浪费纸质游客指南”文章没有提到,为正确答案。

42.According to Sree Sreenivasan, when selfie-stick users take pictures, they______.(B)

A. should keep quiet

B. may be easily distracted

C. cannot stretch arms three times

D. capture the shots of balconies and stairs

解析:细节题。根据题干关键词定位到第三、五段。Sree Sreenivasan出现在第三段后半部分,他说you will be asked quietly to put it away“我们将委婉地请求你把它(自拍杆)收起来”,此处的quietly指“委婉地、平和地”,故A项“(他们)应该保持安静”不符合文意。第三段末句中的three times指“(但是如果你伸出的东西是胳膊的)三倍”,而C项指的是“……(伸出胳膊)三次”,故排除。第五段最后也出现了Mr.Sreenivasan,此处他说明如果人们用自拍杆时不留神就会摔倒或被绊倒。故B项“(人们)可能容易分散注意力”为正确答案。D项是根据文中的名词balconies和stairs出的干扰项。

43.That US museums impose bans on using selfie sticks reveals that______.(A)

A. visitors are overcrowded in museums

B. existing rules don’t work

C. museums are taking action

D. people like to wave the sticks

解析:细节题。根据题干关键词定位到第二段。末句的第二个分句用转折词yet连接,后面提到“……这再次表明,控制过度拥挤已经成为博物馆的任务之一”,故A项“博物馆里的游客过度拥挤”为正确答案。B项“现存的禁令不起作用”,C项“博物馆正在采取行动”,D项“人们喜欢挥舞自拍杆”均不符合文意。

44.Recently, the newly-added items that are banned by museums in the US are______.(C)

A. backpacks

B. umbrellas

C. selfie sticks

D. supporting equipment for cameras

解析:细节题。根据题干关键词定位到第二段。第三句意为“美国的博物馆一个接一个发布禁令,禁止在博物馆内使用自拍杆(之前已遭禁止的物品包括伞、背包、三脚架和单脚架)”,所以自拍杆是最近遭到禁止的物品,故C项为正确答案。backpacks是文中rucksacks的近义词,umbrellas是原文复现,D项“相机的支撑设备”是原文tripods and monopods“三脚架和单脚架”的上义词,三项均不符合题干,故排除。

45.In the first paragraph, the author suggests that______.(D)

A. Sultan is as smart as human beings

B. tourists are easy to indulge in self-pity

C. nowadays people use selfie sticks to get things out of reach

D. camera extenders are useful to people as interlocking sticks to Sultan

解析:推断题。根据题干关键词定位到第一段。第一句句意为“一个名叫苏丹的黑猩猩把两根连锁棍连到一起,拉下了它用手够不到的一串香蕉”,接下来文章指出现在游客们使用自拍杆,不管走到哪儿都能随意自拍。所以,这两件物品对于各自使用者都非常有用。故D项“相机延长器对于人们是有用的,就像连锁棍对于苏丹一样有用”为正确答案。A项“苏丹像人类一样聪明”和B项“游客很容易自恋”属于过度推断,原文并没有体现。人们用自拍杆自拍,并不是为了获得够不到的东西,故C项错误。

翻译

46. What is artificial intelligence today? Roughly speaking, it’s technology that takes in huge amount of information from a specific domain (say, loan repayment histories) and uses it to make a decision in a specific case (whether to give an individual a loan) in the service of a specified goal (maximizing profits for the lender). These tools can outperform human beings at a given task.

This kind of A.I. is spreading to thousands of domains (not just loans), and as it does, it will eliminate many jobs. Bank tellers, customer service representatives, telemarketers, stock and bond traders will gradually be replaced by such software. Over time this technology will come to control semiautonomous and autonomous hardware like self-driving cars and robots, displacing factory workers, construction workers, drivers, delivery workers and many others.

今天的人工智能是什么?大致来说,它是一种从特定领域(例如贷款偿还记录)获取大量信息,并利用这些信息在特定情况下做出决定(是否贷款给某人),服务于特定目标(让贷方实现利润最大化)的技术。执行特定任务时,这些工具的表现可以好于人类。

这种人工智能正拓展至成千上万个领域(不只是贷款),在此过程中,它会让很多工作岗位消失。银行出纳员、客服代表、电话推销员、股票和债券交易员都将逐渐被此类软件取而代之。假以时日.这种技术将会控制自动驾驶汽车、机器人等半自动化和自动化硬件,取代工厂工人、建筑工人、司机、快递员以及其他很多职业的从业者。

解析:(1)本句的主干为it’sd technology…that,由and引导的两个定语从句进一步解释说明technology。from a specific domain和in a specific case为介词短语作后置定语分别限定information和decision。take in译为“获取”,specified译为“特定的”。

(2)as it does中as引导时间状语从句,does指代前面的动词spread,其整体可译为“在此过程中”。spread原意为“传播,散布”,这里可理解为“拓展”,eliminate译为“淘汰”。

(3)本句的主干为this technology will come…。like后举例说明semiautonomous and autonomous hardware的内容,displacing…为现在分词引导结果状语。semiautonomous原意为“半自治的”,因其后接hardware(软件),故这里可理解为“半自动化”。overtime译为“假以时日”。

作文

47. One of your classmates wants to visit Beihai Park tomorrow and your teacher asks you to go with her. But you are unfamiliar with this park. You will ask for help from your friend Emma, asking her to be your tour guide. In your letter, you should

1) list the specific reasons for request,

2) state the way to solve the problem, and

3) show your gratitude.

You should write about 100 words on the ANSWER SHEET.

Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter, Use \

Dear Emma,

I’ m writing this letter to ask for your warm help and my request is urgent.

One of my classmates wants to visit Beihai Park tomorrow and my teacher asks me to accompany her. As you know, I am unfamiliar with Beihai Park, so I sincerely hope that you could help me. Your house is very close to Beihai park. I consider that you are acquainted with it. I would be very grateful and delighted if you are willing to be our tour guide.

Thanks for your kind help. And I am looking forward to hearing from you today.

Yours sincerely,

Li Ming

解析:本题考查的是请求信,内容是请朋友帮忙做导游。请求信一般由三部分构成:第一,开门见山地说明自己需要对方的帮助,语气需委婉;第二,具体阐明提出请求的原因以及希望对方提供何种帮助;第三,表明希望收到对方的回复。考生要注意,写请求信时语气要诚恳,态度需谦恭。

48. Write an essay based on the following chart. In your writing, you should

1) interpret the chart, and

2) give your comments.

You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)

Here are two distinct and accurate histograms, telling us an interesting phenomenon. It is clear that the histograms indicate the gender and age distribution of audience watching the TV series of In the Name of People, which successfully arouses our curiosity. According to the first histogram, the male audience greatly outnumbers the female one. In addition, we can learn that the proportion of people between the age of 30 and 39 accounts for the largest one among all ages from the second histogram.

As far as I’m concerned, two factors can result in the above phenomenon. Firstly, though TV series may be more popular among female audience, anti-corruption subject attracts more male audience than the female one. Secondly, anti-corruption is related to politics and power, middle-aged people is most likely to watch it. Because the experience of the characters in the TV series and the experience of the middle-aged people have many similarities. And the plot of this TV series resonates with them.

For TV series, there are many aspects which can determine its popularity. As you can see from above, subject and empathy are of great importance.

解析:本次考查的内容是柱状图,其意思很明确:第一个柱状图展示的是某电视剧受众的性别分布情况;第二个柱状图展示了该电视剧受众的年龄分布情况。图表作文一般由三部分构成:第一段阐释图表;第二段分析呈现以上分布特征的原因;第三段总结并给出自己的评论。

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