考研英语(二)模拟试卷190附答案解析

考研英语(二)模拟试卷190

完形填空

【C1】______job applications to eliminate discrimination is not easy. Ten big employers in the public and private sectors—including the civil service, HSBC and Deloitte—have agreed to start【C2】______on a \

1.【C1】(B)

A. Making

B. Anonymising

C. Ignoring

D. Taking

解析:本句意为“______求职来消除歧视,并非易事”。根据下一句关键词name-blind可知,应该是“匿名求职”,故B项正确。anonymising是anonymise的现在分词形式,表示“使……匿名,匿名化”。A项Making“做”、C项Ignoring“忽视”和D项Taking“拿”均与题意不符。

2.【C2】(A)

A. recruiting

B. vanishing

C. beginning

D. eliminating

解析:本句意为“同意在英国开展以匿名方式______人才”。根据上一句关键词job applications可知,A项recruiting“招聘”符合题意,故为正确答案。B项vanishing“消失”、C项beginning“开始”和D项eliminating“消除”均与题意不符。

3.【C3】(B)

A. applications

B. names

C. races

D. jobs

解析:本句意为“在这些方案中,求职者的______是不会出现在拟定的候选人员名单上的”。通过原文上一句关键词name-blind可知,B项names“名字”为正确答案。A项applications“申请”、C项races“种族”和D项jobs“工作”均与题意不符。

4.【C4】(D)

A. expanding

B. increasing

C. keeping

D. reducing

解析:本句意为“为了______对应聘者的种族和性别歧视”。根据前文第一句关键词eliminate discrimination(消除歧视)可知,D项reducing“减少”符合题意。A项expanding“扩大”、B项increasing“增加”和C项keeping“保持”均与题意不符。

5.【C5】(A)

A. compulsory

B. temporary

C. optional

D. alternative

解析:本句意为“2006年,法国通过了一项法案,______公司接受超过50份的匿名简历”。A项compulsory“强制的”,B项temporary“暂时的”,C项optional和D项alternative为同义词,均意为“可选择的”。结合上下文推断,法案应是强制公司接收匿名简历,因此A项为正确答案,B、C、D三项均与题意不符。

6.【C6】(C)

A. out

B. away

C. down

D. off

解析:本句意为“但是,在______条件如何实施方面,法国政府放慢了脚步”。slow一词在这里意为“放慢脚步”。根据该句关键词how the law would operate(法律如何实施)可知,C项lay down“制定”与文意相符,故为正确答案。A项lay out“展示,安排”、B项lay away“把……放到一边”和D项lay off“解雇”均与题意不符。

7.【C7】(B)

A. stopping

B. enforcing

C. planning

D. appealing

解析:本句意为“到去年才______执行此法规”。结合上文“2006年就通过了相关的法规,但是直到去年才执行法规”可知,B项enforcing“强制”符合文意,故为正确答案。A项stopping“停止”、C项planning“计划”和D项appealing“呼吁”均与题意不符。

8.【C8】(A)

A. documented

B. shaped

C. realized

D. understood

解析:本句意为“求职者,特别是少数民族人因为名字而受到歧视的现象______”。be well documented是固定搭配,意为“有记载可依”,故A项为正确答案。B项shaped“被塑造”、C项realized“被意识到”和D项understood“被理解”均与题意不符。

9.【C9】(C)

A. on

B. at

C. for

D. after

解析:本句意为“在德国,人们做过一个实验发现,拥有类似德国人名字的候选人比拥有类似土耳其名字的候选人______面试的机率高出14%”。本题主要考查call的固定搭配.A项call on“呼吁,公开请求”,B项call at“访问”,C项call for“要求,取得”,D项call after“追喊,以……命名”。因此,答案应为C项,即“取得面试机会”。其他三项均与题意不符。

10.【C10】(C)

A. rise

B. provide

C. boost

D. shrink

解析:本句意为“匿名求职可以______少数民族候选人得到______的机率”。解答本题需要结合上下文进行判断,上文中提到了“招聘歧视”的结果是“类似德国人名字的候选人得到面试的机会高出了14%”,而在下一句中也提到了“匿名求职的确能提高就业”.因此C项“增加,促进”符合题意。A项rise也有上升的含义,但是rise取该意时为不及物动词。B项provide“提供”和D项shrink“收缩”也与题意不符。

11.【C11】(B)

A. job

B. interview

C. employment

D. position

解析:本句意为“匿名求职可以增加少数民族候选人得到______的机率”。上文提到“由于名字差异导致得到面试的机率不同”,而下文提到“匿名求职可增加就业”.故B项interview符合题意。A项job“工作”,如果填job就与下文重复,故排除。C项employment“职业”和D项position“职位”均与题意不符。

12.【C12】(C)

A. nameless

B. Germanic

C. ethnic

D. common

解析:本句意为“匿名求职的确能够使更多的______候选人就业”。结合上文内容,其讲的是少数民族的求职问题,因此本空应填“少数民族的”,其完整句意为“匿名求职的确能够提高少数民族候选者们就业”,故正确答案选C。A项nameless“无名的”、B项Germanic“德国的”和D项common“普通的”均与题意不符。

13.【C13】(A)

A. clear

B. suggestive

C. integrated

D. subordinate

解析:本句意为“然而,其他实验的结果并没有那么______”。该句开头出现了However一词,表转折。作者意在说明部分实验的结果并不是那么一目了然,也存在不同的结论,因此A项为正确答案。B项suggestive“暗示的”、C项integrated“综合的”和D项subordinate“从属的”均与题意不符。

14.【C14】(C)

A. indication

B. evidence

C. increase

D. progress

解析:本句意为“根据IZA在荷兰的实验,来自少数民族的候选人并没有因为匿名投递简历而显现出______”。分析文章可知,作者想要表达“就算是匿名招聘,并没有迹象显示少数民族候选人会更容易得到工作”。因此本空应填表示“增加”意思的词,故C项为正确答案。A项indication“暗示”、B项evidence“证据”和D项progress“发展”均与题意不符。

15.【C15】(D)

A. stuck in

B. relied on

C. caught at

D. crept in

解析:本句意为“这说明歧视已经______到了面试阶段”。前文提到“来自少数民族的候选人并没有因为匿名简历而更易得到工作”,其意味着招聘歧视并没有被消除,故D项crept in“悄悄蔓延”符合题意。A项stuck in“陷入,插入”、B项relied on“指望,依赖”和C项caught at“试图抓住”均与题意不符。

16.【C16】(A)

A. anonymous

B. fair

C. competitive

D. unknown

解析:本句意为“要确保候选人完全______也是很难做到的”。整篇文章都是围绕匿名求职消除歧视来论述,且下文提到“招聘人员或许利用了其他______,比如阿拉伯语来______种族”,故正确答案为A项anonymous“匿名的”,即“要确保候选人完全匿名也是很难做到的”。本文在谈论匿名求职与消除招聘歧视,所以B项也不符合题意。C项competitive“有竞争力的”,D项unknown“未知的”也与题意不符。

17.【C17】(C)

A. female

B. young

C. foreign-born

D. emigratory

解析:本句意为“即使匿名申请工作,______的和来自贫困地区的候选人不太可能得到面试的机会”。通读全文可知,作者在文中提到女性获得面试的机会都在增加,故排除A项。B项“年轻的”在原文中没有提及。本文讨论的是招聘过程中人们对于种族和性别的歧视,C、D两项都可人选,但“国外出生的人”比“移民”的范围更广泛,而招聘中的种族歧视也未必就仅仅发生在移民群体中,故C项为正确答案。

18.【C18】(B)

A. standards

B. indicators

C. thoughts

D. indexes

解析:本句意为“这项研究的作者认为,招聘人员或许利用了其他______,如是否会阿拉伯语来______申请人的种族”。将四个选项代入文中进行判断,可得出B项indicators“暗示,标记”为正确答案,即“招聘人员利用了其他的标记来判断申请人的种族信息”。A项standards“标准”、C项thoughts“想法”和D项indexes“指数”均与题意不符。

19.【C19】(A)

A. identify

B. discriminate

C. exert

D. conceal

解析:本句意为“这项研究的作者认为,招聘人员或许利用了其他暗示标记,如是否会阿拉伯语来______申请人的种族”。分析文章可知,该空应填写表示“区分,判断”意思的词,因此A项identify为正确答案。B项discriminate“歧视”、C项exert“发挥”和D项conceal“隐瞒”均与题意不符。

20.【C20】(D)

A. decreasing

B. continuing

C. staying

D. ending

解析:本句意为“将入围候选人的名字隐藏起来,这或许是一个明智的开端,但它可能只是在______雇佣偏见道路上迈出的一小步而已”。文章通篇在分析“匿名求信,减少歧视”的问题,故D项ending“结束,终结”符合文意。A项decreasing“减少”、B项continuing“继续”和C项staying“保持”均与题意不符。

阅读理解

Governments are restraining business travelers and tourists with cumbersome visa requirements that do little to make their countries more secure. The RISE of big emerging economies like China and India, and the steady march of globalization, have led to a surge in the numbers of people wanting to travel abroad for business or tourism. As a result, demand for visas is at unprecedented levels.

The most sensible response to this surge in demand for short-term visas would be for governments to streamline the application process. But governments are often not sensible about such things.

The 26 European countries with a common visa policy—the \

21.According to the last paragraph, it can be inferred that government in Europe and beyond will______.(B)

A. forbid accepting refugees

B. keep cumbersome visa process

C. spend heavily on promoting tourism and foreign investment

D. release visa policy

解析:细节题。根据题干关键词定位到文章最后一段。根据“欧洲及欧洲以外的各国政府仍将面临压力,商务旅行者和观光客的日子仍然不会好过”可知,A项“拒绝接收难民”原文没有提及,故排除。C项“促进旅游业和外国投资”偷换主语,是政府的其他部门在促进旅游业和外国投资,而非政府,故排除。D项“开放签证政策”与题意不符,故排除。因此B项“继续保持繁琐的签证政策”正确,故本题选B。

22.The author mentioned Chinese tourists in order to______.(A)

A. illustrate the over-strict visa policy causes great financial losses

B. explain that Chinese people are the main tourists of Britain

C. prove that Chinese tourists are more easier to enter Britain than the other people

D. indicate that Britain should join the Schengen visa policy

解析:细节题。根据题干关键词定位到文章倒数第二段。该段说明由于英国非申根国,因此重新申请签证的繁琐要求使得英国每年损失41亿美金。因此A项“说明过严的签证政策造成了巨大的经济损失”符合题意。B项“说明中国人是英国的主要游客”、C项“证明中国游客比其他人更容易进入英国”和D项“指出英国应该加入申根签证政策”均与题目无关,故本题选A。

23.The followings support the point that government should streamline the visa application process EXCEPT______.(C)

A. there is a trend that a surge of people want to travel abroad for business or tourism

B. America will require visas for some travelers who have visited Iran, Iraq, Syria or Sudan in the previous five years

C. tourists who want to travel in Europe just need a common visa—Schengen visa

D. current visa requirements with complicated application process inflict huge economic damage

解析:细节题。根据题干关键词定位到文章第二段,但本题的解答需要结合上下文进行。A项“想出国商务旅行或观光旅游的人数激增”,这个现象导致对签证需求变大,因此应简化签证申请流程,排除A项。B项“美国要求近五年来去过伊朗、伊拉克、叙利亚和苏丹的人申请签证”,这句话可定位到文章第三段,该段都在列举各种繁琐的签证政策,因此B项也排除。D项“现行的签证政策流程复杂,造成了巨大利益损失”可定位到文章第五、六段,欧盟和英国相关部门都抱怨繁琐的签证制度带来了经济损失,因此排除D项。C项“想去欧洲旅行的人只需要持有申根签证即可”与题目无关,故本题选C。

24.The word \(B)

A. sufficient

B. little

C. opposite

D. real

解析:含义题。根据题干关键词定位到文章第四段第一句。结合第四段第二句的In contrast可知,第一句的态度与第二句相反。通过第二句中的lead to large gains可知,自由的签证制度可以带来巨大利益。因此第一句应该描述严苛的签证制度并不能保证国家安全。四个选项中,A项“足够的”、C项“相反的”和D项“真实的”均不符合题意。B项little“少的”表否定,符合题意,故本题选B。

25.Cumbersome visa requirements can______.(C)

A. have an important impact on national security

B. lead to demands for visas at unprecedented levels

C. make life hard for tourists and business travelers

D. develop the steady march of globalization

解析:细节题。根据题干关键词定位到文章第一段第一句“多国政府正以繁琐的签证要求阻挡商务旅行者和观光客,而这对维护国家安全作用甚微”。A项“对国家安全有重要影响”与原文意思相反,故排除;B项“导致对签证的需求达到了前所未有的水平”与“繁琐的签证要求”不构成因果关系,故排除;D项内容原文没有提到,故排除;C项make life hard for tourists and business travelers,意为“让游客与商务旅行者的生活变得艰难”,结合文章第一句推断,可知该项为正确答案,故本题选C。

PALO ALTO, Calif.—It was not so long ago that the aroma of Moroccan spiced prawns wafted out to a downtown street here from the open-air patio called Zibibbo. Today that patio is behind locked doors, obscured by frosted grass. The formerly crowded bar has been converted into a sparsely populated startup space of a dozen engineers, their bikes and whiteboards. All told, more than 70,000 square feet of Palo Alto retail and restaurant space were lost to office space from 2008 to 2015, as the tech bubble drove demand for commercial space downtown.

It is a story playing out across Silicon Valley, where restaurateurs say that staying afloat is a daily battle with rising rents, high local fees and acute labor shortages. And tech behemoths like Apple and Googleare hiring away their best line cooks and dishwashers with wages, benefits and perks that restaurant owners simply cannot match.

We’re competing more for staff than we are for guests at this point, said Craig Stoll, a James Beard Award-winning chef and co-owner with his wife, Annie Stoll, of Delfina. They have not been able to fully staff their Silicon Valley locations since they opened about two years ago. They used to require their line cooks to have particular experience. Now we’ re just selling ourselves on Craigslist, posting pictures good-looking waitresses to recruit staff, Stoll said. In the last year, the Stolls have lost several of their best servers to Twitter in San Francisco. To compete, the couple have been increasing pay and perks as much as possible, but they say they still often have to blank off entire sections of their Silicon Valley restaurants simply because there is not enough staff to service them. Recently, they have resorted to hiring their daughter and her friends to step in. We’re breeding our own workforce at this point, Stoll joked.

Last year, Brigette Lau and Chamath Palihapitiya opened Bird Dog, a stylish restaurant down town. But even with Silicon Valley’s backing and their own substantial means, Lau said operating a restaurant in Palo Alto was not for the faint of heart. I’m supportive of the startup community, but not at the expense of the community, she said.

26.Brigette Lau’ s attitudes toward the phenomenon that tech has disrupted local restaurant industry in Silicon Valley is______.(D)

A. uncertain

B. supporting

C. resigned

D. disapproving

解析:态度题。根据题干关键词定位到文章最后一段。通过布里盖特-刘所说的话“在帕洛阿尔托经营餐厅可不适合心脏不好的人。我本人支持创业群体,不过这不应该以牺牲当地的民众与企业作为代价”可推断出,其对科技公司颠覆了硅谷的餐饮业这种现象持否定态度,故D项“不赞成的”为正确答案。A项“不确定”、B项“支持的”和C项“顺从的”均与题意不符,故本题选D。

27.According to Paragraph 3, the Stolls employed their daughter and her friends in order to______.(A)

A. solve understaffed problem

B. breed their own workforce

C. let children experience hardship of labor

D. cultivate children’s ability

解析:细节题。根据题干关键词定位到文章第三段倒数第二句。B项“培养自家的劳动力”是文中斯托尔的原话,该选项干扰性较大,这是斯托尔无奈之下开玩笑所说的,并不是其真正用意所在。C项“让孩子们经历艰苦的劳动”和D项“培养孩子们的能力”在此段均未提及,故排除。通过第三段首句“我们更多地是在争夺人手,而不是顾客”和倒数第三句“……而原因就是没有足够的服务员”可推出A项“解决人员不足问题”为正确答案,故本题选A。

28.The reason for the Stolls to close off their restaurant in Silicon Valley is that______.(B)

A. they do not have experienced cooks

B. there are not fully sufficient staffs to serve guests

C. their employees are hired away by Twitter

D. they do not have enough time to manage

解析:细节题。根据题干关键词定位到文章第三段第六句but they say they still often have to blank off entire sections…because there is not enough staff to service them。close off是该句中blank off的同义替换,均有“关闭;封锁”之意。B项“没有足够的服务员去服务顾客”与文中原因表述一致,故选B。A项“他们没有经验丰富的厨师”和C项“他们的员工被Twitter挖墙脚”在第三段均有提及.但却不是斯托尔夫妇经常关闭整片就餐区的真正原因,故排除。D项“没有足够的时间去管理”在文章中并未提及,故本题选B。

29.The following are the challenges for the restaurateurs from Silicon Valley EXCEPT for______.(C)

A. high local fees

B. rising rents

C. economic uncertainty

D. understaffing

解析:细节题。根据题干关键词定位到文章第二段首句It is a story playing out across Silicon Valley,where restaurateurs say that…。A、B两项可在文中找到相关信息。D项understaffing(人员配备不足;缺员)是文中acute labor shortages(劳动力短缺)的同义替换。C项“经济不稳定”在文中并未提及,故本题选C。

30.According to Paragraph 1, in the past seven years, the reason for restaurant space having been converted into office space in Palo Alto was that______.(B)

A. a dozen of engineers urged to change restaurant space

B. the technology promoted high demand for commercial space

C. the restauranteurs left their business entirely

D. the policy from the government supported the startup community

解析:细节题。根据题干关键词定位到文章第一段最后一句。in the past seven years(在过去的七年里)指文中提及的2008年~2015年。B项“科技提高对帕洛阿尔托城商业空间的需求”与原文表述一致。A项“数十名工程师强烈要求改变餐饮空间”、C项“餐饮业业主完全退出餐饮业”和D项“政府政策支持创业群体”均未在文中提及,故本题选B。

In Maryland, Texas, Virginia and other states, Netflix’ s chief, Reed Hastings, is championing a popular math-teaching program where Netflix-like algorithms determine which lessons students see. In the space of just a few years, technology giants have begun remaking the very nature of schooling on a vast scale, using some of the same techniques that have made their companies linchpins of the U.S. economy. Through their philanthropy, they are influencing the subjects that schools teach, the classroom tools that teachers choose and fundamental approaches to learning.

But tech companies and their founders have been rolling out programs in America’s public schools with relatively few checks and balances, The New York Times found in interviews with more than 100 company executives, government officials, researchers, teachers, parents and students. \

31.Davis’ s attitude towards tech giants’ remaking education is______.(B)

A. supporting

B. disapproving

C. sympathetic

D. indifferent

解析:态度题。根据关键词定位到文中最后一段。由“不过,很多家长和教育者在接受采访时表示,他们并没有意识到硅谷的特性和金钱正在影响学校。‘我们应该多问问谁是幕后主导者,’戴维斯说”可知,B项“不赞成的”为正确答案。A项“赞成的”、C项“同情的”和D项“漠不关心的”均不符合题意,故本题选B。

32.According to Paragraph 4, some tech leaders remake education in order to______.(B)

A. propaganda their own ideas

B. make a profit

C. create legions of supporters

D. reform education system

解析:细节题。根据题干关键词定位到文章第四段。由首句“其中一个最广泛的慈善举措是直接给科技产业带来利益的”,“……这是一个利润丰厚的市场,预计将在2020年达到210亿美元”可知,B项“获得利润”符合题意。A项“宣传自己的想法”、C项“创造支持群体”和D项“改革教育系统”在第四段中未提及,并不是他们的真正目的,故均不符合题意,故本题选B。

33.Compared with the strategies earlier generations took, the ones today have more effective impact on schools in that tech-giants______.(D)

A. take a hands-on role in nearly every step of the education supply chain

B. shovel more manpower resources

C. commit more money

D. build group of advocates who can sway lawmakers and educrats

解析:细节题。根据题干关键词定位到文章第三段。由最后一句“这样的战略有助于公司和慈善家创造出可以动摇立法者和教育官员的支持者群体,从而比过去更快地对公立学校施加影响”可知,D项“建立动摇立法者和教育官员的支持者群体”符合文意。且文中lezislators and education officials与D项关键词lawmakers and educrats构成同义替换关系。A项“有些技术大亨几乎正在参与教育供应链的每一步”、B项“投入更多的人力”和C项“投入更多的财力”均未在原文中提及,故本题选D。

34.According to Paragraph 2, the drawback of tech giants ’philanthropic program is that______.(C)

A. it causes panic of educators

B. it leads to the abuse of power

C. there has been little public scrutiny

D. it has not improved students’ academic performance

解析:细节题。根据题干关键词定位到文章第二段。首句中指出“发现技术公司及其创始人在美国公立学校内开展的各种计划几乎没有任何制衡措施”,并且根据梅根-汤普金斯-斯坦格的观点“他们有改变政策的力量,但是这种力量没有受到相应的监督”可知,C项“缺位的公众监督”符合题意。且文中relatively few checks and balances(相对较少的制衡措施)与选项关键词little public scrutiny(缺位的公众监督)构成同义替换关系。A项“引起教育工作者的恐慌”和B项“导致滥用职权”均未在文中提及。根据本段最后一句“科技巨头的计划是否真的提高了学生的教育成果,目前只是进行了有限的研究”可知,成果是否有效现在还不得而知,故D项“没有提高学生的学习成绩”表述错误,故本题选C。

35.According to Paragraph 1, tech giants exert influence on the school education by______.(D)

A. publicity

B. engineering

C. media

D. charity

解析:细节题。根据题干关键词定位到文章第一段。由最后一句“通过慈善事业.他们正在影响学校教学的课程、教师选择的课堂工具和基本的学习方法”可知,D项“慈善”符合题意。A项“宣传”、B项“工程”和C项“媒体”均未在文中提及,故本题选D。

[A] The possibility to increase your gut microbiota

[B] Scientist’s opinion towards the food value

[C] The indispensable role of intestinal microbiota

[D] The experiment about people’ s reaction towards improving their eating behavior

[E] The unchangeable microbiome in your body

[F] The microbial community’s absolute influence on food

[G] The reason for being unable to change your microbiome

If you’re making resolutions for a healthier new year, consider a gut makeover. Refashioning the community of bacteria and other microbes living in your intestinal tract, collectively known as the gut microbiome, could be a good long-term investment in your health.

【R1】______

Trillions of microbial cells inhabit the human body, outnumbering human cells by 10 to one according to some estimates, and growing evidence suggests that the rich array of intestinal microbiota helps us process nutrients in the foods we eat, bolsters the immune system and does all sorts of odd jobs that promote sound health. A diminished microbial ecosystem, on the other hand, is believed to have consequences that extend far beyond the intestinal tract, affecting everything from allergies and inflammation, metabolic diseases like diabetes and obesity, even mental health conditions like depression and anxiety.

【R2】______

Much of the composition of the microbiome is established early in life, shaped by forces like your genetics and whether you were breast-fed or bottle-fed. Microbial diversity may be further undermined by the typical high-calorie American diet, rich in sugar, meats and processed foods. But a new study in mice and people adds to evidence that suggests you can take steps to enrich your gut microbiota. Changing your diet to one containing a variety of plant-based foods, the new research suggests, may be crucial to achieving a healthier microbiome.

【R3】______

Altering your microbiome, however, may not be easy, and nobody knows how long it might take. That’s because the ecosystem already established in your gut determines how it absorbs and processes nutrients. So if the microbial community in your gut has been shaped by a daily diet of cheeseburgers and pepperoni pizza, for example, it won’t respond as quickly to a healthy diet as a gut shaped by vegetables and fruits that has more varied microbiota to begin with.

【R4】______

\

36.【R5】

D

解析:根据第六段关键信息how individuals with different diets respond when they try to improve their eating habits可知,该段整体论述当人们改变自己的饮食习惯时会有怎样的反应,故本题选D。

37.【R4】

B

解析:第五段中引号部分内容(食物的营养价值一定程度上会被其遇到的微生物群落影响;从内而外,而不只是由外而内)都是科学家对食物营养价值的观点,故本题选B。

38.【R3】

G

解析:根据第四段关键词because可知,该段整体论述不容易改变肠道菌群的原因,故本题选G。

39.【R2】

A

解析:第三段前半部分说明肠道菌群是不容易被改变的,但后半部分科学证实你可以take steps to enrich your gut microbiota(采取措施来丰富自己的肠道菌群),由此可知改变肠道菌群存在可能性,故本题选A。

40.【R1】

C

解析:根据第二段前半部分关键信息help us process nutrients,bolsters the immune system and does all sorts of odd jobs that promote sound health可知,其是在论述肠道菌群的优点。该段后半部分信息则从反面指出了微生物生态系统减弱所造成的后果。由此可知,肠道菌群对人体不可或缺,故本题选C。

In some places, it has helped curb corruption, encouraged more girls to go to school and enabled citizens to monitor election violence.

But according to a report issued Wednesday by the World Bank, the vast changes wrought by technology have not expanded economic opportunities or improved access to basic public services in ways that many had expected. Rather, the report warned darkly, Internet innovations stand to widen inequalities and even hasten the hollowing out of middle-class employment.

Those who are already well-off and well-educated have been able to take advantage of the Internet economy, the report concluded pointedly, and despite the expansion of Internet access, 60 percent of humanity remains offline.

\

41.The best title for this text could be______.(D)

A. Internet: How to Change the World

B. Internet Promotes Economic Development

C. Internet: Angel or Devil

D. Internet Has Widened Inequality

解析:主旨题。这篇文章主要解读世界银行所发布的报告,即互联网并没有像人们想象的那样缩小贫富差距,而刚好相反,对于技术的充分利用和经济发展的优势使得富者愈富,穷者愈穷。A项“互联网:如何改变世界”和C项“互联网:天使还是魔鬼?”范围过大,故排除。B项“互联网拉动经济增长”与文意不符,故排除。D项“互联网扩大贫富差距”符合题意,故本题选D。

42.The World Bank appeals to the following aspects EXCEPT______.(D)

A. making the Internet affordable

B. enhancing a competitive atmosphere

C. improving workers’ skills

D. creating good working environment for employees

解析:细节题。根据题干关键词定位到文章倒数第二段第一句calls on countries to make the Internet“universal,affordable,open and safe”。后接的原文还有如下表述strengthening the skills of workers so they can obtain the new jobs,即“提高工人的技能使他们能够获得新的就业机会”,故D项为正确答案。A项“能够付得起互联网费用”、B项“提升竞争环境”和C项“提高工作的技能”均正确,因此排除,故本题选D。

43.According to the author, which city of the following will most likely benefit from the technology development of the Internet?(D)

A. New Delhi, because it has plenty of cheap labors.

B. Rome, because most people there can use the Internet to communicate with each other.

C. San Francisco, because its modern industry is in the front rank in the whole world.

D. Hangzhou, because it is trying to transform into a digital city.

解析:推断题。根据题干关键词定位到文章第四段。原文中提到Countries that are investing in both digital technology and its analog complements will reap significant dividends,即“正在投资数字技术、以及与之互补的模拟技术的国家将获得显著的红利”。提炼出关键词digital可确定本题正确答案为D项。A项“新德里,因为它有大量廉价劳动力”、B项“罗马,因为那里的人都可以使用互联网和彼此交流”和C项“旧金山.因为它的工业在世界上排名前列”均与题意无关,故本题选D。

44.According to Paragraph 2, Why the report warned darkly?(C)

A. Because technological development of the Internet slows economic growth.

B. Because the vast changes of technology have not come true in ways that many had expected.

C. Because the Internet has expanded economic disparity.

D. Because middle-class are dissatisfied with the technology development of the Internet.

解析:细节题。根据题干关键词定位到文章第二段最后一句Internet innovations stand to widen inequalities and even hasten the hollowing out of middle-class employment,即“互联网创新加剧了不平等,甚至加速了中产阶级就业机会的消失”。A项“延缓经济增长”在文中没有提到,故排除。B项“互联网技术的变化并没有以许多人预期的方式实现”,这句话在原文中出现过,但和题干无关,故排除。D项“中产阶级对互联网技术的发展不满意”文中没有提到,故排除。C项“互联网扩大了贫富差距”为正确答案,故本题选C。

45.In the first paragraph, the word \(B)

A. technology

B. Internet

C. economic development

D. World Bank

解析:细节题。根据题干关键词定位到文章第一段。第一段说明it可以遏制腐败、监督选举暴力等。第二段则提出与第一段相反的观点,指出“互联网创新加剧了不平等,甚至加速了中产阶级就业机会的消失。且文章第三段也在说明当今互联网的使用情况。”通读全文后可发现,文章讲的是互联网(Internet)扩大了贫富差距,故本题选B。

翻译

46. I often hear from teenagers that one of their greatest goals is to obtain more Instagram followers than anyone they know. Even some adults appear obsessed with social media, tracking the number of retweets on their Twitter profiles or likes on Facebook. This type of status-seeking might be easily dismissed as juvenile or superficial, but there’ s more to it.

Recent evidence suggests that being unpopular can be hazardous to our health. In fact, it might even kill us. Yet most don’t realize that there’s more than one type of popularity, and social media may not supply the one that makes us feel good.

Most of us may be investing in the wrong kind. Likability reflects kindness and selfless behavior. Researchers suggests that this form of popularity offers lifelong advantages, and leads to relationships that confer the greatest health benefits. Which means that it wouldn ’t kill you to step away from Twitter once in a while.

我经常听青少年们讲,他们最大的目标之一就是获得比自己认识的所有人都多的Instagram粉丝。就连一些成年人也沉迷于社交媒体,会密切关注自己推特的转发量和脸谱网上的点赞数。这类寻求重视的行为或许很容易被解读为幼稚或肤浅,但情况并没有这么简单。

最新的证据表明,不受欢迎可能会对我们的健康造成损害。实际上,它甚至有可能杀死我们。但我们大多数人都没有意识到,受欢迎的类型不止一种,而社交媒体或许无法提供使我们感觉良好的那种。

我们大多数人可能并没有将精力放在正确的那种类型上。亲民度反应了友善和无私的行为。研究显示,这种受欢迎的形式会建立起一生的优势,可以促成一种带来最大健康益处的关系。也就是说,少刷一点推特要不了你的命。

解析:(1)本句的主干为I hear from teenagers,that后面的one of their greatest goals is to…anyone they know是由that引导的是宾语从句,作hear的宾语。obtain译为“获得”,followers表面意思是“追随者”,这里可译为“(社交网站上的)粉丝”。

(2)本句的主干是some adults appear obsessed with social media,后面的内容作appear obsessed with social media的伴随状语。appear obsessed with…可译为“着迷”或“沉迷”,retweet译为“转发推特”,likes on Facebook可灵活翻译成“脸谱网上的点赞数”。

(3)本句由两个分句构成,由转折连词but连接。其中,status-seeking直译为“地位寻求”,但是为了更贴近汉语表达习惯,可将其整体翻译为“这类寻求重视的行为”。be easily dismissed as可译为“很容易被解读为”。juvenile译为“幼稚的”,superficial译为“肤浅的”。

(4)第一句的句子结构比较简单,其主干是evidence suggests…,that后面引导宾语从句,作suggest的宾语。固定搭配be hazardous to,其译为“对……有害”,In fact译为“实际上”。

(5)本句由三个分句构成,且其主语不完全一致,考生在翻译过程中需要特别注意。第一个分句中that there’s more than one type of popularity是that引导的宾语从句,放在realize之后。第二个分句中that引导定语从句,修饰限定the one。第三个分句结构较简单,直接翻译即可。social media翻译为“社交媒体”,invest译为“投入,花费”,在本句中可译为“投入(精力)”。

(6)Likability意为“可爱”,这里翻译为“亲民度”更易于理解。所以本句可译为:亲民度反应了友善和无私的行为。

(7)本句的主干是Researchers suggests,that后的句子成分作suggest的宾语,宾语从句中有两个并列的分句(offers lifelong advantages和leads to relationships),第二个分句中,that引导relationship的同位语从句。lead to译为“导致,带来”,confer有“授予”的意思,翻译时要尽量选择合适的含义。

(8)本句that引导宾语从句,作means的宾语。宾语从句中,it作形式主语,真正的主语是后面的to step away from Twitter once in a while,考生在翻译时应注意调整语序。step away from译为“远离”,once in a while译为“偶尔,有时”,在翻译时可适当调整其含义,以便更符合汉语表达习惯。

作文

47. Write an essay based on the following chart, in your writing, you should

1) interpret the chart, and

2) give your comments.

You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)

From the above graph we can see that for businesses with less than 10, 000 staff, the more the employees are, the higher the competition index is. And the competition of companies having a staff of more than 10, 000 is roughly the same with those having 1,000~9,999 personnel or 500~999 workers.

Several possible reasons might account for this phenomenon. First of all, larger companies have relatively mature training system and promotion system, so employees have more opportunities to realize their values. Taking stability and prospect into account, many applicants tend to work in large firms. Besides, larger enterprises can offer a huge salary and better welfare, which attracts many excellent candidates.

In conclusion, it is understandable for people to choose big businesses. However, the size of the company shouldn’t be the only factor to influence our decisions, because companies with more than 10, 000 staff have no clear competitive advantages. After all, the best job is the one that suits you most.

解析:本题需要考生首先对图表进行准确的分析,然后表达自己的观点。图表中描述的是不同员工规模的企业在某年求职期的日均竞争指数。分析表格可知,求职者更倾向于选择规模大的企业,尤其是员工人数在1 000~9 999人的公司。因此,考生第一段可描述图表数据,指出图表反映的问题。第二段指出问题背后的原因。第三段再次点题,总结全文。

48. Write a letter of about 100 words to a beach resort where you had a wonderful vocation to express your gratitude for their good service.

You should include the details you think necessary.

You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET.

Do not use your own name. Use \

Dear Sir / Madam,

I’m writing to express my gratitude for your good service when I had my wonderful summer vocation there. The pleasant memory for my trip is still vivid. Generally speaking, the trip in Golden Bay Resort last month was splendid and satisfactory. The sand-bathing was great, with bright sunshine and cool seawater; and more satisfyingly, cozy rooms and first-class dining were beyond my expectations. I’m glad that I could return home with delightful memories.

The efforts of your warm-hearted staff to bring me a great beach vocation should be highly appreciated. Please convey my gratitude to your staff. Wish you a beautiful future.

Sincerely yours,

Li Ming

解析:本题要求写一封感谢信,此类信件的书写要注意以下三点:开头部分真诚致谢并简要说明理由;主体部分则需评述致谢对象及事情经过,表达自己的情感;结尾部分需给予对方希望与祝愿并再次致谢。注意表达感谢时要情真意切,不能过于夸张。

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