在职申硕同等学力英语(阅读)模拟试卷61含答案解析

在职申硕同等学力英语(阅读)模拟试卷61

完成对话

对话理解

对话理解大题型

词汇语法

词汇大题型

阅读理解

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1.The main idea of the quoted blog is that______.(C)

A. most people in the country have too much self-esteem

B. it is urgent to help those who have too little self-esteem

C. the criteria for people to measure their self-worth are changing

D. the traditional standards make people feel unstable

解析:主旨题。本题做题的关键是找出博客的主题句和几个主要评论的共同点,同时可以结合排除法做题。博客的主题句应该是段尾句It would be interesting to know if anybody has studied changes in the criteria we use to measure self-esteem.(了解是否有人研究过我们评价人的自我价值的标准所发生的变化一定是挺有趣的。)此外,but psychologists will tell you that self-esteem is not a constant.People’s appraisal of their own worth varies…(但是,心理学家会告诉你自我价值不是恒定不变的。人们对自身价值的评价是变化的……)也是本段主题的体现。Comment 1的主题句是段首的You bring up an interesting point because I do believe values and beliefs have changed.It would be very interesting to see the criteria used for self-worth.(你提出了一个非常有趣的观点因为我确实相信价值观和信念已经发生了变化。关注评价自我价值的标准是很有趣的一件事情。)Comment 2只有一句话,该句话体现主题的关键词是the quality of one’s self-esteem is going to be judged by…(由……来评价一个人自我价值的本质。)Comment 3和Comment 4都介绍了自己对自我价值的评价标准:Comment 3认为是A happy marriage(幸福的婚姻),而Comment 4则认为Ego(self-worth)is proportionate to wealth(自我价值和财富是成正比的),即财富越多,自我价值就越高。Comment 5主要是讨论了富兰克林的名言Contentment will make a poor man rich just as discontent will make a rich man poor(满足可以让穷人觉得富有,就像不满会让富人觉得贫穷一样),这也是在讨论应该如何评价自我价值。Comment 6是谈了评论者自己的自我价值观。Comment 7所引用并评论的“sociometer theory”(社会尺度理论)所信奉的our self-esteem is determined by the amount of perceived social acceptance/rejection(我们的自我价值是由我们所接受的社会认可/拒绝所决定的),讨论的还是评价自我价值的标准。所以C选项the criteria for people to measure their self-worth are changing(人们评价他们自我价值的标准在变化)是正确答案。而A选项most people in the country have too much self-esteem(这个国家的大多数人对自己评价过高)只是博客中涉及的细节,其他评论中没有提及;B选项it is urgent to help those who have too little self-esteem(现在迫切需要帮助那些自我评价过低的人)和D选项the traditional standards make people feel unstable(那些传统标准让人觉得不稳定)是原文中未涉及的内容。

2.Among all the comments, which of the following choices brings in authoritative sources in their discussions?(C)

A. Comment 1 and Comment 2.

B. Comment 3 and Comment 5.

C. Comment 1 and Comment 7.

D. Comment 4 and Comment 6.

解析:推断题。做题关键是要准确理解题目的意思,特别是关键词authoritative sources(权威观点),应该指的是名人名言或者理论。本题根据原文中人名和专有名词的线索做题最为快捷,Comment 1中的Brene Brown、Comment 5中的Benjamin Franklin以及Comment 7的“sociometer theory”都属于authoritative sources,而其他评论中则均未涉及,因此可以判断正确答案应该是C。

3.What all the commentators try to respond to in their writing is ______.(B)

A. the respect for the traditional values

B. the standards of self-worth measurement

C. marriage, celebrities and social activities

D. ego, contentment and social judgment

解析:主旨题。本题问的是所有评论中都涉及的内容,做题方法同41题,概括各个评论的共同主题,可以判断正确答案应该是B选项the standards of self-worth measurement(自我价值的评价标准)。而A选项the respect for the traditional values(对传统价值理念的尊重)是原文基本未涉及的内容;C选项marriage,celebrities and social activities(婚姻、名人和社会活动)只是个别评论中谈到的,例如:marriage只有Comment 3中提到了;D选项ego,contentment and social judgment(自我,满足和社会评价)也是如此,例如social judgment(社会评价)只是Comment 7的内容。

4.Why does the writer of Comment 5 try to clarify Benjamin Franklin’s saying?(D)

A. Because Franklin’s saying is universally applicable.

B. Because contentment means \

C. Because if you do your best, you will be the richest.

D. Because misunderstanding might occur of Franklin’s saying.

解析:推断题。首先根据题目关键词Benjamin Franklin’s saying在Comment 5中定位,找出原文中的答案,然后再进行合理的推断,同时也可以结合排除法做题。本题在原文中的答案应该是It does not mean not try to do your best,or be the richest.It simply means once you’ve done your best be content with yourself,just as if you don’t give your best effort discontent is sure to follow.(这句话并不意味着不用尽力做到最好,或者不要做最富有的人,而仅仅意味着一旦你尽力去做了,就应该对自己满意,就像如果你不尽力的话,你一定会对自己不满一样。)这两句话的作用应该是来解释Franklin的名言的真正含义,之所以需要解释应该是因为人们对此有误解,因此正确答案应该是D选项Because misunderstanding might occur of Franklin’s saying(因为会产生对Franklin的名言的误解)。尽管A选项Because Benjamin Franklin’s saying is universally applicable(因为Franklin的名言是普遍适用的)中的Benjamin Franklin’s saying is universally applicable与原文中it applies to all facets of life(它适用于生活的所有方面)的语义一致,但是却不是本题所问的clarify(澄清)Franklin的名言的原因。而B选项Because contentment means“rich”and discontent means“poor”(因为满足意味着“富有”而不满足则意味着“贫穷”)和C选项Because if you do your best,you will be the richest(因为如果你尽力了,你就会成为最富有的)都和原文意思不符。

5.What is the writer’s attitude toward the \(D)

A. Affirmative.

B. Objective.

C. Detached.

D. Negative.

解析:主观态度推断题。根据Comment 7中的评论that determination is full of cognitive biases and errors(这一决定充满了认知的偏见和错误)以及Awesome stuff(可怕的东西)可以判断作者对“sociometer theory”的态度是否定的,因此D选项Negative(负面的,否定的)是正确答案。而A选项Affirmative(肯定的)、B选项Objective(客观的)以及C选项Detached(分离的)均与原文表达不符。

Excerpt 1:

Sales of e-readers surged during the Christmas holiday season, according to a Pew Research Center report, which showed that the number of adults in the United States who owned tablets nearly doubled from mid-December to early January.

Excerpt 2:

Apple, based in Cupertino, California, controls 73% of the market, while Samsung Electronic Co. , Sony Corp. and Toshiba Corp. are among companies making constant improvements on tablets without bringing services that cut into the market share, Sarah Rotman Epps, an analyst at Forrester, said in the report.

Excerpt 3:

Under Square’s year-long pilot program, an iPad would be installed in the space where Taxi TVs currently sit, and the driver would have an iPhone to process credit-card payments. The technology would allow drivers to accept a passenger’s card at any point during the ride, then enter the amount later. The system charges drivers less in credit card transaction fees than the current rates.

Excerpt 4:

When Apple introduced the iPad tablet computer in 2010, it was doing what it likes to do best: creating a new category to dominate, as it had done with the iPod and iPhone. By the end of the year, the company had sold nearly 15 million iPads, generating about $9. 5 billion in revenue.

Just two years later, the chief executive of Apple, Timothy D. Cook, has a prediction: the day will come when tablet devices like the Apple iPad outsell traditional personal computers.

Excerpt 5:

Apple has made its first attempt to quantify how many American jobs can be credited to the sale of its iPads and other products, a group that includes the Apple engineers who design the devices and the drivers who deliver them—even the people who build the trucks that get them there.

On Friday, the company published the results of a study it commissioned saying that it had \

6.What is said about Apple Inc. with its tablet devices like iPads?(B)

A. It doubled its sale of e-readers during the Christmas season.

B. It controls 73% of the tablet device market.

C. It charges customers less in credit card transaction fees.

D. It has long been selling its traditional personal computers.

解析:细节题。根据答案选项中的关键词,逐一回原文中定位并比对。根据A选项的关键词Christmas season回原文定位,它在原文中的出处是Excerpt 1中的第一句话。A选项It doubled its sale of e-readers during the Christmas season(在圣诞节这段时间里苹果的电子阅读机的数量增长了一倍)与原文the number of adults in the United States who owned tablets nearly doubled from mid-December to early January(从12月中旬到1月初美国拥有平板电脑的成人人数将近增长了一倍)意思不符。根据B选项的关键词73%回原文定位,它在原文中的出处是Excerpt 2中的第一句话。B选项It controls 73%of the tablet device market.(它占据了73%的平板电脑市场)与Excerpt 2中的第一句话的主句意思完全一致,因此是正确答案。而C选项It charges customers less in credit card transaction fees(它收取消费者的信用卡的交易费较少)与原文Excerpt 3的最后一句The system charges drivers less in credit card transaction fees than the current rates(这一系统收取司机信用卡的交易费要比现有利率低)语义不符。D选项It has long been selling its traditional personal computers(苹果销售传统的个人电脑已经很长时间了)在原文中未曾涉及。

7.Which of the following choices involve the creation of tablet devices and its possible replacement of Taxi TVs?(B)

A. Excerpt 1 and Excerpt 5.

B. Excerpt 3 and Excerpt 4.

C. Excerpt 2 and Excerpt 6.

D. Excerpt 3 and Excerpt 5.

解析:细节题。首先应该读懂题目,本题问的是哪个选项涉及了平板电脑的发明以及它可能会取代计程车上的电视。然后根据题目关键词Taxi TVs回原文定位,通过速读可以发现,Taxi TVs出现在Excerpt 3中,据此可以排除A、C两个选项。接着再判断Excerpt 4和Excerpt 5到底是哪个提及了问题所问的内容。Excerpt 5谈到的是苹果创造的工作岗位,与本题内容无关,因此可以将D选项排除。

8.Tablet devices can miraculously perform many functions but they also cause the problem of______.(C)

A. its rivals succeeding in cutting into the market share

B. failing to process credit-card payments with an iPhone

C. e-book readers being distracted from their normal reading

D. misleading the trucks that get them to the tablet market

解析:细节题。本题做题的关键是正确理解题目,并抓住题目关键词。本题的意思是:平板电脑出色地完成了多项任务,但是也引起了怎样的问题?题目关键词cause the problem,原文中只有Excerpt 6第一段最后一句提到了平板电脑存在的问题。根据原文中的表述a tablet offers a menu of distractions that can fragment the reading experience,or stop it in its tracks(平板电脑提供了可能让人分心的菜单内容,它们会割裂阅读经历或者中断阅读)可以发现正确答案是C选项。而A选项its rivals succeeding in cutting into the market share(它的竞争对手正在侵吞它的市场份额)、B选项failing to process credit-card payments with an iPhone(没能通过iPhone进行信用卡付费)和D选项misleading the trucks that get them to the tablet market(误导了将它们运送到市场的卡车)均是原文未涉及的内容,与原文不符。

9.It can be inferred from one of the excerpts that a successful company should take the social responsibility of______.(D)

A. filing reports to the agencies like Pew Research Center

B. installing its products in the space where Taxi TVs sit

C. predicting the trends in product design and manufacturing

D. creating more jobs for people to be involved in its business operation

解析:推断题。首先应该正确理解题目,本题的意思是:一个成功的公司应该承担怎样的社会责任?题目关键词是the social responsibility,这一点仅出现在Excerpt 5中。通过概括Excerpt 5两段的内容,可以判断D选项Creating more jobs for people to be involved in its business operation(在它的经营中为人们创造更多的工作机会)是正确答案。而A选项filing reports to the agencies like Pew Research Center(像Pew Research Center这样的机构撰写报告)、B选项installing its products in the space where Taxi TVs sit(把它的产品安装在计程车电视的位置上)以及C选项predicting the trends in product design and manufacturing(预计产品设计和制造的趋势)都不能算是社会责任,不符合题目要求。

A. Nokia posts $1. 38 bn loss in the fourth qtr

B. Gold surges to 7-week high of $1, 720

C. R-Power ropes in German utility for mining

D. \

10.【R1】

B

解析: 首先,抓住小标题的关键词,应该是标题中最突出的人名、地名、数字及专有名词等,以此为线索回原文的新闻中比对。其次,可以核对标题意思与新闻主要意思是否一致。新闻主旨的表达基本是在新闻的第一句话中。

根据A选项中的Nokia回原文定位,应该是44的内容。A选项Nokia posts $1.38 bn loss in the fourth qtr(诺基亚宣布在第四个季度中损失了10.38亿美元)与原文首句Mobile phone maker Nokia Corp posted a fourth-quarter net loss of 1.70 billion euro($1.38 bn)as sales slumped 21%even as the company’s first Window smartphones hit markets in Europe and Asia(手机制造商诺基亚宣布由于销售下滑公司在第四个季度中损失了10.38亿美元,尽管公司的第一款Window智能手机登陆欧洲及亚洲市场)语义相符。

根据B选项的关键词Gold回原文定位,应该是42的内容。B选项Gold surges to 7-week high of $1,720(黄金价位飙升至7周以来的最高值1,720美元)与原文第一句Gold prices soared Thursday to the highest level in almost seven weeks as the dollar weakened after the U.S.Federal Reserve vowed to keep interest rates near zero for more than 2 years(由于关联储2年多前决心将存款利率维持在零利率左右,美元持续走低,因此周四黄金价位飙升至近7周以来的最高值)语义一致。

根据C选项中的关键词R-Power回原文定位,应该是45的内容。C选项R-Power ropes in German utility for mining(R-Power劝说德国矿业公司加入)与原文第一句Anil Ambani’s R-Power has roped in RWE Power International of Germany to help the company with extracting coal from its captive mines of the Tilaiya ultra-mega power project,the third plant the government has mandated the company to set up.(Anil Ambani’s R-Power已经说服德国的RWE Power International加入帮助该公司在Tilaiya超大发电站项目中他们所取得的煤矿采煤,该项目是政府要求公司建立的第三大发电厂)语义相符。

D选项是43的内容。“We are creating,not stealing jobs in U.S.,Europe”就是原文第一句话With HCL Tech announcing 10,000 jobs for locals in the u.S.and Europe,India Inc on Thursday chose the WEF meet to send a strong message that India IT firms are creating and not stealing jobs in troubled western economies(随着HCL Tech宣布在美国和欧洲给当地人提供1万个工作岗位,印度有限公司选择在世界教育联谊会上明确表明印度的信息科技业正在为困境中的西方经济创造工作岗位,而不是窃取工作岗位)中的内容。

11.【R2】

D

解析:

12.【R3】

A

解析:

13.【R4】

C

解析:

A. Isaac, the tropical storm, is on its way

B. The dispute between the Chicago Teachers Union and the school board

C. Texas was hit hardest by the spread of West Nile virus

D. U. S. national debt surged to a new high

【R1】______

The mayor of Dallas, says his city is facing an emergency. The problem is West Nile Virus. There is an outbreak of it happening around the U. S. It’s the biggest jump in the number of reported cases of West Nile since 2004, and the outbreak is spreading. This map shows some of the states that have been hit the hardest. By far, Texas has had it the worst: More than 380 confirmed cases of West Nile there. Officials are trying to fight the outbreak by using a spray to kill infected mosquitoes. The insects spread the disease after they get it from birds.

West Nile started in Africa. No one knows how it got to the U. S. , but we do know when it arrived: 1999. Most people who get West Nile don’t get seriously sick. Dr. Sanjay Gupta runs through some of the symptoms of this disease. The vast majority of people who get West Nile won’t have hardly any symptoms at all, or so mild that they won’t realize that in fact they have West Nile.

【R2】______

Early Sunday, this was listed as a tropical storm with wind speeds up to 65 miles per hour. But forecasters were saying Isaac could strengthen to a hurricane today. And that’s when it was expected to move across the Florida Keys. Around Florida, people started getting ready for the storm last week. They filled sandbags and stocked stuck up on supplies, things like bottled water, butteries and flashlights.

The storm’s projected path showed it moving up into the Gulf of Mexico, west of Tampa. That’s why the start of the Republican National Convention which is happening in Tampa is being delayed until tomorrow. Officials are hoping that’ll make it safer for delegates. Tropical storm Isaac moved across the Caribbean over the weekend, one of the countries it hit there was Haiti.

【R3】______

U. S. national debt has hit a new milestone, and it’s not a good one. The government now owes more than $16 trillion. That’s 16 with 12 zeroes after it, and still counting. We can put it this way, if you spend a million dollars a day, it would take you almost 44, 000 years to spend 16 trillion.

For this debt many Republicans blame Democrats and President Barack Obama. Many Democrats blame Republicans and former president George W. Bush. Two things we can say for sure. One, the government is spending a lot of money, and two, it’s taking in a lot less tax revenue because of the struggling economy, so you can count on this number increasing in the months ahead.

【R4】______

Three hundred and fifty thousand students in America’s largest school district are not back in class today. The earliest that could happen is Wednesday, and the standoff between the Chicago Teachers Union and the school board has not been resolved. School officials took legal action on Monday trying to force teachers off the picket lines and in the classrooms.

The city calls the dispute dangerous and says it’s against the law while the Teachers Union accused Chicago Mayor Rahm Emaneul of trying to bully teachers into accepting a deal. Now, there is a deal. It’s a tentative one, but many members of the Chicago Teachers Union aren’t happy with it, they want more time to look it over before they sign on. The big issue is here, how long the school day is, how teachers are evaluated, and how secure their jobs are.

14.【R1】

C

解析: 标题译文:西尼罗河病毒重创德克萨斯州

新闻译文:

德克萨斯州达拉斯的市长称他的城市正面临紧急情况。问题是西尼罗河病毒。该病毒在美国突然爆发。这是自2004年以来西尼罗河报告的病例数出现最多的情况,且疫情正在蔓延。这张地图显示了一些遭受重大打击的州。到目前为止,德克萨斯州的情况最为糟糕:已经有超过380例西尼罗河病毒确诊病例。官员们试图通过使用喷雾杀死被感染的蚊子来对抗病毒。这些昆虫在与鸟类接触后传播疾病。

西尼罗河病毒始于非洲。没有人知道它如何到达美国,但是我们确实知道它在美国开始传播的日期:1999年。身染西尼罗河病毒的大多数人不会患上重病。桑杰-古普塔会告诉你这种病的一些症状。身染西尼罗河病毒的绝大多数人几乎没有任何症状,或者只有些轻微的症状,以至于他们意识不到自己已经身染西尼罗病毒。

15.【R2】

A

解析: 标题译文:热带风暴艾萨克即将登陆

新闻译文:

周日早些时候,它被称为热带风暴,风速高达每小时65英里。但是天气预报员称艾萨克今天会变成飓风。而那个时候它将登陆佛罗里达。而在佛罗里达,人们开始准备应对上周的风暴。他们装填沙袋并储存食品,诸如瓶装水,电池和手电筒等。

风暴预计路径显示它会登陆到墨西哥湾西部的坦帕。这就是在坦帕召开的共和党全国代表大会被推迟到明天的原因。官员希望代表们更为安全。而上周末热带风暴艾萨克穿过加勒比海,并且袭击了加勒比海域的国家海地。

16.【R3】

D

解析: 标题译文:美国国债增长到新的高度

新闻译文:

美国的国家债务已达到一个新的里程碑,当然这不是好的那种。现在政府欠款超过16万亿美元。就是说16后面有12个零,而且这个数字还在继续增长。我们可以这样说,如果你一天花一百万美元,你需要44 000年才能花光这16万亿。

对于这笔债务许多共和党人指责民主党和贝拉克-奥巴马总统。而许多民主党人指责共和党人和前总统乔治-W-布什。但有两件事我们可以肯定。首先,政府正在花费一大笔钱,第二,因为经济困难,税收收入少之又少,所以你能想到的是这个数字在未来几个月内会继续增长。

17.【R4】

B

解析: 标题译文:芝加哥教师工会和学校董事会的争端

新闻译文:

美国最大学区的350 000名学生今天仍然没有回到学校上课。这起事件最早可能发生在星期三,芝加哥教师工会和学校董事会之间的僵局仍没有化解。学校官员在周一采取了法律行动试图强迫教师退出纠察线回到教室。

该市市民称这起争端十分危险,并且是违反法律的,而教师联盟则指责芝加哥市长拉姆-艾曼努尔,他试图强迫教师接受一项交易。现在,有一项协议出台。这是一项试探性的协议,但芝加哥教师工会的许多成员对此并不满意,在签字之前他们想要有更多的时间考虑。最大的问题就在这里,课时有多长,如何评估教师,以及如何确保工作的稳定。

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