Human beings, born with a drive to explore and experiment, thrive on learning. Unfortunately, corporations are oriented predominantly toward controlling employees, not fostering their learning. Ironically, this orientation creates the very conditions that predestine employees to mediocre performances. Over time, superior performance requires superior learning, because long-term corporate survival depends on continually exploring new business and organizational opportunities that can create new sources of growth.
To survive in the future, corporations must become \
1.According to the passage, traditional corporate leaders differ from leaders in learning organizations in that the former(C)
A. encourage employees to concentrate on developing a wide range of skills
B. enable employees to recognize and confront dominant corporate models and to develop alternative models
C. make important policy decisions alone and then require employees in the corporation to abide by those decisions
D. instill confidence in employees because of their willingness to make risky decisions and accept their consequences
E. are concerned with offering employees frequent advice and career guidance
This question requires understanding of the contrast the passage draws between leaders of traditional corporations and leaders of learning organizations. According to the second paragraph, the former are traditionally charismatic leaders who set policy and make decisions, while the latter foster integrated thinking at all levels of the organization.
A According to the passage, it is leaders in learning organizations, not traditional corporate leaders, who encourage the development of a wide range of skills.
B Leaders in learning organizations are those who want their employees to challenge dominant models.
C Correct. The second paragraph states that traditional corporate leaders are individualistic; they alone set the corporations direction and make key decisions.
D The passage does not address the question of whether traditional corporate leaders instill confidence in employees. In fact, the first paragraph suggests that they may not; rather, they might come across as objectionably controlling.
E The passage suggests that advice and guidance are more likely to be offered by leaders of learning organizations than by leaders of traditional corporations.
The correct answer is C.
2.Which of the following best describes employee behavior encouraged within learning organizations, as such organizations are described in the passage?(E)
A. Carefully defining one’s job description and taking care to avoid deviations from it
B. Designing mentoring programs that train new employees to follow procedures that have been used for many years
C. Concentrating one’s efforts on mastering one aspect of a complicated task
D. Studying an organizational problem, preparing a report, and submitting it to a corporate leader for approval
E. Analyzing a problem related to productivity, making a decision about a solution, and implementing that solution
The second paragraph of the passage indicates that employees of learning organizations are encouraged to think and act for themselves; they learn new skills and expand their capabilities.
A Avoiding deviations from one’s carefully defined job description would more likely be encouraged in a traditional corporation, as described in the first paragraph, than in a learning organization.
B Any employee training that involves following long-standing procedures would more likely be encouraged in a traditional corporation than a learning organization.
C According to the passage, mastering only one aspect of a task, no matter how complicated, would be insufficient in a learning organization, in which broad patterns of thinking are encouraged.
D As described in the passage, the role of corporate leaders in learning organizations is not, characteristically, to approve employees’ solutions to problems, but rather to enable and empower employees to implement solutions on their own.
E Correct. Employees in learning organizations are expected to act on their own initiative; thus, they would be encouraged to analyze and solve problems on their own, implementing whatever solutions they devised.
The correct answer is E.
3.According to the author of the passage, corporate leaders of the future should do which of the following?(D)
A. They should encourage employees to put long-term goals ahead of short-term profits.
B. They should exercise more control over employees in order to constrain production costs.
C. They should redefine incentives for employees’ performance improvement.
D. They should provide employees with opportunities to gain new skills and expand their capabilities.
E. They should promote individual managers who are committed to established company policies.
This question focuses on what the author recommends in the passage for future corporate leaders. In the second paragraph, the author states that, among other things, corporate leaders need to be teachers to provide challenges to their employees and create an atmosphere where employees are continually learning new skills and expanding their capabilities to shape their future
A The passage does not directly discuss the issue of corporate goals and profitability in the long or short term.
B The passage does not address the topic of production costs, and it suggests that its author would favor reducing, rather than increasing, corporate leaders’ control over employees. The first paragraph states that leaders who attempt to control employees lead those employees to perform in mediocre fashion.
C The passage does not discuss incentivizing employees’ performance; rather, employees’ performance will improve, the passage suggests, under different corporate leadership.
D Correct. The final sentence of the passage states directly that leaders must build organizations in which employees can learn new skills and expand their capabilities.
E The first paragraph indicates that clinging to established company policies is a strategy for the future that is likely to be unproductive.
The correct answer is D.
4.The primary purpose of the passage is to(E)
A. endorse a traditional corporate structure
B. introduce a new approach to corporate leadership and evaluate criticisms of it
C. explain competing theories about management practices and reconcile them
D. contrast two typical corporate organizational structures
E. propose an alternative to a common corporate approach
This question depends on understanding the passage as a whole. The first paragraph explains the way in which corporations fail to facilitate how humans learn. The second paragraph suggests that corporations should change the way they view employees in order to promote learning, and it explains the positive outcomes that would result from that shift in thinking.
A The first paragraph explains that the traditional corporate structure leads to mediocre performance; it does not endorse that structure.
B The second paragraph introduces the concept of a learning organization and its attendant approach to corporate leadership. Rather than identifying any criticisms of that approach, the passage endorses it wholeheartedly.
C The passage discusses the difference between the idea of a single charismatic leader and that of a shared corporate leadership, but it does not attempt to reconcile these two ideas.
D The passage’s main focus is on advocating a particular approach, not on merely contrasting it with another. Furthermore, it portrays only one of the approaches as typical. It suggests that the organizational structure that relies on a single charismatic leader is typical but that another approach, that in which leadership is shared, should instead become typical.
E Correct. The passage identifies a common corporate approach, one based on controlling employees, and proposes that corporations should instead become learning organizations.
The correct answer is E.
Structural unemployment—the unemployment that remains even at the peak of the economy’s upswings—is caused by an imbalance between the types and locations of available employment on the one hand and the qualifications and locations of workers on the other hand. When such an imbalance exists, both labor shortages and unemployment may occur, despite a balance between supply and demand for labor in the economy as a whole.
Because technological change is likely to displace some workers, it is a major factor in producing structural unemployment. While technological advance almost invariably results in shifts in demands for different types of workers, it does not necessarily result in unemployment. Relatively small or gradual changes in demand are likely to cause little unemployment. In the individual firm or even in the labor market as a whole, normal attrition may be sufficient to reduce the size of the work force in the affected occupations. Relatively large or rapid changes, however, can cause serious problems. Workers may lose their jobs and find themselves without the skills necessary to obtain new jobs. Whether this displacement leads to structural unemployment depends on the amount of public and private sector resources devoted to retraining and placing those workers. Workers can be encouraged to move where there are jobs, to reeducate or retrain themselves, or to retire. In addition, other factors affecting structural unemployment, such as capital movement, can be controlled.
Increased structural unemployment, should it occur, makes it difficult for the economy to achieve desired low rates of unemployment along with low rates of inflation. If there is a growing pool of workers who lack the necessary skills for the available jobs, increases in total labor demand will rapidly generate shortages of qualified workers. As the wages of those workers are bid up, labor costs, and thus prices, rise. This phenomenon may be an important factor in the rising trend, observed for the past two decades, of unemployment combined with inflation. Government policy has placed a priority on reducing inflation, but these efforts have nevertheless caused unemployment to increase.
5.All of the following are mentioned as ways of controlling the magnitude of structural unemployment EXCEPT(A)
A. using public funds to create jobs
B. teaching new skills to displaced workers
C. allowing displaced workers to retire
D. controlling the movement of capital
E. encouraging workers to move to where jobs are available
This question addresses what the passage states directly about how the magnitude of structural unemployment can be controlled. The last few sentences of the second paragraph state several ways in which this control may be exerted.
A Correct. The passage mentions using public sector resources, but it does not say that those resources could be used to create jobs.
B The passage states that workers can be reeducated or retrained as a way of addressing structural unemployment.
C Encouraging workers to retire is one of the options mentioned in the passage for controlling structural unemployment.
D Capital movement is one of the factors affecting structural unemployment, and the passage states that controlling this movement can be used as a way of controlling structural unemployment.
E The passage indicates that encouraging displaced workers to move where there are jobs is a way to help control structural unemployment.
The correct answer is A.
6.The passage suggests that a potential outcome of higher structural unemployment is(C)
A. increased public spending for social services
B. placement of workers in jobs for which they are not qualified
C. higher wages for those workers who have skills that are in demand
D. an increase in the length of time jobs remain unfilled
E. a shift in the government’s economic policy priorities
The third paragraph discusses a potential result of higher structural unemployment: if more workers lack skills that are in demand, there will be shortages of qualified workers. The wages of workers who do have the desired skills will thus rise.
A While higher structural unemployment might result in an increased demand for social services, such as job training and the like, the passage does not suggest that the government would in fact respond by spending more on such services.
B Nothing in the passage indicates that employers would hire workers who lack necessary skills—indeed, the lack of qualified workers is itself a cause of increased structural unemployment.
C Correct. The passage indicates that when growth in demand for workers with certain skills outpaces the growth in the number of workers who possess those skills, the wages of those workers are bid up, resulting in increased pay for the skilled workers.
D The passage does not discuss the length of time that jobs are likely to remain unfilled as structural unemployment increases. The amount of time jobs remain unfilled could remain the same, but the number or type of jobs that go unfilled may change.
E The passage suggests that certain types of public sector spending (presumably spending as a result of government policy) can help control the magnitude of structural unemployment, but the passage does not indicate whether the government is in fact likely to change policy so as to try to control this magnitude. Furthermore, the passage states that government policy has placed a priority on reducing inflation. Yet there is no suggestion that the government is likely to shift away from this priority in the face of higher structural unemployment.
The correct answer is C.
7.It can be inferred from the passage that even when there are unemployed workers, labor shortages are still likely to occur if(D)
A. the inflation rate is unusually high
B. there is insufficient technological innovation
C. the level of structural unemployment is exceptionally low
D. the jobs available in certain places require skills that the labor force in those areas lacks
E. the workers in some industries are dissatisfied with the pay offered in those industries
This question relies on the passage’s characterization of structural unemployment — that there is a mismatch between the number of jobs available in a certain location and the number of workers in that location who possess the skills required for those jobs. Even if there is a sufficient number of workers in the area to ill the positions, if those workers had the requisite skills, labor shortages will occur if an insufficient number of those workers lack the required skills.
A The passage in the third paragraph explains that structural unemployment and inflation can coexist, but it does not suggest that a high rate of inflation will make labor shortages likely; rather, the passage indicates that structural unemployment may lead to inflation by pushing wages, and thus prices, higher.
B The passage indicates that greater technological innovation can produce structural unemployment, not that insufficient technological innovation can.
C When there are unemployed workers, labor shortages would be unlikely to occur if the level of structural unemployment is low, because low structural unemployment would mean that no imbalance exists between available employment and workers with requisite skills. Thus, unemployed workers would likely be able to find jobs.
D Correct. The labor shortages associated with structural unemployment can, according to the passage, be caused by a mismatch in a certain location between available jobs requiring particular skills and the number of workers possessing those skills.
E The passage does not discuss what would happen if some industries’ workers are dissatisfied with their pay. Presumably, though, even if those workers were to quit their jobs due to that dissatisfaction, unemployed workers may very well be happy to take those jobs (assuming they are not lacking the requisite skills). So the passage gives us no reason to think that labor shortages would be likely to occur—at least without a situation like that described in answer choice D.
The correct answer is D.
8.The passage suggests that the phenomenon of combined unemployment and inflation is(B)
A. a socioeconomic problem that can only be addressed by government intervention
B. a socioeconomic problem that can be characteristic of periods of structural unemployment
C. an economic problem that results from government intervention in management-labor relations
D. an economic problem that results from imperfect applications of technology
E. an economic problem that can be eliminated by relatively small changes in the labor force
This question depends on understanding the phenomenon of combined unemployment and inflation, which is addressed in the third paragraph. That paragraph states that a trend associated with structural unemployment—that of rising labor costs and prices—is responsible for the phenomenon.
A The third paragraph indicates that government policy has been unable, thus far, to remedy the problem of combined unemployment and inflation, and it gives no indication whether a nongovernmental solution is available.
B Correct. Periods of structural unemployment have, according to the passage, featured both inflation and unemployment.
C The passage does not discuss government intervention into management-labor relations.
D Certain applications of technology may be responsible for increasing structural unemployment, but the passage provides no way to distinguish between imperfect and other such applications.
E The passage discusses the phenomenon of combined unemployment and inflation only in relation to structural unemployment, which the passage suggests is likely to arise only in relation to large or rapid changes in demand for labor. Therefore, it seems unlikely that relatively small changes in the labor force can eliminate the phenomenon of combined unemployment and inflation.
The correct answer is B.
9.The passage is primarily concerned with(C)
A. clarifying the definition of a concept
B. proposing a way to eliminate an undesirable condition
C. discussing the sources and consequences of a problem
D. suggesting ways to alleviate the effects of a particular social policy
E. evaluating the steps that have been taken to correct an imbalance
This question depends on understanding the passage as a whole in order to identify its primary concern. The first paragraph defines structural unemployment (which the passage, in its second paragraph, indicates is a serious problem).The second paragraph describes a major factor that can cause structural unemployment, as well as some steps that might be taken to alleviate it. Finally, the third paragraph identifies possible effects of structural unemployment, including wage and price inflation.
A The first paragraph clarifies the definition of structural unemployment, but this definition is not the passage’s primary concern.
B The passage’s second paragraph indicates some ways that an increase in structural unemployment can be mitigated, but nowhere does the passage suggest that the condition can be eliminated entirely.
C Correct. The passage discusses the problem of structural unemployment, explaining how it can arise and what some of its consequences may be.
D The passage does suggest some ways in which structural unemployment might be alleviated, but this kind of unemployment is not characterized as an effect of a social policy. Rather, it is a state of economic affairs.
E The second paragraph identifies some steps that could be taken to correct a particular situation of worker displacement. It does not, however, evaluate those steps.
The correct answer is C.
10.According to the passage, small downward shifts in the demand for labor will not usually cause unemployment because(D)
A. such shifts are frequently accompanied by upswings in the economy
B. such shifts usually occur slowly
C. workers can be encouraged to move to where there are jobs
D. normal attrition is often sufficient to reduce the size of the work force
E. workers are usually flexible enough to learn new skills and switch to new jobs
This question requires noting that the second paragraph of the passage discusses small changes in demand for labor: their effect on unemployment is likely to be small because normal attrition can reduce the size of the work force accordingly.
A The passage does not mention upswings in the economy in relation to small shifts in demand for labor. Furthermore, the passage indicates that structural unemployment can occur even at peaks of economic upswings, so presumably even if small downward shifts in the demand for labor are frequently accompanied by economic upswings, structural unemployment could still result.
B The passage suggests that shifts in demand for workers that do not result in unemployment may be small or gradual. Nothing indicates that small changes are also necessarily gradual.
C The second paragraph indicates that workers being encouraged to move to where there are jobs would be a reasonable response to large or rapid changes in demand for workers; it does not discuss such encouragement in relation to small shifts in demand.
D Correct. The passage identifies normal attrition as a factor that can reduce the work force sufficiently to accommodate small reductions in the demand for labor in particular occupations.
E Workers’ ability to learn new skills is identified in the passage as a factor affecting whether structural unemployment will grow in response to large or rapid changes, not small changes, in the demand for workers in particular occupations.
The correct answer is D.
In 1971 researchers hoping to predict earthquakes in the short term by identifying precursory phenomena (those that occur a few days before large quakes but not otherwise) turned their attention to changes in seismic waves that had been detected prior to earthquakes. An explanation for such changes was offered by \
11.The passage is primarily concerned with(D)
A. explaining why one method of earthquake prediction has proven more practicable than an alternative method
B. suggesting that accurate earthquake forecasting must combine elements of long-term and short-term prediction
C. challenging the usefulness of dilatancy theory for explaining the occurrence of precursory phenomena
D. discussing the deficiency of two methods by which researchers have attempted to predict the occurrence of earthquakes
E. describing the development of methods for establishing patterns in the occurrence of past earthquakes
To answer this question, focus on what the passage as a whole is trying to do. The first paragraph describes a method for predicting the occurrence of earthquakes, and the second paragraph explains problems with that method. The third paragraph describes a second method for predicting the occurrence of earthquakes, and the fourth paragraph explains problems with that method. Thus, the passage as a whole is primarily concerned with explaining the deficiencies of two methods for predicting the occurrence of earthquakes.
A The passage does not compare the practicability of the two methods.
B The passage does not discuss combining long-term and short-term methods.
C Only the first half of the passage discusses dilatancy theory; the second half discusses a different method for predicting the occurrence of earthquakes.
D Correct. The passage describes two methods for predicting the occurrence of earthquakes and explains the shortcomings of each method.
E Only the second half of the passage discusses patterns in the occurrence of past earthquakes; the first half discusses a different method for predicting the occurrence of earthquakes.
The correct answer is D.
12.According to the passage, laboratory evidence concerning the effects of stress on rocks might help account for(B)
A. differences in magnitude among earthquakes
B. certain phenomena that occur prior to earthquakes
C. variations in the intervals between earthquakes in a particular area
D. differences in the frequency with which earthquakes occur in various areas
E. the unreliability of short-term earthquake predictions
This question asks for information explicitly stated in the passage. The first paragraph explains that rocks subjected to stress in the laboratory undergo multiple changes. According to dilatancy theory, such changes happening to rocks in the field could lead to earthquake precursors— phenomena that occur before large earthquakes.
A The passage explains how laboratory evidence might be used to predict the occurrence of large earthquakes, not to differentiate between earthquakes’ magnitudes.
B Correct. According to dilatancy theory, the sort of changes that have been observed in laboratories to occur in rocks might lead to earthquake precursors in the field.
C Although the passage discusses variation in earthquake intervals, that evidence is based on historical records, not laboratory evidence.
D The passage does not refer in any way to differences in the frequency of earthquakes in various regions.
E The unreliability of one method for making short-term earthquake predictions is implied by information gathered in the field, not by laboratory evidence.
The correct answer is B.
13.It can be inferred from the passage that one problem with using precursory phenomena to predict earthquakes is that minor tremors(E)
A. typically occur some distance from the sites of the large earthquakes that follow them
B. are directly linked to the mechanisms that cause earthquakes
C. are difficult to distinguish from major tremors
D. have proven difficult to measure accurately
E. are not always followed by large earthquakes
This question asks what can be inferred from certain information in the passage. The second paragraph explains two problems with using minor tremors to predict earthquakes. First, minor tremors provide no information about how large an impending earthquake will be. Second, the minor tremors that occur prior to a large earthquake are indistinguishable from other minor tremors. Thus, it can be inferred that minor tremors sometimes occur when no large earthquake follows.
A The passage does not mention the distance between minor tremors and ensuing earthquakes.
B The passage implies that minor tremors sometimes occur without an ensuing earthquake, so the phenomena are most likely not directly linked.
C The passage suggests no difficulty in distinguishing between minor tremors and major tremors.
D The passage does not mention any difficulties in the measurement of minor tremors.
E Correct. The passage indicates that minor tremors occurring prior to a large earthquake are indistinguishable from minor tremors that are not followed by large earthquakes. So the fact that minor tremors are not always followed by large earthquakes, together with the inability to distinguish between those that are and those that are not, poses a problem for a ny attempt to predict large earthquakes on the basis of this type of precursory phenomena.
The correct answer is E.
14.According to the passage, some researchers based their research about long-term earthquake prediction on which of the following facts?(C)
A. The historical record confirms that most earthquakes have been preceded by minor tremors.
B. The average interval between earthquakes in one region of the San Andreas Fault is 132 years.
C. Some regions tend to be the site of numerous earthquakes over the course of many years.
D. Changes in the volume of rock can occur as a result of building stress and can lead to the weakening of rock.
E. Paleoseismologists have been able to unearth and date geological features caused by past earthquakes.
This question asks for information explicitly provided in the passage.The question asks what the basis is for the research into long-term earthquake prediction described in the third paragraph. Based on the fact that numerous earthquakes occur in some regions over the course of many years, the researchers tried to identify regular earthquake intervals that would assist in making long-term predictions. Thus, the basis of their research is the occurrence of numero is earthquakes at particular sites.
A The passage indicates that minor tremors are used by some scientists to make short-term earthquake predictions, not that they were the basis for research about long-term predictions.
B This fact about the San Andreas Fault was used by paleoseismologists to show the inadequacy of the long-term prediction research, since actual earthquake intervals varied greatly from the average.
C Correct. Since earthquakes occur repeatedly in certain regions, researchers tried to identify regular cycles in earthquake intervals.
D The passage indicates that changes in rock volume have been used by some scientists to make short-term earthquake predictions, not that they were the basis for research about long-term predictions.
E Paleoseismologists’ research provided evidence against the existence of regular earthquake cycles used in making long-term predictions.
The correct answer is C.
15.The passage suggests which of the following about the paleoseismologists’ findings described in lines 42-50?(D)
A. They suggest that the frequency with which earthquakes occurred at a particular site decreased significantly over the past two millennia.
B. They suggest that paleoseismologists may someday be able to make reasonably accurate long-term earthquake predictions.
C. They suggest that researchers may someday be able to determine which past occurrences of minor tremors were actually followed by large earthquakes.
D. They suggest that the recurrence of earthquakes in earthquake-prone sites is too irregular to serve as a basis for earthquake prediction.
E. They indicate that researchers attempting to develop long-term methods of earthquake prediction have overlooked important evidence concerning the causes of earthquakes.
This question asks about what can be inferred from a particular portion of the passage (lines 42-50). The third paragraph describes research that attempted to identify regular patterns of recurrence in earthquake-prone regions, to aid in long-term earthquake prediction. The fourth paragraph describes evidence discovered by paleoseismologists that undermines this idea that regular earthquake cycles exist. The paragraph indicates that in one region along the San Andreas Fault, the average interval between earthquakes was 132 years, but individual intervals varied widely—from 44 to 332 years. This information implies that earthquake intervals are too irregular to be used for accurate long-term earthquake prediction.
A The evidence suggests that the earthquake intervals are irregular, not that they have become shorter over time.
B The findings provide evidence against the use of regular earthquake cycles in long-term earthquake prediction.
C The findings do not clearly pertain to minor tremors.
D Correct. The great variation in intervals between earthquakes suggests that recurrence is too irregular to serve as the basis for long-term earthquake prediction.
E The paleoseismologists studied evidence showing when earthquakes occurred. The passage does not suggest that the evidence has any implications regarding the causes of earthquakes.
The correct answer is D.
16.The author implies which of the following about the ability of the researchers mentioned in line 18 to predict earthquakes?(C)
A. They can identify when an earthquake is likely to occur but not how large it will be.
B. They can identify the regions where earthquakes are likely to occur but not when they will occur.
C. They are unable to determine either the time or the place that earthquakes are likely to occur.
D. They are likely to be more accurate at short-term earthquake prediction than at long-term earthquake prediction.
E. They can determine the regions where earthquakes have occurred in the past but not the regions where they are likely to occur in the future.
The question asks for information explicitly provided in the passage. The second paragraph indicates that researchers at first reported success in identifying earthquake precursors, but further analysis of the data undermined their theory. The passage then explains that atypical seismic waves were recorded before some earthquakes; this evidence at first seemed to support the researchers’ theory, before further analysis proved the evidence inadequate.
A Although earthquakes are caused by stress on rock, the passage does not indicate that this fact encouraged researchers to believe that precursors could be used to predict earthquakes.
B This fact would undermine the theory that changes in seismic waves are precursory phenomena that can be used to predict earthquakes.
C Correct. Seismic waves with unusual velocities occurring before earthquakes at first seemed to provide support for researchers’ theory that earthquakes could be predicted by precursory phenomena.
D Though earthquakes’ recurrence in certain regions is mentioned as being important to researchers seeking to make long-term earthquake predictions, it is not mentioned as being relevant to researchers’ theory that earthquakes can be predicted by precursory phenomena.
E This is not mentioned as being relevant to scientists’ belief that earthquakes could be predicted on the basis of precursory phenomena.
The correct answer is C.
A key decision required of advertising managers is whether a \
17.It can be inferred from the passage that one reason an advertiser might prefer a hard-sell approach to a soft-sell approach is that(E)
A. the risks of boomerang effects are minimized when the conclusions an advertiser wants the consumer to draw are themselves left unstated
B. counterargumentation is likely from consumers who fail to draw their own conclusions regarding an advertising claim
C. inferential activity is likely to occur even if consumers perceive themselves to be more knowledgeable than the individuals presenting product claims
D. research on consumer memory suggests that the explicit conclusions provided by an advertiser using the hard-sell approach have a significant impact on decision making
E. the information presented by an advertiser using the soft-sell approach may imply different conclusions to different consumers
This question relies on what the passage suggests about the difference between the hard-sell and soft-sell approaches—and why the hard-sell approach might be preferred. The hard-sell approach, according to the second paragraph, presents explicit conclusions. The soft-sell approach, on the other hand, does not explicitly state conclusions about products; instead, consumers make up their own minds.
A While the passage makes clear that boomerang effects are minimized when conclusions are left unstated, this is an advantage of the soft-sell approach over the hard-sell approach.
B According to the second paragraph, counterargumentation is a disadvantage not an advantage, of the hard-sell approach This is a reason not to prefer the hard sell.
C The third paragraph suggests that in cases in which consumers may perceive themselves as more knowledgeable than individuals presenting product claims, the soft-sell approach offers an advantage over the hard sell approach.
D According to the third paragraph, self-generated conclusions that are associated with the soft-sell approach have a greater impact on decision making than explicit conclusions. The passage does not allude to any research on memory that would favor the hard-sell approach.
E Correct. The fourth paragraph suggests that one problem with the soft-sell approach is that consumers could miss the point; they may not come to the conclusions that the advertiser would prefer. Thus an advertiser might prefer a hard-sell approach. The correct answer is E.
18.Each of the following is mentioned in the passage as a characteristic of the hard-sell approach EXCEPT:(B)
A. Its overall message is readily grasped.
B. It appeals to consumers’ knowledge about the product.
C. It makes explicit claims that the advertised brand is superior to other brands.
D. It uses statements that are expressed very clearly.
E. It makes claims in the form of direct conclusions.
This question asks about what is directly stated in the passage about the hard-sell approach. The first and second paragraphs provide the details about this approach, including that it uses direct, forceful claims about benefits of a brand over competitors’ brands; its claims are simple and straightforward, in the form of explicit conclusions; and consumers are generally left with little room for confusion about the message.
A The second paragraph states that there is little room for confusion about the message.
B Correct. The extent of consumers’ knowledge about the product is not mentioned in the passage.
C The first paragraph indicates that in the hard-sell approach advertisers make direct claims regarding the benefits of the advertised brand over other offerings.
D The first and second paragraphs say that hard-sell claims are direct, simple, and straightforward.
E The second paragraph emphasizes that the hard-sell approach presents it claims in the form of explicit conclusions.
The correct answer is B.
19.It can be inferred from the passage that advertisers could reduce one of the risks discussed in the last paragraph if they were able to provide(A)
A. motivation for consumers to think about the advertisement’s message
B. information that implies the advertiser’s intended conclusion but leaves that conclusion unstated
C. subtle evidence that the advertised product is superior to that of competitors
D. information comparing the advertised product with its competitors
E. opportunity for consumers to generate their own beliefs or conclusions
This question requires understanding the risks discussed in the last paragraph of the passage. Those risks are, first, that consumers would not be motivated to think about the advertisement and thus would miss the message’s point; second, that consumers may draw conclusions that the advertiser did not intend; and finally, that consumers could question the validity of the conclusions they reach, even if those conclusions are what advertisers intend.
A Correct. Providing motivation for consumers to think about an advertisement’s message would reduce the first risk discussed in the last paragraph: that consumers would fail to draw any conclusions because they would lack motivation to engage with advertisements.
B Providing information that implies a conclusion but leaves it unstated is the very definition of the soft-sell approach, and it is this approach that gives rise to the risks discussed in the last paragraph.
C Providing subtle evidence that a product is superior is most likely to give rise to all three of the risks identified in the last paragraph, in that its subtlety would leave consumers free to draw their own conclusions, to fail to draw those conclusions, or to question the validity of their own conclusions.
D A direct comparison of the advertised product with its competitors would run all the risks identified in the last paragraph: consumers might not find the comparison motivating; they could draw conclusions that the advertiser did not intend (e.g., that the competing products are superior); or they could question whatever conclusions they do draw.
E Giving consumers the opportunity to generate their own beliefs or conclusions is an intrinsic part of the soft-sell approach, which produces the risks discussed in the last paragraph.
The correct answer is A.
20.The primary purpose of the passage is to(D)
A. point out the risks involved in the use of a particular advertising strategy
B. make a case for the superiority of one advertising strategy over another
C. illustrate the ways in which two advertising strategies may be implemented
D. present the advantages and disadvantages of two advertising strategies
E. contrast the types of target markets for which two advertising strategies are appropriate
Overall, the passage is concerned with two advertising strategies. The first paragraph introduces the strategies. The second paragraph explains how a particular aspect of one approach may be both positive and negative and how the second approach mitigates these problems. The third paragraph continues this discussion of mitigation, while the fourth paragraph points out that there are drawbacks to this approach, too. Thus, according to the passage, both strategies have positive and negative aspects.
A The passage is concerned not with one particular advertising strategy but with wo, and it discusses benefits, as well as risks, involved with both strategies.
B The passage does not suggest that one strategy is superior to the other but rather that each has positive and negative aspects.
C The passage does not discuss how to implement either of the strategies it is concerned with; instead, it deals with how consumers are likely to respond once the implementation has already taken place
D Correct. The passage is primarily concerned with showing that both of the strategies described have advantages and disadvantages.
E The passage provides some indirect grounds for inferring the target markets for which each advertising strategy might be appropriate, but it is not primarily concerned with contrasting those markets.
The correct answer is D.
21.Which of the following best describes the function of the sentence in lines 25-28 in the context of the passage as a whole?(B)
A. It reiterates a distinction between two advertising strategies that is made in the first paragraph.
B. It explains how a particular strategy avoids a drawback described earlier in the paragraph.
C. It suggests that a risk described earlier in the paragraph is less serious than some researchers believe it to be.
D. It outlines why the strategy described in the previous sentence involves certain risks for an advertiser.
E. It introduces an argument that will be refuted in the following paragraph.
The sentence in lines 25-28 explains how the kinds of conclusions consumers are invited to draw based on the soft-sell approach reduce the risk that consumers will respond with resentment, distrust, and counterargumentation—that is, the possible boomerang effect identified earlier in the paragraph as a drawback of the hard-sell approach.
A The sentence does not reiterate the distinction between the hard- and soft-sell approaches; rather, it explains an advantage of the soft-sell approach.
B Correct. The sentence explains how the soft-sell approach avoids the problems that can arise from the hard-sell approach’s explicitly stated conclusions.
C The sentence suggests that the risk of boomerang effects described earlier in the paragraph is serious but that a different approach can mitigate it.
D The sentence outlines why the strategy described in the previous sentence reduces advertisers’ risks, not why it involves risks.
E At no point does the passage refute the idea that implicit conclusions reduce the risk of boomerang effects. It does say that there could be drawbacks to the soft-sell approach, but those drawbacks are related to the problem with implicit conclusions themselves and how people reach them. In addition, the following paragraph does not mention the drawbacks, only the advantages of implicit conclusions.
The correct answer is B.
22.It can be inferred from the passage that one situation in which the boomerang effect often occurs is when consumers(E)
A. have been exposed to forceful claims that are diametrically opposed to those in an advertiser’s message
B. have previous self-generated beliefs or conclusions that are readily accessible from memory
C. are subjected to advertising messages that are targeted at specific markets to which those consumers do not belong
D. are confused regarding the point of the advertiser’s message
E. come to view the advertiser’s message with suspicion
The passage discusses the boomerang effect in the second paragraph. This effect is defined as consumers deriving conclusions from advertising that are the opposite of those that advertisers intended to present, and it occurs when consumers resent and/or distrust what they are being told.
A The passage provides no grounds for inferring that consumers need to be exposed to opposing claims in order to believe such claims; they may reach opposing claims on their own.
B The passage indicates that the boomerang effect can be reduced by using a soft-sell approach, which can result in self-generated conclusions, but it provides no evidence about any possible effects of preexisting self-generated beliefs or conclusions on the boomerang effect.
C The passage does not address how consumers who are subjected to advertising messages not intended for them might respond.
D Confusion regarding the point of the advertiser’s message is more likely to occur, the passage suggests, when advertisers use a soft-sell approach—but it is the hard-sell approach, not the soft-sell, that is likely to result in the boomerang effect.
E Correct. The second paragraph indicates that consumers who resent being told what to believe and come to distrust the advertiser’s message—that is, those who view the message with suspicion—may experience a boomerang effect, believing the opposite of the conclusions offered.
The correct answer is E.
23.It can be inferred from the passage that the research mentioned in line 29 supports which of the following statements?(C)
A. Implicit conclusions are more likely to capture accurately the point of the advertiser’s message than are explicit conclusions.
B. Counterargumentation is less likely to occur if an individual’s beliefs or conclusions are readily accessible from memory.
C. The hard-sell approach results in conclusions that are more difficult for the consumer to recall than are conclusions resulting from the soft-sell approach.
D. When the beliefs of others are presented as definite and forceful claims, they are perceived to be as accurate as self-generated beliefs.
E. Despite the advantages of implicit conclusions, the hard-sell approach involves fewer risks for the advertiser than does the soft-sell approach.
The research this item refers to—research on consumer memory and judgment—indicates that beliefs are more memorable when they are self-generated and so matter when making judgments and decisions. Further, self-generated beliefs seem more believable to those who have them than beliefs that come from elsewhere.
A The fourth paragraph indicates that implicit conclusions are more likely to fail to replicate the advertiser’s message than explicit conclusions are.
B The research discussed in the passage does not address when counterargumentation is more or less likely to occur. Even though counterargumentation is a risk when consumers distrust the advertiser’s message—as they may do when harder-to-recall explicit conclusions are given—-it may be as much of a risk when consumers reach an implicit conclusion that is readily accessible from memory.
C Correct. The research indicates that it is easier for consumers to recall conclusions they have reached on their own—that is, the sorts of conclusions that are encouraged by the soft-sell approach—than conclusions that have been provided explicitly, as happens in the hard-sell approach.
D The research does not show that the forcefulness with which claims are presented increases perceptions of the accuracy of those claims. Indeed, it is most likely the opposite, as the forcefulness of others’ claims may make them seem even less related to any conclusions the consumer might generate for him- or herself.
E The research suggests that it is the soft- sell, not the hard-sell, approach that has fewer risks. The fourth paragraph indicates that there could be some risks to the implicit conclusions that consumers draw, but this is not part of the research in question.
The correct answer is C.