Historians who study European women of the Renaissance try to measure \
1.According to the passage, much of the research on Alessandra Strozzi done by the historian mentioned in the second paragraph supports which of the following conclusions?(E)
A. Alessandra used her position as her sons’ sole guardian to further interests different from those of her sons.
B. Alessandra unwillingly sacrificed her own interests in favor of those of her sons.
C. Alessandra’s actions indicate that her motivations and intentions were those of an independent individual.
D. Alessandra’s social context encouraged her to take independent action.
E. Alessandra regarded her sons’ goals and interests as her own.
According to the passage, a historian of women in Renaissance Europe attributes to a Florentine widow Alessandra Strozzi \
2.In the first paragraph, the author of the passage mentions a contention that would be made by an anthropologist most likely in order to(B)
A. present a theory that will be undermined in the discussion of a historian’s study later in the passage
B. offer a perspective on the concept of personhood that can usefully be applied to the study of women in Renaissance Europe
C. undermine the view that the individuality of European women of the Renaissance was largely suppressed
D. argue that anthropologists have applied the Western concept of individualism in their research
E. lay the groundwork for the conclusion that Alessandra’s is a unique case among European women of the Renaissance whose lives have been studied by historians
The passage asserts that an anthropologist would contend that \
3.The passage suggests that the historians referred to in line 1 make which of the following assumptions about Renaissance Europe?(C)
A. That anthropologists overestimate the importance of the individual in Renaissance European society
B. That in Renaissance Europe, women were typically allowed to express their individuality
C. That European women of the Renaissance had the possibility of acting independently of the social context in which they lived
D. That studying an individual such as Alessandra is the best way to draw general conclusions about the lives of women in Renaissance Europe
E. That people in Renaissance Europe had greater personal autonomy than people do currently
The passage suggests that the historians, in their studies of women in Renaissance Europe, held a preconceived notion of personhood—a notion that implied at least the possibility of individual autonomous action unaffected by social context. By implication, the passage ascribes a similar preconception to the historian whose study of Strozzi is discussed.
A No view concerning anthropologists or their work is attributed, even by implication, to the historians.
B Even if the historians held a view regarding the scope of what women in Renaissance Europe were typically allowed to do, the passage does not attribute such a view to them.
C Correct. The passage implies that the historians assumed it was at least sometimes possible for women in Renaissance Europe to act autonomously, unaffected by social context.
D The passage does not indicate that the historians assumed study of a single individual was the best approach to study of women’s lives in Renaissance Europe.
E The passage neither explicitly nor implicitly claims that the historians assumed women had more personal autonomy in Renaissance Europe than women have currently.
The correct answer is C.
4.It can be inferred that the author of the passage believes which of the following about the study of Alessandra Strozzi done by the historian mentioned in the second paragraph?(E)
A. Alessandra was atypical of her time and was therefore an inappropriate choice for the subject of the historian’s research.
B. In order to bolster her thesis, the historian adopted the anthropological perspective on personhood.
C. The historian argues that the boundaries of the conceptual self were not always firm and closed in Renaissance Europe.
D. In her study, the historian reverts to a traditional approach that is out of step with the work of other historians of Renaissance Europe.
E. The interpretation of Alessandra’s actions that the historian puts forward is not supported by much of the historian’s research.
The passage tells us that the historian who studied Strozzi \
5.The passage suggests that the historian mentioned in the second paragraph would be most likely to agree with which of the following assertions regarding Alessandra Strozzi?(D)
A. Alessandra was able to act more independently than most women of her time because she was a widow.
B. Alessandra was aware that her personal motivation was embedded in a social context.
C. Alessandra had goals and interests similar to those of many other widows in her society.
D. Alessandra is an example of a Renaissance woman who expressed her individuality through independent action.
E. Alessandra was exceptional because she was able to effect changes in the social constraints placed upon women in her society.
According to the passage, the historian whose study of Strozzi is discussed \
In addition to conventional galaxies, the universe contains very dim galaxies that until recently went unnoticed by astronomers. Possibly as numerous as conventional galaxies, these galaxies have the same general shape and even the same approximate number of stars as a common type of conventional galaxy, the spiral, but tend to be much larger. Because these galaxies’ mass is spread out over larger areas, they have far fewer stars per unit volume than do conventional galaxies. Apparently these low-surface-brightness galaxies, as they are called, take much longer than conventional galaxies to condense their primordial gas and convert it to stars—that is, they evolve much more slowly.
These galaxies may constitute an answer to the long-standing puzzle of the missing baryonic mass in the universe. Baryons—subatomic particles that are generally protons or neutrons—are the source of stellar, and therefore galactic, luminosity, and so their numbers can be estimated based on how luminous galaxies are. However, the amount of helium in the universe, as measured by spectroscopy, suggests that there are far more baryons in the universe than estimates based on galactic luminosity indicate. Astronomers have long speculated that the missing baryonic mass might eventually be discovered in intergalactic space or as some large population of galaxies that are difficult to detect.
6.According to the passage, conventional spiral galaxies differ from low-surface-brightness galaxies in which of the following ways?(B)
A. They have fewer stars than do low-surface-brightness galaxies.
B. They evolve more quickly than low-surface-brightness galaxies.
C. They are more diffuse than low-surface-brightness galaxies.
D. They contain less helium than do low-surface-brightness galaxies.
E. They are larger than low-surface-brightness galaxies.
This question requires recognizing information that is provided in the passage. The first paragraph describes and compares two types of galaxies: conventional galaxies and dim, or low-surface-brightness, galaxies. It states that dim galaxies have the same approximate number of stars as a common type of conventional galaxy but tend to be larger and more diffuse because their mass is spread over wider areas (lines 4-10). The passage also indicates that dim galaxies take longer than conventional galaxies to convert their primordial gases into stars, meaning that dim galaxies evolve much more slowly than conventional galaxies (lines 10-14), which entails that conventional galaxies evolve more quickly than dim galaxies.
A The passage states that dim galaxies have approximately the same numbers of stars as a common type of conventional galaxy.
B Correct. The passage indicates that dim galaxies evolve much more slowly than conventional galaxies, which entails that conventional galaxies evolve more quickly.
C The passage states that dim galaxies are more spread out, and therefore more diffuse, than conventional galaxies.
D The passage does not mention the relative amounts of helium in the two types of galaxies under discussion.
E The passage states that dim galaxies tend to be much larger than conventional galaxies.
The correct answer is B.
7.It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following is an accurate physical description of typical low-surface-brightness galaxies?(C)
A. They are large spiral galaxies containing fewer stars than conventional galaxies.
B. They are compact but very dim spiral galaxies.
C. They are diffuse spiral galaxies that occupy a large volume of space.
D. They are small, young spiral galaxies that contain a high proportion of primordial gas.
E. They are large, dense spirals with low luminosity.
This question requires drawing an inference from information given in the passage. The first paragraph compares dim galaxies and conventional galaxies. Dim galaxies are described as having the same general shape (lines 4-5) as a common type of conventional galaxy, the spiral galaxy, suggesting that dim galaxies are, themselves, spiral shaped. The passage also indicates that, although both types of galaxies tend to have approximately the same number of stars, dim galaxies tend to be much larger and spread out over larger areas of space (lines 4-10) than conventional galaxies.
A The passage states that the two types of galaxies have approximately the same number of stars.
B The passage indicates that dim galaxies are relatively large and spread out.
C Correct. The passage indicates that dim galaxies have the same general shape as spiral galaxies and that their mass is spread out over large areas of space.
D The passage indicates that dim galaxies are relatively large and spread out.
E The passage states that dim galaxies have few stars per unit of volume, suggesting that they are not dense but diffuse.
The correct answer is C.
8.It can be inferred from the passage that the \(B)
A. The difference between the rate at which conventional galaxies evolve and the rate at which low-surface-brightness galaxies evolve
B. The discrepancy between estimates of total baryonic mass derived from measuring helium and estimates based on measuring galactic luminosity
C. The inconsistency between the observed amount of helium in the universe and the number of stars in typical low-surface-brightness galaxies
D. Uncertainties regarding what proportion of baryonic mass is contained in intergalactic space and what proportion in conventional galaxies
E. Difficulties involved in detecting very distant galaxies and in investigating their luminosity
This question requires drawing an inference from information given in the passage. The second paragraph describes the long-standing puzzle of the missing baryonic mass in the universe. The passage states that baryons are the source of galactic luminosity, and so scientists can estimate the amount of baryonic mass in the universe by measuring the luminosity of galaxies (lines 17-21). The puzzle is that spectroscopic measures of helium in the universe suggest that the baryonic mass in the universe is much higher than measures of luminosity would indicate (21-25).
A The differences between the rates of evolution of the two types of galaxies is not treated as being controversial in the passage.
B Correct. The passage indicates that measurements using spectroscopy and measurements using luminosity result in puzzling differences in estimates of the universe’s baryonic mass.
C The passage does not suggest how helium might relate to the numbers of stars in dim galaxies.
D The passage indicates that astronomers have speculated that the missing baryonic mass might be discovered in intergalactic space or hard-to-detect galaxies but does not suggest that these speculations are constituents of the long-standing puzzle.
E The passage does not mention how the distance to galaxies affects scientists’ ability to detect these galaxies.
The correct answer is B.
9.The author implies that low-surface-brightness galaxies could constitute an answer to the puzzle discussed in the second paragraph primarily because(A)
A. they contain baryonic mass that was not taken into account by researchers using galactic luminosity to estimate the number of baryons in the universe
B. they, like conventional galaxies that contain many baryons, have evolved from massive, primordial gas clouds
C. they may contain relatively more helium, and hence more baryons, than do galaxies whose helium content has been studied using spectroscopy
D. they have recently been discovered to contain more baryonic mass than scientists had thought when low-surface-brightness galaxies were first observed
E. they contain stars that are significantly more luminous than would have been predicted on the basis of initial studies of luminosity in low-surface-brightness galaxies
This question requires drawing an inference from information given in the passage. The puzzle is that estimates of the baryonic mass of the universe based on luminosity are lower than those based on spectroscopy (lines 21-25).The passage states that astronomers did not notice dim galaxies until recently (lines 2-3) and that these galaxies may help account for the missing baryonic mass in the universe (lines 15-17).The passage also suggests that astronomers measure the luminosity of specific galaxies (lines 19-21). Thus it can be inferred that, prior to their being noticed by astronomers, the luminosity of these dim galaxies was not measured, and their baryonic mass was not taken into account in the estimates of luminosity that led to the longstanding puzzle.
A Correct. The passage states that the missing baryonic mass in the universe may be discovered in the dim galaxies that have only recently been noticed by astronomers.
B The passage does not suggest that dim and conventional galaxies both originating from primordial gas clouds help solve the long-standing puzzle of the missing baryonic mass in the universe.
C The passage does not suggest that dim galaxies might contain more helium than do conventional galaxies or that measures of baryonic mass using spectroscopy do not take some dim galaxies into account.
D The passage does not suggest that dim galaxies contain more baryonic mass than scientists originally believed upon discovering these galaxies.
E The passage suggests that scientists measured the luminosity of galaxies, not of individual stars.
The correct answer is A.
10.The author mentions the fact that baryons are the source of stars’ luminosity primarily in order to explain(C)
A. how astronomers determine that some galaxies contain fewer stars per unit volume than do others
B. how astronomers are able to calculate the total luminosity of a galaxy
C. why astronomers can use galactic luminosity to estimate baryonic mass
D. why astronomers’ estimates of baryonic mass based on galactic luminosity are more reliable than those based on spectroscopic studies of helium
E. how astronomers know bright galaxies contain more baryons than do dim galaxies
This question requires understanding how one aspect of the passage relates to the reasoning in a larger portion of the passage. The second paragraph explains that scientists have been puzzled over missing baryonic mass in the universe as measured by luminosity (lines 21-25). Given that baryons are the source of luminosity in the galaxy (lines 17-19), astronomers can estimate the baryonic mass of a galaxy by measuring its luminosity.
A The passage discussion of baryons does not address the number of stars in individual galaxies.
B The passage discusses how the luminosity of galaxies can be used to estimate baryonic mass but does not address how total luminosity is measured.
C Correct. The passage indicates that because baryons are the source of galactic luminosity, measuring luminosity can be used to estimate baryonic mass of galaxies.
D The passage suggests that estimates based on luminosity may have been less accurate, not more accurate, than those based on spectroscopy.
E The passage does not indicate that bright galaxies contain more baryons than do dim galaxies.
The correct answer is C.
11.The author of the passage would be most likely to disagree with which of the following statements?(E)
A. Low-surface-brightness galaxies are more difficult to detect than are conventional galaxes.
B. Low-surface-brightness galaxies are often spral in shape.
C. Astronomers have advanced plausible ideas about where missing baryonic mass might be found.
D. Astronomers have devised a useful way of estimating the total baryonic mass in the universe.
E. Astronomers have discovered a substantial amount of baryonic mass in intergalactic space.
This question involves identifying which answer option potentially conflicts with the information the author has provided in the passage. The second paragraph indicates that astronomers’ estimates of the baryonic mass of the universe is lower when measured using luminosity than it is when measured using spectroscopy (lines 21-25). The final sentence states that astronomers have speculated that the missing baryonic mass might be discovered in intergalactic space or in hard-to-detect galaxies (lines 25-29). Although the passage does indicate that the discovery of dim, low-surface-brightness galaxies might help account for the missing baryonic mass (lines 15-17), the passage provides no support for the possibility that baryonic mass has been discovered in intergalactic space.
A The passage indicates that low-surface-brightness galaxies went unnoticed until recently, unlike conventional galaxies.
B The passage indicates that low-surface-brightness galaxies have the same general shape as spiral galaxies.
C The passage describes two possible explanations astronomers have given for the missing baryonic mass, one of which was made more plausible by the discovery of low-surface-brightness galaxies.
D The passage indicates that astronomers have used spectroscopy to estimate baryonic mass and gives no reason to suspect that this method is not useful.
E Correct. The passage does not indicate that astronomers have found any baryonic mass in intergalactic space.
The correct answer is E.
12.The primary purpose of the passage is to(A)
A. describe a phenomenon and consider its scientific significance
B. contrast two phenomena and discuss a puzz ing difference between them
C. identify a newly discovered phenomenon anc explain its origins
D. compare two classes of objects and discuss the physical properties of each
E. discuss a discovery and point out its inconsistency with existing theory
This question requires understanding, in broad terms, the purpose of the passage as a whole. The first paragraph describes a phenomenon: the discovery of dim galaxies and some of their general attributes. The second paragraph describes how this discovery may help astronomers to solve a long-standing puzzle about the baryonic mass of the universe.
A Correct. The passage describes the phenomenon of dim galaxies and describes their significance in solving the longstanding puzzle of the missing baryonic mass in the universe.
B Although the passage discusses the puzzling difference between the two estimates of baryonic mass, this option does not account for the broader topic of dim galaxies.
C While the passage identifies the newly discovered phenomenon of dim galaxies, it does not offer a significant explanation for these galaxies’ origins.
D Although the passage compares dim an 1 conventional galaxies in the first paragraph, this option does not account for the important detail that dim galaxies may help solve a long-standing puzzle.
E The discovery of dim galaxies discussed in the passage is not said to be inconsistent with any existing scientific theory.
The correct answer is A.
The fact that superior service can generate a competitive advantage for a company does not mean that every attempt at improving service will create such an advantage. Investments in service, like those in production and distribution, must be balanced against other types of investments on the basis of direct, tangible benefits such as cost reduction and increased revenues. If a company is already effectively on a par with its competitors because it provides service that avoids a damaging reputation and keeps customers from leaving at an unacceptable rate, then investment in higher service levels may be wasted, since service is a deciding factor for customers only in extreme situations.
This truth was not apparent to managers of one regional bank, which failed to improve its competitive position despite its investment in reducing the time a customer had to wait for a teller. The bank managers did not recognize the level of customer inertia in the consumer banking industry that arises from the inconvenience of switching banks. Nor did they analyze their service improvement to determine whether it would attract new customers by producing a new standard of service that would excite customers or by proving difficult for competitors to copy. The only merit of the improvement was that it could easily be described to customers.
13.The primary purpose of the passage is to(B)
A. contrast possible outcomes of a type of business investment
B. suggest more careful evaluation of a type of business investment
C. illustrate various ways in which a type of business investment could fail to enhance revenues
D. trace the general problems of a company to a certain type of business investment
E. criticize the way in which managers tend to analyze the costs and benefits of business investments
Look at the passage as a whole to find the primary purpose. This passage uses an example, described in the second paragraph, to illustrate the principle of business practice explained in the first paragraph. The author begins by saying that efforts to improve service do not always result in a competitive advantage for a company. Thus, an investment in service must be carefully evaluated to determine if it will reduce costs or increase revenues (lines 4-8).
A Only one outcome, failure to gain a competitive advantage, is examined.
B Correct. Investments in service must be carefully evaluated for the returns they will bring.
C Only one way, an unnecessary investment in improved service, is discussed.
D The example of the bank is used only to illustrate a general business principle; the bank itself is not the focus of the passage.
E The passage criticizes the absence of such an analysis, not the way it is conducted.
The correct answer is B.
14.According to the passage, investments in service are comparable to investments in production and distribution in terms of the(C)
A. tangibility of the benefits that they tend to confer
B. increased revenues that they ultimately produce
C. basis on which they need to be weighed
D. insufficient analysis that managers devote to them
E. degree of competitive advantage that they are likely to provide
The phrase according to the passage indicates that the question covers material that is explicitly stated in the passage. The answer to this question demands a careful reading of the second sentence (lines 4-8). Investments in service are like investments in production and distribution because they must be balanced against other types of investments on the basis of direct, tangible benefits.
Thus, these investments should be weighed on the same basis.
A The author is not equating the tangible benefits the different kinds of investments reap but rather the basis on which decisions to make investments are made.
B Revenues generated from investing in service are not said to be comparable to revenues generated from investing in production and distribution.
C Correct. An evaluation of whether or not to make these investments must be made on the same basis.
D How managers analyze investments in production and distribution is not discussed.
E The competitive advantage of superior service is acknowledged, but not the degree of it; it is not mentioned at all in the context of production and distribution.
The correct answer is C.
15.The passage suggests which of the following about service provided by the regional bank prior to its investment in enhancing that service?(A)
A. It enabled the bank to retain customers at an acceptable rate.
B. It threatened to weaken the bank’s competitive position with respect to other regional banks.
C. It had already been improved after having caused damage to the bank’s reputation in the past.
D. It was slightly superior to that of the bank’s regional competitors.
E. It needed to be improved to attain parity with the service provided by competing banks.
Because the question uses the word suggests, finding the answer depends on making an inference about service at the bank. The paragraph that discusses the bank begins with the transitional expression, this truth, which refers to the previous sentence (lines 8-15). The truth is that investing in improved service is a waste if a company is already effectively on a par with its competitors because it provides service that avoids a damaging reputation and keeps customers from leaving at an unacceptable rate. Because of the way the author has linked this generalization to the description of the bank after investment, it is reasonable to infer that the hypothetical company’s situation describes the bank prior to its investment in improved service.
A Correct. The bank’s service would have been good enough to avoid a damaging reputation and to retain customers at an acceptable rate.
B The passage does not suggest that the bank’s service was either poor or deficient to that of its competitors.
C The passage implies that the bank’s service avoided a damaging reputation.
D The bank would have been on a par with its competitors, not superior to them.
E The bank would have been on a par with its competitors, not inferior to them.
The correct answer is A.
16.The passage suggests that bank managers failed to consider whether or not the service improvement mentioned in lines 18-20(D)
A. was too complicated to be easily described to prospective customers
B. made a measurable change in the experiences of customers in the bank’s offices
C. could be sustained if the number of customers increased significantly
D. was an innovation that competing banks could have imitated
E. was adequate to bring the bank’s general level of service to a level that was comparable with that of its competitors
The question’s use of the word suggests means that the answer depends on making an inference. To answer this question, look at the entire second paragraph. Managers failed to think ahead. Would the service improvement attract new customers because other banks would find it difficult to copy? Or would the service improvement be easily imitated by competitors? The managers should have investigated this a ea before investing in improved service.
A The passage states the improvement cou d easily be described to customers (lines 28-29).
B No evidence in the passage shows that the managers failed to think about their customers’ experience in the bank.
C The passage does not imply that managers failed to consider an increase in clients.
D Correct. The managers did not wonder if other banks would copy their service improvement.
E Lines 8-12 imply that the bank enjoyec a comparable level of service before investing in service improvement.
The correct answer is D.
17.The discussion of the regional bank in the second paragraph serves which of the following functions within the passage as a whole?(E)
A. It describes an exceptional case in which investment in service actually failed to produce a competitive advantage.
B. It illustrates the pitfalls of choosing to invest in service at a time when investment is needed more urgently in another area.
C. It demonstrates the kind of analysis that managers apply when they choose one kind of service investment over another.
D. It supports the argument that investments in certain aspects of service are more advantageous than investments in other aspects of service.
E. It provides an example of the point about investment in service made in the first paragraph.
This question requires thinking about what the second paragraph contributes to the whole passage. The first paragraph makes a generalization about investing in improvements in service; in certain conditions, such improvements do not result in the competitive advantage a company hopes for. The second paragraph offers the bank as an example of this generalization.
A The first sentence of the passage explains that improving service does not necessarily bring a competitive advantage, so the bank is not exceptional.
B The bank illustrates the pitfall of not evaluating a service improvement on the basis of tangible benefits; other areas of the bank are not mentioned.
C The passage does not discuss how managers analyze and choose different service investments.
D Investments in different aspects of service are not evaluated in the passage.
E Correct. The bank is an example of the position stated in the first paragraph that investing in improved service can be a waste if the investment is not evaluated carefully.
The correct answer is E.
18.The author uses the word \(B)
A. highlight the oddity of the service improvement
B. emphasize the relatively low value of the investment in service improvement
C. distinguish the primary attribute of the servic e improvement from secondary attributes
D. single out a certain merit of the service improvement from other merits
E. point out the limited duration of the actual service improvement
The question asks you to consider the logic of the author’s word choice. The previous two sentences discuss why the service improvement was a wasted investment. In contrast, the final sentence turns to the sole advantage of the service improvement, which is trivial by comparison. The author uses only to modify merit in order to emphasize the minimal nature of this advantage.
A The passage does not indicate that the service improvement is somehow strange or peculiar.
B Correct. Only emphasizes the low value attached to the single benefit.
C No attributes of the service improvement are mentioned.
D Only signifies that there was one sole merit of the service improvement.
E The duration of the benefit is not discussed in the passage.
The correct answer is B.
Antonia Castaneda has utilized scholarship from women’s studies and Mexican-American history to examine nineteenth-century literary portrayals of Mexican women. As Castaneda notes, scholars of women’s history observe that in the United States, male novelists of the period—during which, according to these scholars, women’s traditional economic role in home-based agriculture was threatened by the transition to a factory-based industrial economy— define women solely in their domestic roles of wife and mother. Castaneda finds that during the same period that saw non-Hispanic women being economically displaced by industrialization, Hispanic law in territorial California protected the economic position of \
A. legal status of Mexican women in territorial California and their status in the United States
B. unflattering depiction of Mexicans in novels and the actual public sentiment about the Mexican-American War
C. existence of many marriages between Californianas and non-Hispanic merchants and the strictures against them expressed in novels
D. literary depiction of elite Californianas and the literary depiction of other Mexican individuals
E. novelistic portrayals of elite Californianas’ privileged lives and the actual circumstances of those lives
The apparent contradiction in line 29 refers to the difference, noted in the previous sentence, between favorable literary portrayals of elite Californianas—that is, Mexican women of the California territory—on the one hand and novels’ generally unflattering depictions of Mexicans on the other.
A The passage discusses the difference between the legal rights of Mexican women in the California territory and those of non-Hispanic women. The legal rights of Mexican women outside territorial California are not mentioned.
B The passage suggests that there is no contradiction between unflattering depictions of Mexicans in novels and public sentiment about the Mexican-American War: such depictions of Mexicans served to stir up sentiment in support of the war.
C According to the passage, novels expressed no strictures against marriages between Californianas and non-Hispanic merchants. Instead, the novels portrayed such marriages favorably.
D Correct. Non-Hispanic novelists glorified elite Californianas based on the importance of forging economic alliances with them, whereas novelists depicted other Mexicans in unflattering terms.
E The passage indicates that elite Californianas’ lives were in fact privileged, at least in comparison to those of non-Hispanic women. It does not suggest that there was any contradiction between elite Californianas’ lives and how those lives were portrayed in novels.
The correct answer is D.
20.Which of the following could best serve as an example of the kind of fictional plot discussed by Antonia Castaneda?(A)
A. A land speculator of English ancestry weds the daughter of a Mexican vineyard owner after the speculator has migrated to California to seek his fortune.
B. A Californian woman of Hispanic ancestry finds that her agricultural livelihood is threatened when her husband is forced to seek work in a textile mill.
C. A Mexican rancher who loses his land as a result of the Mexican-American War migrates to the northern United States and marries an immigrant schoolteacher.
D. A wealthy Californiana whose father has bequeathed her all his property contends with avaricious relatives for her inheritance.
E. A poor married couple emigrate from French Canada and gradually become wealthy as merchants in territorial California.
According to the passage, Castafieda focuses on a particular plot in which an elite Californiana is pursued by a non-Hispanic merchant or trades for the purpose of gaining economic advantage.
A Correct. The story of a non-Hispanic land speculator wedding a Californiana who is likely, based on the inheritance rights granted her by the Hispanic law in territorial California, to inherit her father’s vineyard would precisely fit the plot that Castafieda discusses.
B This description fails to identify the ethnicity of the Californianas husband and the reason he married her, so there is no way to determine whether the story would from Castaneda’s plot.
C Castaneda’s plot involves a non-Hispanic male protagonist, so a Mexican rancher could not play the main male role in such a story.
D The presence of a wealthy Californiana who inherits property might make this story seem to be an example of the fictional plot that Castafieda discusses, but there is no mention of a non-Hispanic merchant or trader who seeks her hand in marriage.
E Simply taking place in territorial California would not make a story an appropriate example of the plot discussed by Castaneda.
The correct answer is A.
21.Which of the following, if true, would provide the most support for Castaneda’s explanation of the \(C)
A. Non-Hispanic traders found business more profitable in California while it was a territory than when it became a state.
B. Very few marriages between Hispanic women and non-Hispanic men in nineteenth-century territorial California have actually been documented.
C. Records from the nineteenth century indicate that some large and valuable properties were owned by elite Californianas in their own right.
D. Unmarried non-Hispanic women in the nineteenth-century United States were sometimes able to control property in their own right.
E. Most of the property in nineteenth-century territorial California was controlled by Hispanic men.
Castaneda explains the stereotypical plot of a non-Hispanic merchant seeking to marry an elite Californiana based on economics: these women had property and inheritance rights equal to men. Novelists based their plots on the women’s real-life economic power, which resulted in men’s wishing to build economic alliances with them. Supporting this explanation requires supporting these economic ideas in some way.
A The profitability of non-Hispanic traders’ business is not an issue in Castaneda’s explanation; thus the change described has no significant relevance to that explanation.
B The lack of the type of documentation described, rather than providing support for Castaneda’s explanation, signifies a deficit in documentary support for that explanation.
C Correct. If elite Californianas did in fact own valuable properties, Castaneda’s economic explanation gains force. The women did have the real economic significance upon which Castaneda suggests the novelists drew.
D If it were true that some non-Hispanic women controlled property in this way, Castaneda’s explanation of Californianas’ uniqueness would be somewhat undermined.
E If most of the property in nineteenth-century territorial California was controlled by Hispanic men, that suggests that Californianas were less likely to possess the kind of economic power described in Castaneda’s argument.
The correct answer is C.