GMAT(VERBAL)语法改错模拟试卷32含答案解析

GMAT(VERBAL)语法改错模拟试卷32

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逻辑推理

1.Despite a growing population, in 1998 the United States used 38 billion fewer gallons of water a day when comparing it to the period of all-time highest consumption almost 20 years earlier.(B)

A. day when comparing it to the period of all-time highest consumption almost 20 years earlier

B. day than it did during the period of all-time highest consumption almost 20 years earlier

C. day than were used almost 20 years earlier, which had been the all-time high consumption

D. day, compared to almost 20 years earlier, th;it having been the all-time high consumption

E. day, which is in comparison to the period of all-time highest consumption almost 20 years earlier

解析:Rhetorical construction; Logical predication

When making a direct comparison (in this case, with fewer), the standard way to express the object of comparison is with than. Here, the sentence uses fewer… when comparing it to, which not only is unidiomatic, but also creates an illogical predication: United States is the only possible subject for the verb comparing (surely the sentence doesn’t mean to say the United States used 38 billion fewer gallons at the time it was making some comparison!). Also, what is the antecedent of it here? Grammatically, there is no clear candidate.

A Instead of using fewer… than, this version uses the unidiomatic fewer… when comparing it to, which also introduces a logical predication problem.

B Correct. Fewer than is correct, and this version of the sentence has no logical predication problems.

C This has a logical predication problem: because the relative clause beginning with which immediately follows almost 20 years earlier, it seems that the time period is being described as having been the all-time high consumption.

D Fewer than is preferable to fewer… compared to; also, there is a logical predication problem: because the phrase beginning with that immediately follows almost 20 years earlier, it seems that the time period is being described as having been the all-time high consumption.

E This is awkwardly and confusingly worded. Rather than comparing the United States’ water usage in 1998 to its water usage nearly 20 years earlier, this appears illogically to compare the United States’water usage in 1998 to a period of time, namely the period of all-time highest consumption almost 20 years earlier.

The correct answer is B.

2.A federal advisory panel proposes expanding a national computerized file to permit law-enforcement agencies to track people under criminal investigation but have not yet been charged.(E)

A. under criminal investigation but

B. under criminal investigation, but who

C. under criminal investigation, but they

D. who are under criminal investigation, but they

E. who are under criminal investigation but

解析:Parallelism; Grammatical construction

The sentence describes a proposal to allow law-enforcement agencies to track people who have not been charged with a crime but are under investigation. However, the description of the group is flawed, in that the two defining properties—not having been charged; being under investigation—are not expressed in a parallel form: the verb have been charged lacks a grammatically correct subject.

A The adjectival phrase under criminal investigation, modifying people, is nonparallel to have not yet been charged; the latter is a mere sentence fragment.

B The required parallelism is lacking here. The word but introduces a sentence fragment.

C The required parallelism is lacking here: we have an adjectival phrase, and the coordinate conjunction but introducing what appears to be an independent clause. It is unclear what the antecedent of the pronoun they is.

D The required parallelism is lacking here: we have a relative clause, followed by the coordinate conjunction but introducing what appears to be an independent clause. It is structurally unclear what the antecedent of the pronoun they is.

E Correct. The relative pronoun who has people as its antecedent and introduces a complex relative clause containing two parallel verbal phrases correctly coordinated with the conjunction but.

The correct answer is E.

3.Analysts believe that whereas bad decisions by elected leaders can certainly hurt the economy, no administration can really be said to control or manage all of the complex and interrelated forces that determine the nation’s economic strength.(A)

A. no administration can really be said to control

B. no administration can be said that it really controls

C. that no administration can really be said to control

D. that no administration can really be said that it controls

E. that it cannot be said that any administration really controls

解析:Grammatical construction; Verb form

The point of this sentence is to explain analysts’ common two-part belief about the limited power of elected officials to control a national economy. It presents this belief as the direct object in the main clause, [a]nalysts believe, and introduces it with the subordinating conjunction that, which governs both the positive dependent clause (decisions… can hurt) introduced by whereas, and the subsequent negative independent clause (no administration can .. . be said to control. ..).The additional appearances of that in some of the versions of the sentence are ungrammatical.

A Correct. Introduced by the subordinating conjunction that, the complex clause succinctly contrasts leaders’ powers to hurt the economy with their inability to control all economic forces.

B The idiom can be said to would be appropriate, but no administration can be said that it is ungrammatical.

C The repetition of that is ungrammatical, since both clauses are governed by the initial appearance of that after [a]nalysts believe.

D This version of the sentence combines the mistakes described in (B) with those described in (C).

E The repetition of that is ungrammatical, since both clauses are governed by the first appearance of that. The appearance of it makes the sentence unnecessarily wordy and convoluted.

The correct answer is A.

4.Nearly unrivaled in their biological diversity, coral reefs provide a host of benefits that includes the supply of protein for people, protecting shorelines, and they contain biochemical sources for new life-saving medicines.(B)

A. coral reefs provide a host of benefits that includes the supply of protein for people, protecting shorelines,

B. coral reefs provide a host of benefits: they supply people with protein, they protect the shorelines,

C. coral reefs provide a host of benefits that include supplying protein for people, as well as shoreline protection,

D. a coral reef provides a host of benefits; they supply protein for people, the protecting of shorelines,

E. a coral reef provides a host of benefits, including protein for people, protecting shorelines,

解析:Parallelism; Agreement

When listing several items (here, benefits of coral reefs), they should be expressed in a parallel way, such as by using all noun phrases or all full clauses. Also, pronoun subjects in one clause that refer to the subject of a preceding clause should agree in number.

A The three items after includes are not parallel (the supply; protecting shorelines; they contain).

B Correct. The three items after benefits are parallel (they supply; they protect; they contain)’.The subject of the next clause (they) is correctly plural given that its antecede it is coral reefs.

C The three items after include are not parallel: supplying, shoreline protection, they contain

D The three items after benefits are not parallel (they supply; the protecting of; they contain, and in the next clause they is the incorrect pronoun given that the antecedent here is the singular a coral reef.

E The three items after benefits are not parallel (protein; protecting; they contain), and in the next clause they is the incorrect pronoun given that the antecedent here is the singular a coral reef

The correct answer is B.

5.Literacy opened up entire realms of verifiable knowledge to ordinary men and women having been previously considered incapable of discerning truth for themselves.(B)

A. having been previously considered incapable of discerning truth for themselves

B. who had previously been considered incapable of discerning truth for themselves

C. previously considered incapable of discerning truth for himself or herself

D. of whom it had previously been considered they were incapable of discerning truth for themselves

E. who had previously been considered incapable of discerning truth for himself or herself

解析:Rhetorical construction; Agreement

The phrase beginning with having been modifies the noun phrase ordinary men and women. In cases like this, it is best to use a full relative clause, starting with that or a relative pronoun such as which or who, instead of a clause with the -ing form of the verb. Also, themselves is the correct form of a reflexive pronoun to refer back to the plural noun phrase ordinary men and women.

A A phrase starting with the -ing verb form, instead of with that or who, is awkward in this context.

B Correct. A relative clause correctly beginning with who is used, and themselves is the correct form for the reflexive pronoun.

C Himself or herself is not the correct form for the plural reflexive pronoun.

D Though the relative and reflexive pronouns are grammatically correct, the relative clause (the clause that starts with of whom) is unnecessarily long and complex.

E Himself or herself is not the correct form for the plural reflexive pronoun.

The correct answer is B.

6.In early Mesopotamian civilization, castor oil served not only as a laxative, but also a skin-softening lotion and it was a construction lubricant for sliding giant stone blocks over wooden rollers.(C)

A. not only as a laxative, but also a skin-softening lotion and it was a construction

B. as not only a laxative, but also a skin-softening lotion, and it was a construction

C. not only as a laxative but also as a skin-softening lotion and as a construction

D. as not only a laxative but as a skin-softening lotion and in construction, as a

E. not only as a laxative, but a skin-softening lotion and in construction, a

解析:Parallelism; Rhetorical construction

The sentence indicates three uses for castor oil. The first two are correctly joined using the correlative conjunction not only, but also. However, the three uses are not listed in parallel grammatical form. The sentence would be better with three adverb phrases beginning with as: as a laxative, as a skin-softening lotion, and as a construction lubricant.

A The three uses for castor oil are not listed in parallel grammatical form since the first is an adverb phrase, the second is a noun phrase, and the third is an independent clause, which is ungrammatically conjoined to the preceding part of the sentence without an intervening comma.

B The three uses for castor oil are not listed in parallel grammatical form since the first two are noun phrases and the third is an independent clause.

C Correct. The three uses for castor oil are listed as parallel adverb phrases, and the correlative conjunction not only, but also is constructed correctly.

D The three uses for castor oil are not listed in parallel grammatical form. The placing of not only after as is incorrect; the phrase in construction is also incorrectly placed.

E The word as is missing from the second and third elements of the correlative conjunction, so the three uses for castor oil are not listed correctly in parallel grammatical form.

The correct answer is C.

7.An analysis of tree bark all over the globe shows that chemical insecticides have often spread thousands of miles from where they were originally used.(A)

A. that chemical insecticides have often spread thousands of miles from where they were originally used

B. that chemical insecticides have spread, often thousands of miles from their original use

C. chemical insecticides, having often spread thousands of miles from where they were used originally

D. chemical insecticides, often spreading thousands of miles from where their original use

E. chemical insecticides, often spreading thousands of miles from where they were originally used

解析:Grammatical construction; Diction

To express the intended meaning, shows can be followed by a clause beginning with that. Another option would be to use the special clause type show + noun phrase + ing verb form, such as show chemical insecticides spreading many miles—but there should be no pause in the middle of a construction of this latter type. If there is such a pause, then chemical insecticides becomes the direct object of show, and the following verb-ing phrase is an awkward attempt at a modifier of this object. Note also that if something spreads, it spreads from a place or an entity; other ways of expressing this idea in the answer choices are awkward or illogical. Verbs without overt subjects (such as spreading here) normally are to be understood as having the same subject as the main clause.

A Correct. Show is correctly followed by a that clause, and a place is correctly identified (from where) as the source of the spread.

B Show is followed by a that clause, but insecticides are illogically said to have spread from a use, rather than from a place.

C Show can sometimes take a direct object (here, chemical insecticides). However, the construction used here makes analysis the subject of having. Thus it appears to say, illogically, that the analysis shows that the analysis itself has spread from where the insecticides were used.

D Show can sometimes take a direct object (here, chemical insecticides). However, the construction used here makes analysis the subject of spreading. Thus, it appears to say, illogically, that the analysis shows that the analysis itself often spreads from where the insecticides were used. Also, where their original use is grammatically incorrect {where they were originally used is a correct alternative).

E Show can sometimes take a direct object (here, chemical insecticides). However, the construction used here makes analysis th s subject of spreading. Thus, it appears to say, illogically, that the analysis shows that the analysis itself often spreads from where he insecticides were used.

The correct answer is A.

8.According to the Economic Development Corporal on of Los Angeles County, if one were to count the Los Angeles metropolitan area as a separate nation, it would have the world’s eleventh largest gross national product, that is bigger than that of Australia, Mexico, or the Netherlands.(C)

A. if one were to count the Los Angeles metropolitan area as a separate nation, it would have the world’s eleventh largest gross national product, that is

B. if the Los Angeles metropolitan area is counted as a separate nation, it has the world’s eleventh largest gross national product, that being

C. if the Los Angeles metropolitan area were a separate nation, it would have the world’s eleventh largest gross national product

D. were the Los Angeles metropolitan area a separate nation, it will have the world’s eleventh largest gross national product, which is

E. when the Los Angeles metropolitan area is counted as a separate nation, it has the world’s eleventh largest gross national product, thus

解析:Diction; Verb form

The point of this sentence is to explain the implications of a contrary-to-fact state of affairs (Los Angeles metropolitan area as a nation). The subjunctive verb form is needed (were… would have). To attribute this proposed state of affairs to the calculations of an anonymous agent (one) causes unnecessary wordiness. The implication of the hypothetical situation is that the Los Angeles area would have the eleventh-largest gross national product (GNP) in the world, a GNP that is further described as larger than the GNP of any of three nations named. This descriptive information is most efficiently presented as a terminal adjective phrase.

A By introducing the subject one, the opening clause becomes unnecessarily wordy and indirect. The relative clause at the end of the sentence causes additional wordiness. The present indicative verb form is in the phrase that is bigger than … is inconsistent with the conditional context established earlier in the sentence (were … would). Since Los Angeles is not a nation, its national product is purely hypothetical and contrary to fact.

B Because the if clause introduces a situation that is contrary to fact, the verbs is counted and has should be subjunctive and conditional, respectively (were counted and would have).The relative pronoun phrase that being is awkward, wordy, and repetitive.

C Correct. The subjunctive mood of the verbs is appropriate to the contrary-to-fact situation being described, and the terminal adjective phrase without an introductory relative pronoun is an appropriate way of making the comparison among GNPs.

D Although the opening subjunctive verb is appropriate, it must be followed by a conditional verb in the main clause; the relative clause at the end of the sentence, beginning with which is, is indirect and wordy. As in (A), is is not the most appropriate verb form to express a counterfactual condition.

E The verbs is counted… has are incorrect for describing a contrary-to-fact situation. Beginning the final adjective phrase with the word thus makes the relationship of the phrase to the rest of the sentence unclear.

The correct answer is C.

9.Some sociologists claim to have found a direct link from the appearance of news stories about violence to the rate of homicide.(C)

A. from the appearance of news stories about violence to

B. between the appearance of news stories about violence to

C. between the appearance of news stories about violence and

D. with the appearance of news stories about violence to

E. with the appearance of news stories about violence and

解析:Idiom; Logical predication

The sentence’s use of the form a direct link from X to Y is unidiomatic; the correct idiom would be of the form a direct link between X and Y. Because of the inappropriate use of from, the sentence initially sets up the expectation that the claim the sociologists make is that they became aware of a direct link from the appearance of news stories about violence.

A The sentence uses the unidiomatic form a direct link from X to Y.

B The sentence uses the unidiomatic form a direct link between X to Y.

C Correct. The sentence uses the correct idiomatic form direct link between X andY.

D The sentence uses the unidiomatic form a direct link with X to Y.

E The sentence uses the unidiomatic form a direct link with X and Y.

The correct answer is C.

10.Government statistics on the size of foreign investment in real estate are inconclusive because neither federal nor state laws require disclosure of foreign ownership, and the Commerce Department, in its public tallies, does not categorize the owners.(A)

A. are inconclusive because neither federal nor state laws require

B. are inconclusive because neither the federal nor state laws requires

C. are inconclusive because neither federal laws or state laws require

D. is inconclusive because neither the federal or state laws requires

E. is inconclusive because neither federal laws nor state laws require

解析:Idiom; Agreement

The sentence uses the correct idiomatic form neither X nor Y. Also, statistics is plural, so are is correct; similarly, laws is plural so require is correct.

A Correct. The sentence uses the correct idiomatic form neither X nor Y; are and require correctly match their subjects in number, statistics and laws, respectively.

B The sentence uses the idiomatic form neither X nor Y, but lacks parallelism in that it matches the federal and state; it should either match, federal with, state or the federal with the state. Also, because laws is plural, the verb should be require, not requires.

C The sentence uses the unidiomatic form neither X or Y.

D The sentence uses the unidiomatic form neither X or Y; it also lacks parallelism in that it matches the federal and state; it should either match, federal with state or the federal with the state. Also, because statistics is plural, the verb should be are, not is, and because laws is plural, the verb should be require, not requires.

E Because statistics is plural, the verb should be are, not is.

The correct answer is A.

11.In the United States one of the earliest challengers of the economic principle of free trade was Alexander Hamilton, who in 1791 advocated government policies that would encourage indigenous manufacturing and to protect it from competition from British exports.(C)

A. and to protect it

B. but protecting it

C. while protecting it

D. for protecting them

E. to protect them

解析:Verb form; Agreement; Parallelism

The point of the sentence is that Alexander Hamilton challenged free trade by advocating government policies that would encourage indigenous manufacturing and, at the same time, protect this manufacturing from competition from British exports. Some of the answer choices use the plural pronoun them, but the antecedent of the pronoun is manufacturing, which is singular, so the singular pronoun it should be used. As given, the sentence correctly uses the singular pronoun it, but, because the sentences predicate is a compound predicate, in which two verb phrases are conjoined by the word and, the same verb form should be used, which is not the case here.

A Because the predicate is compound, with verb phrases conjoined by and, the verb forms should be the same; thus, to protect is incorrect. The pronoun it is correct, however, as its antecedent is manufacturing.

B Because the predicate is compound, with verb phrases conjoined by but, the verb forms should be the same; thus, to protect is incorrect. The pronoun it is correct, however, as its antecedent is manufacturing.

C Correct. The sentence is well expressed.

The pronoun it is correct as its antecede it is manufacturing, and the use of the participle phrase while protecting it from competition from British imports (the subject, indigenous manufacturing, is given earlier and need not be repeated) appropriately conveys the idea that Hamilton advocated policies that protected the manufacturing at the same time as they encouraged its development.

D The use of them is incorrect. Since it is plural the antecedent cannot be the singular indigenous manufacturing, though that would appear to be the intended antecedent (the idea underlying the sentence is that Hamilton, in a challenge to the principle of free trade, sought both to encourage and protect indigenous manufacturing). To take either of the plural nouns government policies or earliest challengers as the antecedent renders the sentence illogical, as does the use of the preposition for. Although it might make sense to think that encouraging indigenous manufacturing would protect the United States, United States, like manufacturing, is singular, and so cannot serve as the antecedent of them.

E As with answer choice D, there is no plural noun that is a logically plausible antecedent for the plural pronoun them.

The correct answer is C.

12.Desertification, a process in which the biological productivity of the land is sharply degraded by human abuse and natural phenomena, helped cause the famines that have killed hundreds of thousands in recent years.(A)

A. a process in which the biological productivity of the land is sharply degraded by human abuse and natural phenomena

B. a process of the biological productivity of the land being sharply degraded by human abuse and natural phenomena

C. a process of human abuse and natural phenomena that sharply degrade the biological productivity of the land

D. which is the process of human abuse and natural phenomena sharply degrading the land’s biological productivity

E. which is the process of human abuse and natural phenomena that sharply degrade the land’s biological productivity

解析:Rhetorical construction; Agreement; Logical predication

The purpose of the underlined phrase is to clarify what desertification is. The sentence’s description of it as a process in which the biological diversity of the land is sharply degraded by human abuse and natural phenomena clearly expresses the intended meaning.

A Correct. The sentence as worded is clear and to the point.

B By saying that desertification is a process of the biological productivity of the land…, this version is potentially ambiguous because it is unclear which noun (process, productivity, land) the participial phrase being… phenomena modifies.

C As is the case in answer choice B, this does not clearly indicate that desertification simply is a process that consists in the sharp degradation of the biological productivity of the land by human abuse and natural phenomena. Furthermore, because natural phenomena is plural, there is an ambiguity: it is unclear whether the subject of the verb degrade is both human abuse and natural phenomena, or simply natural phenomena. Also, process at least arguably should be the antecedent of the relative pronoun that, in which case the verb should be degrades.

D It is unclear whether degrading modifies both human abuse and natural phenomena or only natural phenomena.

E Because natural phenomena is plural, there is an ambiguity: it is unclear whether the subject that of the verb degrade has human abuse and natural phenomena as antecedent, or simply natural phenomena. Also, process arguably should be the antecedent, in which case the verb should be degrades.

The correct answer is A.

13.Open to the public and operated like conventional hotels, condominium hotels permit buyers to acquire a specific room or suite, as well as a proportionate interest in the rest of the establishment.(A)

A. condominium hotels permit buyers to acquire a specific room or suite, as well as

B. buyers are permitted to acquire a specific room or suite in a condominium hotel, as well as

C. a specific room or suite in condominium hotels may be acquired by buyers, as well as acquiring

D. condominium hotels permit buyers to acquire a specific room or suite, as well as acquiring

E. it is permitted for buyers to acquire a specific room or suite in a condominium hotel, as well as the acquisition of

解析:Logical predication; Verb form

The sentence as worded is the best choice. Clearly, the sentence is intended to characterize condominium hotels as being open to the public and operated like conventional hotels, yet some of the incorrect answer choices illogically predicate the opening description of buyers or a specific room or suite. Furthermore, some of the incorrect answer choices are either ungrammatical or awkwardly worded (in some cases through unnecessary use of a passive-voice verb form), or they illogically indicate that a specific room or suite, rather than buyers, may be acquiring a proportional interest in the rest of the establishment of a specific room or suite.

A Correct. The opening description correctly modifies condominium hotels, and the rest of the sentence is well formed.

B The opening description should modify condominium hotels, not buyers, as it does here.

C The opening description should modify condominium hotels, not a specific room or suite in condominium hotels, as it does here. Also, clearly it is the buyers who may acquire a proportionate interest in the rest of the establishment. As worded here, the sentence seems to say that a specific room or suite in a condominium hotel may be acquiring a proportional interest in the rest of the establishment, which is absurd.

D The use of the present participle, acquiring, is ungrammatical; the infinitive, to acquire, should have been used.

E The opening description should modify condominium hotel; here it modifies it. Also, as worded, the sentence says it is permitted for buyers to acquire.. . the acquisition of a proportionate interest in the rest of the establishment, which is awkward and redundant.

The correct answer is A.

14.The methods proposed for reducing the amount of interest to be paid are not able to be used successfully without creating a problem of insufficient cash flow in the future.(C)

A. are not able to be used successfully without creating a problem of insufficient cash flow in the future

B. are not able successfully to be used without creating a problem in the future of insufficient cash flow

C. cannot successfully be used without creating a future problem of insufficient cash flow

D. cannot be used without succeeding in creating a problem in the future of insufficient cash flow

E. cannot be used without succeeding in creating a future problem of insufficient cash flow

解析:Diction; Rhetorical construction

The wording is unnecessarily awkward. Also, \

15.Despite the Puritan sumptuary laws prohibiting the wearing of bright or elaborate clothing, if you had either a liberal education or an annual income of two hundred pounds one was permitted to display their material prosperity in public.(D)

A. if you had either a liberal education or an annual income of two hundred pounds one was permitted to display their material prosperity in public

B. if one had either a liberal education or annual income of two hundred pounds one was permitted the public display of their material prosperity

C. having either a liberal education or annual income of two hundred pounds would allow one to publicly display their material prosperity

D. those with either a liberal education or an annual income of two hundred pounds were allowed to display their material prosperity in public

E. those having either a liberal education or annual income of two hundred pounds were permitted their public display of material prosperity

解析:Diction; Agreement; Rhetorical construction

The use of you is strange, because the sentence is discussing a set of laws that were in place long before the time of the reader. Also, the sentence shifts from you to one. One would be preferable throughout, given that the sentence concerns laws in place long ago. Finally, the use of their does not agree in number with one. Although in some contexts it is acceptable to use their as a singular possessive adjective, it should not be used along with one (one’s would be preferable), and its use in this sentence creates an ambiguity: is its antecedent intended to be one or is its antecedent intended to be the plural noun laws?

A This version fails for the reasons discussed above.

B The use of their is incorrect; in this instance, it can simply be deleted.

C The use of their is incorrect.

D Correct. The use of those is preferable to you. Their is acceptable here because those is plural.

E The force of their is unclear. It could, for example, convey a presumption that the people designated by the subject those… pounds would all actually display material prosperity, rather than merely be permitted to do so.

The correct answer is D.

16.Like Darwin and his fruitful voyage on the Beagle, Banks’s trip with Captain Cook on the Endeavour inspired and shaped his remarkable career in natural science.(C)

A. Like Darwin and his fruitful voyage on the Beagle, Banks’s trip with Captain Cook on the Endeavour inspired and shaped his remarkable career in natural science.

B. Just as Darwin had a fruitful voyage on the Beagle, Banks’s trip with Captain Cook on the Endeavour inspired and shaped a remarkable career as a natural scientist.

C. Like Darwin’s fruitful voyage on the Beagle, Banks’s trip with Captain Cook on the Endeavour inspired and shaped a remarkable career in natural science.

D. Just as Darwin’s fruitful voyage on the Beagle, Banks sailed with Captain Cook on the Endeavour, inspiring and shaping his remarkable career as a natural scientist.

E. Like Darwin’s fruitful voyage on the Beagle, Banks sailed with Captain Cook on the Endeavour, which inspired and shaped a remarkable career in natural science.

解析:Parallelism; Diction; Rhetorical construction; Logical predication

Absent relevant context or detailed knowledge about the relevant history, the given sentence seems open to more than one interpretation. Such ambiguity indicates a rhetorical-construction failure. On one interpretation, the given sentence seems aimed at comparing Banks’s sea voyage and Darwin’s with respect to the influence those voyages had on scientific careers—but the given sentence and its alternatives vary in how successfully this comparison is executed. For example, the comparison in the given sentence is presented loosely and somewhat illogically: Bank’s trip is compared with \

17.When more and more factories move out of the cities each year, manufacturing jobs, historically the first step into the job market for the urban poor, have become fewer and fewer.(E)

A. When more and more factories move out of the cities each year, manufacturing jobs, historically the first step into the job market for the urban poor, have become fewer and fewer.

B. At the time that more and more factories move out of the cities each year, manufacturing jobs, historically the first step into the job market for the urban poor, become less and less.

C. When more and more factories move out of the cities each year, then manufacturing jobs historically the first step into the urban poor’s job market, become less and less.

D. Since more and more factories have moved out of the cities each year, manufacturing jobs, historically the first step into the urban poor’s job market, have become less and less.

E. As more and more factories move out of the cities each year, manufacturing jobs, historically the first step into the job market for the urban poor, become fewer and fewer.

解析:Verb form; Diction

The verb tenses of the sentence should match. When more and more factories move out dictates that the verb predicated of manufacturing jobs should be become, not have become. For have beome to be correct, the sentence would need to begin with When more and more factories have moved out. Some of the answer choices incorrectly have less and less; because manufacturing jobs are countable, fewer and fewer is correct (as it is in the underlined portion of the sentence).

A Have become is incorrect. The tense should match that in when more and more factories move out, thus, become would be correct.

B This version of the sentence is unnecessarily wordy (e.g., at the time that) and incorrectly uses less and less rather than fewer and fewer.

C This version of the sentence incorrectly uses less and less rather than fewer and fewer. The use of then after the first comma is unnecessary and unidiomatic.

D This version of the sentence incorrectly uses less and less rather than fewer and fewer.

E Correct. The verb become has the same tense as the phrasal verb move out and fewer and fewer is correct.

The correct answer is E.

18.The thousands of volcanic islands and coral atolls of the South Seas have a total population of about four million, but the paucity of natural resources does not permit such economic development that would be needed by them to support more population.(C)

A. does not permit such economic development that would be needed by them to support more population

B. does not permit economic development such as is needed for supporting a larger number

C. does not permit the economic development needed to support a larger population

D. do not permit the economic development needed to support a larger population

E. do not permit needed economic development for supporting a larger number of people

解析:Diction; Agreement; Rhetorical construction

The use of that in does not permit such economic development that would be needed is incorrect. That should be replaced with as. However, even if this correction were made, the sentence would still be poorly worded. The antecedent of them (volcanic islands and coral atolls) is too far separated from the pronoun, and the use of the passive voice (would be needed by them) lacks the clarity and rhetorical force the active voice would have provided (they would need). That said, it would be preferable to avoid the such … as form entirely. Does not permit the economic development needed to support a larger population conveys the same idea more succinctly.

A The sentence has the problems discussed above.

B Such as is needed is awkward; a larger number is unclear.

C Correct. This version clearly and concisely conveys the intended idea.

D The subject of the verb is paucity, which is singular; thus, do is incorrect and should be replaced with does.

E The subject of the verb is paucity, which is singular; thus, do is incorrect and should be replaced with does; also, needed economic development for supporting a larger number of people is awkward.

The correct answer is C.

19.In contrast with a dark surface and its tendency toward heat absorption, a large expanse of snow and ice reflects incoming radiation into space.(E)

A. In contrast with a dark surface and its tendency toward heat absorption

B. Contrasted with a dark surface’s tendency to absorb heat

C. Since it is in contrast to a dark surface and its tendency to absorb heat

D. Contrasted to the tendency of a dark surface to absorb heat

E. In contrast to a dark surface, which tends to absorb heat

解析:Idiom; Parallelism

When contrast follows in, contrast functions as a noun; the appropriate preposition to use after contrast when it functions as a noun is to; with is the preferred preposition to use after contrast only when contrast functions as a verb. Thus, the sentence’s use of in contrast with is incorrect. Also, the logical contrast would be between a dark surface and a large expanse of snow and ice, not between both a dark surface and its tendency toward heat absorption and a large expanse of snow.

A In contrast with is not idiomatic; the correct preposition to use when contrast functions as a noun is to. Also, the logical contrast to make would be between a dark surface and a large expanse of snow and ice, not between both a dark surface and its tendency toward heat absorption and a large expanse of snow.

B The appropriate contrast is between a dark surface and a large expanse of snow and ice, not, as it is here, between a dark surface’s tendency to absorb heat and a large expanse of snow and ice.

C Because of its use of since, this version illogically states that the reason a large expanse of snow and ice reflects incoming radiation into space is that it is in contrast to a dark surface and its tendency to absorb heat.

D The preferred preposition to use with contrasted (and with contrast whenever it is used as a verb rather than as a noun) is with, not to, which is used here. Also, a large expanse of snow and ice is illogically contrasted with the tendency of a dark surface to absorb heat.

E Correct. In contrast to is the correct idiom; a large expanse of snow and ice is logically contrasted with a dark surface.

The correct answer is E.

20.The greatest road system built in the Americas prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus was the Incan highway, which, over 2,500 miles long and extending from northern Ecuador through Peru to southern Chile.(E)

A. Columbus was the Incan highway, which, over 2,500 miles long and extending

B. Columbus was the Incan highway, over 2,500 miles in length, which had extended

C. Columbus, the Incan highway, which was over 2,500 miles in length and extended

D. Columbus, the Incan highway, being over 2,500 miles in length, was extended

E. Columbus, the Incan highway was over 2,500 miles long, extending

解析:Grammatical construction; Verb form

The sentence begins with a long noun phrase the greatest… Columbus, a description that we are told refers to the Incan highway. The sentence also aims to tell us the length of this highway and what regions it passed through. One issue in the sentence concerns correct sentence formation. A related issue concerns the appropriate verb form to be used.

A The formation of the relative clause introduced by which is faulty, mainly because of its present-participle verb form extending. A relative clause giving a correct completion of the sentence would have been which was over 2,500 miles long and extended… Chile.

B This has two flaws present in the phrase which had extended. The relative pronoun which could be read as having the immediately preceding noun length, rather than highway, as its antecedent. Also, the complex verb form had extended, which normally refers to a time preceding a past time mentioned in the sentence, is incorrect here; the simple past extended is needed.

C The passage, if completed with this wording, would lack a main verb and therefore would not be a sentence, as opposed to a very long noun phrase followed by a relative clause.

D A glaring flaw here is use of the passive verb form was extendedinstead of the active and intransitive verb form extended. This conveys an unintended meaning, i.e., that the highway was initially 2,500 miles long but was later made even longer. Another flaw is the unnecessary and awkward use of the participle being.

E Correct. Completing the passage with this wording gives a sentence with the Incan highway as its subject. The noun phrase the greatest… Columbus provides a description of the Incan highway. The participial phrase beginning with extending modifies the sentence subject, thereby providing a further description of the highway.

The correct answer is E.

21.Due to poaching and increased cultivation in their native habitats, researchers have determined that there are fewer than 100 Arabian leopards left in the wild, and thus the leopards are many times as rare as China’s giant pandas.(E)

A. Due to poaching and increased cultivation in their native habitats, researchers have determined that there are fewer than 100 Arabian leopards left in the wild, and thus the leopards are many times as rare as

B. Due to poaching and increased cultivation in their native habitats, there are fewer than 100 Arabian leopards left in the wild, researchers have determined, making them many times more rare than

C. There are fewer than 100 Arabian leopards left in the wild due to poaching and increased cultivation in their native habitats, researchers have determined, which makes the leopards many times more rare compared to

D. Researchers have determined that, because of poaching and increased cultivation in their native habitats, there are fewer than 100 Arabian leopards left in the wild, thus making them many more times as rare as

E. Researchers have determined that, because of poaching and increased cultivation in their native habitats, there are fewer than 100 Arabian leopards left in the wild, and thus the leopards are many times more rare than

解析:Grammatical construction; Diction

The sentence contains three errors. The adverbial phrase due to… habitats is so positioned as to appear to modify the verb have determined— thus making the possessive adjective their seem, incorrectly, to refer to researchers. The comparison indicated by many times as rare as is intended to indicate that one group is rarer than another, a meaning properly conveyed by a comparative adjective—either rarer or more rare—plus than.

A This fails to give a correct sentence, for the reasons explained.

B This wording is awkward in part because of the placement of researchers have determined. It also contains a subtle error in failing to indicate clearly that the researchers ascertained not only the reduction in the number of leopards but also the causes of this reduction.

C The phrasing is ambiguous and awkward. The reason the remaining leopards are \

22.Developed by Pennsylvania’s Palatine Germans about 1750, Conestoga wagons, with high wheels capable of crossing rutted roads, muddy flats, and the nonroads of the prairie and they had a floor curved upward on either end so as to prevent cargo from shifting on steep grades.(D)

A. wagons, with high wheels capable of crossing rutted roads, muddy flats, and the nonroads of the prairie and they had a floor curved upward on either end so as to prevent

B. wagons, with high wheels capable of crossing rutted roads, muddy flats, and the nonroads of the prairie, and with a floor that was curved upward at both ends to prevent

C. wagons, which had high wheels capable of crossing rutted roads, muddy flats, and the nonroads of the prairie, and floors curved upward on their ends so that they prevented

D. wagons had high wheels capable of crossing rutted roads, muddy flats, and the nonroads of the prairie, and a floor that was curved upward at both ends to prevent

E. wagons had high wheels capable of crossing rutted roads, muddy flats, and the nonroads of the prairie and floors curving upward at their ends so that it prevented

解析:Logical predication; Parallelism; Grammatical construction

The main subject of this sentence is Conestoga wagons and the main verb is had. The opening participial phrase describes the origin of the wagons, and the rest of the sentence describes the features they possessed. These features must be presented in parallel form as objects of the verb had. The sentence first presented is a fragment; the prepositional phrase with… leaves the subject Conestoga wagons without a verb. When the verb had finally appears, a new subject they has been unnecessarily introduced.

A The subject wagons is without a verb.

The introduction of a new subject they is unnecessary. Given the absence of had after wagons and of a comma after prairie, it is also ungrammatical.

B This version of the sentence has no main verb for the subject wagons.

C As in (A) and (B), this version of the sentence fails to provide a main verb for the subject wagons.

D Correct. The main verb had completes the subject wagons and accommodates the two direct objects, wheels and a floor. The comma after prairie helps to clarify that floors is a direct object of had, parallel with high wheels.

E The referent for it is ambiguous. The correct answer is D.

23.The current economic downturn has significantly reduced advertising income both for business journals as well as general consumer magazines, especially if focusing on technology.(B)

A. has significantly reduced advertising income both for business journals as well as general consumer magazines, especially if focusing

B. has significantly reduced advertising income both for business journals and for general consumer magazines, especially those focusing

C. significantly reduced advertising income for both business journals and for general consumer magazines, especially when focused

D. reduced both business journals’ and general consumer magazines’ advertising income significantly, especially if focused

E. reduced advertising income significantly for both business journals, as well as for general consumer magazines, especially those focusing

解析:Idiom; Grammatical construction; Parallelism

The sentence contains errors related to the use of both to signal coordination of two elements of the sentence. The correct idiom is both … and, the phrase as well as is not interchangeable with and. Moreover, the elements meant to be coordinated are prepositional phrases, the first one being for business journals—but the preposition for is incorrectly omitted in the second element to be coordinated, a failure of required parallelism. The structure of the sentence suggests that the phrase especially if focusing on technology modifies the subject of the sentence, the current economic downturn. However, this is not the intended meaning. What is intended is a reference to a subclass of magazines (those that focus on technology).

A This contains multiple errors: incorrect coordination using both; omission of for in the second coordinated element; and a misplaced modifier especially if focusing on technology.

B Correct. This sentence correctly uses the idiom both … and to coordinate two prepositional phrases and uses a well-structured participial phrase to identify a subclass of the class of general consumer magazines.

C The position of for, preceding rather than following both, is incorrect. This misleadingly suggests that just two business journals are being referred to and fails by incorrectly coordinating two structurally dissimilar elements, i.e., a noun phrase {both business journals) and a prepositional phrase {for general consumer magazines). The phrase especially when focused… seems to modify the sentence subject, but in content that reading fails to capture the intended meaning.

D The phrase especially if focused… seems to modify the sentence subject, but in context that reading fails to capture the intended meaning. The simple-past verb reduced instead of the past-perfect form has reduced does not go well with the reference to a \

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