1.Before the construction of the road, it was prohibitively expensive to transport any furs or fruits across the mountains.(D)
2.At dusk, Mr. Hightower would sit in his old armchair in the backyard and wistfully lose in reminiscence of his youth romances.(A)
3.The prodigal son spent his money extravagantly and soon after he left home, he was reduced to a beggar.(A)
4.The chimney vomited a cloud of smoke.(C)
5.The rear section of the brain does not contract with age, and one can continue living without intellectual or emotional faculties.(D)
6.Born in 1863, Annie Fellows Johnston wrote stories for juveniles that became very popular and are still widely read.(A)
A. young people
D. sports fans
解析：本句中画线的词juvenile的意思是“青少年”，与它意思相近的是young people。women“女人”；foreigners“外国人”；sports fans“体育迷”均不符合句意。故选A。
7.At the last moment, the basketball player made a clever maneuver that allowed him to score.(D)
8.Andre Watts gave a dazzling interpretation of Beethoven’s \(D)
9.Susan B Anthony, the American champion of woman’s suffrage, was also a participant in the movement to end slavery.(A)
10.The goose quill pen has a great sentimental appeal in this century’s highly mechanized culture.(B)
Ten years ago, when environmental lawyer Kassie Siegel went in search of an animal to save the world, the polar bear wasn’t at all an obvious choice. Siegel and Brendan Cummings of the Center for Biological Diversity in Joshua Tree, Calif., were looking for a species whose habitat was disappearing due to climate change, which could serve as a symbol of the dangers of global warming. Her first candidate met the scientific criteria—it lived in ice caves in Alaska’s Glacier Bay, which were melting away—but unfortunately it was a spider. You can’t sell a lot of T-shirts with pictures of an animal most people would happily step on.
Next, Siegel turned to the Kittlitz’s murrelet, a small Arctic seabird whose nesting sites in glaciers were disappearing. In 2001, she petitioned the Department of the Interior to add it to the Endangered Species list, but Interior Secretary Gale Norton turned her down. Elkhorn and staghorn coral, which are threatened by rising water temperatures in the Caribbean, did make it onto the list, but as iconic species they fell short insofar as many people don’t realize they’re alive in the first place. The polar bear, by contrast, is vehemently alive and comes the undeniable charisma of a top predator. And its dependence on ice was intuitively obvious: it lives on it most of the year. But it took until 2004 for researchers to demonstrate that shrinking sea ice was a serious threat to the bears’population. On Feb. 16, 2005—the day the Kyoto Protocol to curb greenhouse gas emissions took effect, without the participation of the United States—Siegel petitioned to list polar bears as endangered. Three years later her efforts met with equivocal(不明确的)success, as Interior Secretary Dirk Kempthorne designated the bears as \
11.Siegel and Cummings hoped to choose an animal to______.(A)
A. call on people to take actions against global warming
B. make people aware of the danger of environmental damage
C. introduce to people a new concept of environmental protection
D. remind people of the importance of protecting endangered species
解析：细节题。第一段第二句说“Siegel and Brendan Cummings of the Center for Biological Diversity in Joshua Tree，Calif．，were looking for a species whose habitat was disappearingdue to climate change，which could serve as a symbol of the dangers of global warming．”即Siegel正在寻找一个由于气候变化而逐渐消失的物种，希望用它作为警示全球变暖危害的象征物。这样做的目的是号召人们与全球变暖作斗争。故选A。
12.The problem with elkhorn and staghorn corals lies in that______.(C)
A. they were not much-liked by many people
B. they were not well-known enough to be an icon
C. they were not considered animals by many people
D. they were not added to the list of Endangered Species
解析：细节题。第二段第三句说“Elkhorn and staghorn coral，which are threatened by rising wa—ter temperatures in the Caribbean，did make it onto the list，but as iconic species they fellshort in so far as many people don’t realize they’re alive in the first place．”小鹿角珊瑚和糜角珊瑚成功地被列入了濒危物种名单，但作为标志性物种还有欠缺，因为很多人并没有意识到珊瑚是活的动物。故选C。
13.It can be learnt that the polar bear______.(D)
A. was first considered by Siegel to be the iconic animal in 1998
B. was first proposed by Siegel to be the endangered species in 2004
C. was not qualified scientifically as the endangered species until 2005
D. was not officially under the government protection until 2008
14.Which of the following is chosen by Siegel as the symbolic animal?(B)
A. The murrelet nesting in glaciers.
B. The polar bear in the North Pole.
C. The spider in Alaska’s Glacier Bay.
D. Staghorn corals in the Caribbean.
15.The passage is focused on______.(B)
A. how the scientists tried to protect endangered species
B. how the symbolic endangered species has been chosen
C. the relation between global warming and endangered species
D. the problems in and the future of endangered species protection
More American mothers than ever are working, and more workers are mothers. Yet their march into the world of paid work continues to cause suspicion. One recent survey found that 48 percent of Americans believe that preschoolers suffer if their mothers work, while another found that 42 percent of employed parents think that working mothers care more about succeeding at work than meeting their children’s needs.
The kids are all right. Studies conducted by the University of Michigan have consistently demonstrated that a child’s social or academic competence does not depend on whether a mother is employed. In my research four out of five children told me that having a working mother was their preferred arrangement. My study found that children with working mothers are no more likely to drop out, take drugs, break the law, or experiment with sex prematurely than children with non-employed mothers. Children have taken their mothers’ example to heart. Ninety percent of the young women I interviewed said they hoped to combine work with motherhood, while two-thirds of the men said they wanted to share parenting and work.
Sadly, children support working mothers more than we do as a society. Parental leave and child-care benefits in the United States remain inadequate, particularly when compared to what’s offered in other countries. Children thrive when their mothers have satisfying, well-paid jobs when they can count on other caretakers to share the load. The challenge facing us is thus not whether good workers can also be good mothers, but whether we can create the conditions that enable working mothers and fathers to be good parents.
16.From the first paragraph, we can see that______.(D)
A. now more American mothers are working than any time in American history and anywhere else in the world
B. more than half Americans think that before going to school, children need their mothers’whole-hearted care
C. a majority of Americans believe that once working outside home mothers think of their own work more than their children
D. more American mothers work than ever before, but this problem of working mothers has not been solved satisfactorily
17.From the passage, we can not find the proof of the fact that______.(C)
A. mothers do their household work today just as well as they did before
B. with their mothers working, children are better off
C. lack of mothers’ care, children like to go astray
D. in single-parent families, most children like their mothers to go out working
解析：细节题。第二段说“My study found that children with working mothers are no more likelyto drop out，take drugs，break the law，or experiment with sex prematurely than childrenwith non—employed mothers．”根据他自己的研究，青少年辍学、吸毒以及违反法律等情况的发生率，在母亲外出工作的家庭中与母亲不外出工作的家庭中相同。故选C。
18.In the last paragraph, \(D)
A. parents should not leave and pay more care to their children
B. parental leave and child care is contradicted
C. children have inadequate care from their parents
D. in the United States, parents enjoy inadequate child-care leave and allowance
解析：推断题。parental leave指的是育婴假，child—care benefits则指的是育儿津贴，原文中这句的意思是说美国的父母们享受的育婴假和津贴都比其他国家少。故选D。
19.What do the Americans need in solving the problem of working mothers?(D)
A. They need the support of males.
B. They need the understanding of other members of their families.
C. They need young people to be well-prepared to work both in and outside their homes.
D. They need especially the powerful support, of the society for working mothers.
20.What is the main idea of the passage?(A)
A. We should let mothers work without worries.
B. It is better for mothers to stay at home.
C. We should work hard, especially mothers.
D. Like mothers, like children.
解析：主旨大意题。文章最后一段提到美国社会对工作的母亲支持不够的问题。最后一句说“The challenge facing us is thus not whether good workers can also be good mothers，butwhether we can create the conditions that enable working mothers and fathers to be goodparents．”意为，我们现在面临的挑战不是好的工作人员能否成为好母亲的问题，而是我们能否创造条件使工作的父母成为好父母的问题。故选A。
Job sharing refers to the situation in which two people divide the responsibility of one full-time job. The two people willingly act as part-time workers, enough hours between them to fulfill the duties of a full-time worker. If they each work half the job, for example, they each receive 50 percent of the job’s wages, its holidays and its other benefits. Of course, some job sharers take a smaller or larger share of the responsibilities of the position, receiving a less or greater share of the benefits.
Job sharing differs from conventional part-time work in that it occurs mainly in the more highly skilled and professional areas, which requires higher levels of responsibility and employee commitment.
Job sharing should not be confused with the term work sharing, which refers to increasing the number of jobs by reducing the number of hours of each existing job, thus offering more positions to the growing number of unemployed people. Job sharing, by contrast, is not designed to address unemployment problems: its focus, rather, is to provide well-paid work for skilled workers and professionals who want more free time for other activities.
As would be expected, women constitute the bulk of job sharers. A survey carded out in 1988 by Britain’s Equal Opportunities Commission revealed that 78 percent of sharers were female, the majority of whom were between 20 and 40 years of age. Subsequent studies have come up with similar results. Many of these women were re-entering the job market after having had children, but they chose not to seek part-time work because it would have meant lower status.
Job sharing also offered an acceptable shift back into full-time work after a long absence.
The necessity of close cooperations when sharing a job with another person makes the actual work quite different from conventional one-position jobs. However, to ensure a greater chance that the partnership will succeed, each person needs to know the strengths, weaknesses and preferences of his or her partner before applying for a position. Moreover, there must be a fair division of both routine tasks and interesting ones. In sum, for a position to be job-shared well, the two individuals must be well matched and must treat each other as equals.
22.Work sharing is different from job sharing in that______.(C)
A. it requires more working hours
B. it depends on the employer’s decision
C. it provides more work positions
D. it offers a more satisfactory salary
解析：推断题。job sharing意为“轮岗制，轮班制”。轮岗制是两个人轮流做一份通常由一人做的工作。work sharing意为“分摊式工作”。由于失业率增加，为保证每个人都有工作而引进工作分摊制这个想法。答案在第三段第一句“Job sharing should not be confusedwith the term work sharing，which refers to increasing the number of jobs by reducing thenumber of hours of each existing job，thus offering more positions to the growing number ofunemployed people．”说工作分摊可以创造更多的工作机会。故选C。
23.Job sharing is popular with young mothers mainly because______.(A)
A. they can take care of both work and family
B. they are over ideal working ages
C. they seek equal opportunities with men
D. they have difficulty finding full-time jobs
解析：细节题。第四段最后一句“Many of these women were re—entering the job market afterhaving had children，but they chose not to seek part—time work because it would have meantlower status．”，说很多重新回到就业市场的女性都有了孩子。故选A。
24.According to the survey, the sharers women consist of______.(D)
解析：细节题。在第四段第二句“A survey carded out in 1988 by Britain’s Equal OpportunitiesCommission revealed that 78 percent of sharers were female，the majority of whom were be—tween 20 and 40 years of age．”文中说78％的轮岗制工作者是女性。故选D。
25.The main purpose of the passage is to______.(B)
A. recommend job sharing to women
B. describe job sharing in general
C. criticize job sharing as inefficient
D. discuss a way to tackle unemployment
There are over 6,000 different computer and online games in the world now. A segment of them are considered to be both educational and harmlessly entertaining. One such game teaches geography , and another trains pilots. Others train the player in logical thinking and problem solving. Some games may also help young people to become more computer literature, which is more important in this technology-driven era.
But the dark side of the computer games has become more and more obvious. \
26.Which of the following computer games is NOT mentioned as educational and harmlessly entertaining?(C)
A. Those that help people learn more about computers.
B. Those that teach the features of the earth.
C. Those that provide special training for writers online.
D. Those that provide special training for pilots.
解析：细节题。根据第一段可知，人们认为有一些电脑游戏既有教育意义又有一定的娱乐作用。有的电脑游戏教人们学地理，有的可以训练飞行员，有的可以训练人们的逻辑思维能力和解决问题的能力，有些游戏还可以帮助人们了解更多的计算机语言，这在我们这个技术驱动的时代是更加重要的。这里没有提到训练网上写作(special training forwriters online)。故选C。
27.According to one study, most computer and online games______.(D)
A. allow the players to take part in killing acts
B. teach the players to be antisocial
C. make the players forget the real life results
D. that young people like contain violence
解析：细节题。第三段第一句“One study showed that almost 80 percent of the computer and on—line games young people preferred contained violence．”可知，一项研究表明青年人喜欢的电脑游戏和网上游戏中80％含有暴力的内容。故选D。
28.Many studies have suggested that______.(B)
A. more and more young people enjoy cruel computer games
B. violence in computer games makes their players more aggressive
C. there are now far more incidents of violence due to computer games
D. simulated violence in computer games is different from real violence
解析：推断题。第五段最后一句“Many have suggested that there is a connection between vio—lence in games and increased aggressiveness in the players．”可知，许多研究表明游戏中的暴力与玩游戏的人的暴力倾向增强是有关系的。故选B。
29.The author uses \(D)
A. other factors must be considered as possible causes of violence in real life
B. computer and online games are not the only cause of increased violence in real life
C. the commercial world is contributing to the increased violence in real life
D. there is a close link between computer games and increased violence in real life
解析：推断题。最后一段最后两句“It seems unrealistic to insist that people are not influenced bywhat they see．If that were true，why would the commercial world spend billions of dollarsannually for television advertising?”可知，看来认为人们不受他们所看到的东西影响是不现实的。如果不受影响的话，为什么商家每年要花数十亿美元做电视广告呢?故选D。
30.The best title for the passage could be______.(A)
A. The Dark Side of Computer Games
B. Computer Games—Advantages and Disadvantages
C. The Development of Violent Computer Games
D. A Study on the Influence of Computer Games
解析：主旨题。全文主要介绍了电脑游戏的负面影响。根据第二段第一句“But the dark sideof the computer games has become more and more obvious．”可知，电脑游戏的负面影响越来越明显了。该句为全文的主题句。故选A。
In 2011, green homes made up roughly 17 percent of the market and is expected to reach two out of five homes by 2016, according to the report.
The biggest attribute to a green home is energy efficiency, of course. Ninety percent of homeowners surveyed said energy efficiency is important because of personal values, and because of lower energy bills. Other eco-friendly factors include indoor air quality, material durability, use of post-consumer materials and sustainability-focused waste management practices.
Another big incentive for consumers is the fact that mortgage lenders and regional programs-offer discount interest rates for green homes.
Regardless of the incentive, consumers should also inquire about the materials that they will be using to build their home, especially the foundation. A home built with concrete blocks, for example, does not suffer from the same number of insect infestations as wood construction homes.
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Great ideas, many people are working now to make the world more green.
The demands for green homes and the market of 17 percent must be increased and there must be insects and infections cured for wooden constructions.
The concept is nice but I think, technology has changed a lot in today’s modern world but some of the techniques of construction will remain same as it was in 1800 s. More ideas should be introduced in construction to offer environment friendly homes.
Comment 4 :
The idea of investing a house that makes you save money is not bad. It’s a long-time investment and I’ve been thinking for a while to make some changes. Could you for instance tell me how low the energy bills get? 20% or 50% ? The thing with concrete blocks is that during summertime it gets really hot and there’s no air. I would go anytime for wood instead of concrete. And the bugs problem, well you solve it once and you solve it for good! As far as I can see, the green homes trend is expanding quickly! I have started to get sick of all the skyscrapers!
All homeowners can be proud that wood is a renewable and green product.
31.What is the theme of the blog quoted?(B)
A. How to choose material for green homes.
B. The demand for green homes is on the rise.
C. Green homes and personal values.
D. Long term development starts from housing.
32.The personal values(Para.2)may refer to______.(D)
A. the pursuit of wealth
B. the idea of trying new
C. rejection to the modern technology
D. the consciousness of continual development
解析：推断题。根据personal values所在的句子可知，作者认为由于个人价值观的原因大家认为节能是很重要的，所以个人价值观就有可能包含“可持续发展”的意思。其他3个选项都与energy efficiency没有逻辑上的因果关系。故选D。
33.When people choose green homes, which of the following doesn’t belong to his or her first consideration?(D)
A. Energy saving.
B. Bill paid for energy consumption.
C. The lowered interest rates offered.
D. The material usability.
34.From comment 2 to comment 4, we learn people show concerns over______.(B)
A. the techniques of renewing waste
B. the choice of different construction materials
C. the energy bills
D. the popularity of green homes
35.All of the commentators’ attitude towards green homes can be summarized as being______.(A)
Children model themselves largely on their parents. They do so mainly through identification. Children identify【C1】______a parent when they believe they have the qualities and feelings that are【C2】______of that parent. The things parents do and say—and the【C3】______they do and say to them—strongly influence a child’s behavior.
A parent’s actions【C4】______affect the self image that a child forms through identification. Children who see mainly positive qualities in their parents will likely learn to see themselves in a positive way. Children who observe chiefly【C5】______qualities in their parents will have difficulty【C6】______positive qualities in themselves. Children may【C7】______their self image, however, as they become increasingly【C8】______by peer groups.
In the case of a dramatic change in family relations, the【C9】______of an activity or experience depends on how the child interprets it. Children interpret such events according to their established attitudes and previous training. Children who know they are loved can,【C10】______, accept the divorce of their parents or a parent’s early death. But if children feel unloved, they may interpret such events as a sign of rejection or punishment.
解析：characteristic特点，特性。be characteristic of的意思是“具有…的特性”。文中的意思是“…代表他父母特点的品质和情感”。其他三项为inform通知；conceive想象；indicative指示的。故选B。
解析：这里way是指父母的行为方式。gesture手势；expression表情，facial expressions面部表情；extent范围，程度，to some extent在某种程度上。故选C。
A. in turn
D. as a result
解析：前面说“父母的言行会极大地影响孩子的行为”，这里讲“父母的言行也会影响孩子的自我形象”，所以用副词also。in turn依次；nevertheless然而；as a result结果。故选C。
C. to see
D. to seeing
解析：have difficulty(in)doing sth．是固定用法，意为“做…有困难”。故选B。
C. give up
B. for example
C. at most
46. The opening ceremony of an Olympic games is not an entertainment show, it is not even really about the sporting event itself: it is a national manifesto, a reflection of how a nation sees itself, and where it is going.
Beijing was a show of power, strength and dominance. It was an announcement to the world stage that China was re-emerging into the ascendancy. An unstoppable force which most citizens, and many foreigners, believed has its best days still to come.
The British example could not have been more different. Leaving aside any concerns over matters of taste, which it would appear Aiden Burley MP has bravely taken the lead on, it was almost uniquely inward looking: championing political correctitude, social programmes, altruism and diversity, ignoring Empire, wealth, power, conflict and gain.
47.Write at least 150 words about the topic: The Problem of Rising Hospital Charges.
You should write according to the outline given below.
The Problem of Rising Hospital Charges
Nowadays, people often complain that the charges of medical treatment and drugs are rising so fast, and they are even beyond people’s burden. I’m also a member of the society, so I have been experiencing it all the time.
This situation has various reasons. First, the operative expense used in a hospital is out of control , which causes higher costs of management. Second, the new advanced equipment needs more financial support but the government has not given them enough funds. So patients must pay for the expensive equipment. Third, the operating process of the medical drugs is complex. As a result, there are too many middle processes causing the higher costs.
In order to solve the problems above, we should take some practical measures. Firstly, control the costs of operation and management in the hospital. Secondly, ask the government for more support to buy advanced and valuable equipment. Thirdly, reduce the middle processes of operating drugs and control the price of it. I think these measures can reduce the charges in hospitals.
A. What struck him B. therefore C. broke out
A. the plague【T1】______in southern England
B.【T2】______was the conjecture that the same force of gravity
C. Newton【T3】______spent the next eighteen months at home
In the year 1665, when Newton was twenty-two,【T4】______, and the University of Cambridge was closed.【T5】______, removed from traditional learning, at a time when he was inpatient for knowledge and, in his own phrase, \
解析：此处要填的是一个插入句，空格前面出现的句子说：he saw an apple fall，即牛顿看到了苹果落地，这一事实引起了牛顿的深思。空格后面的句子是: …到达树的顶端苹果会冲出地球及大气层，再进入太空。因此，要填的部分，必定是引起牛顿思考的内容，故填What struck him was the conjecture that the same force of gravity(让他感到惊奇的是同样的引力之谜)。故选B。
A. for granted B. accounts C. enables
A. it only【T7】______people to produce
B. he also took it【T8】______
C. it【T9】______for the difference
There can be no doubt that division of labor is an efficient way of organizing work. Fewer people can make more pins. Adam Smith saw this but【T10】______that division of labor is in itself responsible for economic growth and development and that【T11】______between expanding economies and those that standing still. But division of labor adds nothing new:【T12】______more of what they already have.
解析：这个空格要填谓语动词，再根据句型enable sb．to do sth．(使某人做某事)能判断出答案，故选C。
A. the next half century
B. reducing death rates
C. developing world
D. infectious diseases
A. could potentially become the toughest problem of【T13】______
B. provides the tools and methods for lengthening life spans and【T14】______
C. with virtually all the new growth occurring in the【T15】______
D.【T16】______are much less frequent due largely to public health measures
It is the application of technology to physical resources that provides for human life and eventually sets the limits on the number of people who can be fed, but technology also【T17】______As a result, high birth rates are no longer closely matched by high death rates as they were until modern times:【T18】______: and physical vitality has been increased by improved nutrition. These changes have brought about what is today familiarly called the \
解析：and前后构成并列，lengthening life spans和reducing death rates并列。故选B。
A. we are all booked up for Flight 802 on that day
B. what about the fare
C. I’d like to make a reservation to Boston next week
Agent: Good morning. The United Airlines. What can I do for you?
Agent: When do you want to Ay?
Caller: Monday, September 12.
Agent: We have Flight 802 on Monday. Just a moment please. Let me check whether there’re seats available. I’m sorry【D2】______
Caller: Then, any alternatives?
Agent: The next available flight leaves at 9: 30 Tuesday morning September 13. Shall I book you a seat?
Caller: Er…It is a direct flight, isn’t it?
Agent: Yes, it is. You want to go first class or coach?
Caller: I prefer first class,【D3】______?
Agent: One way is $ 176.
Caller: OK. I will take the 9: 30 flight on Tuesday.
Agent: A seat on Flight 807 to Boston 9: 30 Tuesday morning. Is it all right, sir?
解析：空格前说“不好意思”，证明服务员在查询之后要告知不好的信息：那就是票已订满，其中be booked up意思是“订满了”。故选A。
A. Do you have the baggage claim tags
B. I’ve been waiting in the baggage claim area for one hour
C. we are terribly sorry for the inconvenience
Traveler:【D4】______, but still can’t find my luggage.
Staff: May I know your airline company and the flight number?
Traveler: It’s United Airline. The flight number is 311.
Traveler: They are here.
Staff: I am sorry. Your luggage was probably misplaced in Seattle while you transited there.
Traveler: What should I do now?
Staff: Would you please fill out this form and leave your address and phone number where we can contact you here? We’ll contact you as soon as we can, and deliver them to where you are staying.
Traveler: What if my luggage was damaged?
Staff: Then, we will give you compensation for it. Again,【D6】______
解析：空格后说旅客一直没看见自己的行李(but still can’t find my luggage)，三个选项只有B项符合，说他已经在行李提取区(baggage claim area)等了一个小时了。故选B。
解析：在了解了旅客的问题后，地勤人员询问了旅客的航空公司及航班号，后面应该让旅客出示行李提取牌(baggage claim tag)，这是旅客在办理登机和行李托运手续后获得的行李领取凭证。故选A。
解析：在办妥了相关的行李遗失登记手续后，地勤人员应该向旅客表示诚挚的歉意。“be terri—bly sorry for the inconvenience”是在给别人带来不便时表示道歉的常用说法。故选C。
A. It’s really family first
B. the real work will start when they walk off the stage
C. then it was just a penalty
D. because I’m a pretty street-smart guy
Yorke: You’ve talked about finding meaning in suffering. What do you mean by that?
McGrow: Everybody at some point is going to have misfortune. I think if we don’t learn from that,【D7】______But if you use it, then it becomes tuition. I draw a lot on my personal experiences. It’s hard for people to deceive me,【D8】______
Yorke: Are there families who come on your show but whom you feel you just can’t help?
McGrow: I never think that I’m doing eight-minute cures on television. But I think that 50 percent of the solution to any problem lies in defining it first. I can be an emotional compass that points them down the path, but【D9】______
Yorke: What would you say is the greatest value system that you have?
McGrow:【D10】______Our family and its properties, needs, values, come before everything else—work, recreation, whatever.
解析：谈到对某些家庭问题在电视节目上的治疗效果，McGrow否认他会使用“快速疗法”(eight—minute cures)，但他会是个“情感的指南针”(emotional compass)，使得真正起作用的时候是他们走下舞台之后。故选B。