The recent social and economic changes in the US have great impact on all the American housing system.
What does the man do?
C. Knowing different people.
D. Traveling a lot.
A. the Tower of London
C. Buckingham Palace
D. The Greenwich village
According to the speaker, what are convenience goods?
A. Those that satisfy similar needs of the consumer.
B. Those that consumers don’t care where to buy.
C. Those that consumers spend much time looking for.
D. Those that can be found everywhere.
A. They are goods that can be bought at a special price.
B. They are special kinds of products.
C. They are characterized in their brands.
D. They need special efforts to get.
What does the speaker mainly discuss?
A. By taking over ponds.
B. By constructing sewers.
C. By building dams on rivers.
D. By flooding marshes.
A. They are applied to aquatic weeds by fish farming.
B. Amphibians release them from their skin.
C. Irresponsible dispose of them in ponds.
D. They are washed into ponds by the rain.
A. Pesticides can cause an amphibian’s skin to dry out.
B. Pesticides kill the insects that amphibians depend on for food.
C. Dissolved pesticides can easily enter amphibian’s bodies.
D. Amphibians may eat plants that have been treated with pesticides.
How many planets are there in the solar system revolving around the sun?
Thousands of years
Computers and satellites
解析：由本文的第一句话“‘Down-to-earth’means someone or something that is honest，realistic and easy to deal with．”可知“Down-to-earth”指的是诚实、现实、平易近人的那些人。这里的someone和后面是相对应的。故答案为someone。
解析：从文章第二段的内容可以看出，A down-to-earth person和那些表面上装得很重要的人物正好相反。所以这里应填“相反的”，故答案为opposite。
解析：从本句后面的一句话可以看出，A down-to-earth person就算是重要的人物，他们也不会把这种显赫写在脸上。所以前面应填important。故答案为important。
解析：go to one’s heads的意思是“展现、表现”，俗语。用在文中表示“把…写在脸上”，生怕别人不知道的显摆。故答案为go。
解析：后面的一句话“The expression is‘both-feet-on-the-ground．’”表示down-to-earth的另一种表达方法是both-feet-on-the-ground。而后一种说法是美国人的用法，常常被美国人使用。故答案为use。
解析：根据对等关系，这里应该与后面的部分“a person with a good understanding”相对应。意思是“那些脚踏实地的人往往是那些很了解现实的人。”故答案为with。
解析：“对现实的了解”的英文表达是“the understanding of reality”，这里的介词用of。故答案为of。
解析：这里表达的前后句意是一种转折关系。前面说“he may have dreams，”而后面“he does not allow them to block his knowledge…”的意思却是“但是他也不会让这些梦想阻挡自己对什么是现实的理解。”故答案为but。
解析：通过对后面句子的分析，我们可以知道那些想入非非、飘飘欲仙的人有朝一日也是可以“双脚落地的”，那就是“sharp words from teacher”，所以这里表示的是“有朝一日”，故答案为sometime。
解析：通过前一句话“such a dreamer can be brought back to earth．”中的brought可以知道，这里应该填bring，表示“把…带到”。故答案为bring。
解析：前面所说的the person who is down-to-earth与the person whose both feet on the ground大体是一类人，所以这里表达的意思是“很有可能就是一类人”。be likely to do就表达了这种意思。故答案为likely。
解析：这里的一句话其实与下一半句“when we are down-to-earth…．”所起到的作用是一样的，同时两者也是并列的，when表达了“当…”，所以这里填when。故答案为when。
Not long ago, a mysterious Christmas card dropped through our mail slot. The envelope was addressed to a man named Raoul, who, I was relatively certain, did not live with us. The envelope wasn’ t sealed, so I opened it. The inside of the card was blank. Ed, my husband, explained that the card was both from and to the newspaper de-liveryman. His name was apparently Raoul, and Raoul wanted a holiday tip. We were meant to put a check inside the card and then drop the envelope in the mail. When your services are rendered at 4 a. m. , you can’t simply hang around, like a hotel bellboy expecting a tip. You have to be direct.
So I wrote a nice holiday greeting to this man who, in my imagination, fires The New York Times from his bike aimed at our front door, causing more noise with mere newsprint than most people manage with sophisticated black market fireworks.
With a start, I realized that perhaps the reason for the 4 a. m. —wake-up noise was not ordinary rudeness but carefully executed spite: I had not tipped Raoul in Christmases past. I honestly hadn’ t realized I was supposed to. This was the first time he’d used the card tactic. So I got out my checkbook. Somewhere along the line, holiday tipping went from an optional thank-you for a year of services to a Mafia-style protection racket(收取保护费的黑社会组织).
Several days later, I was bringing our garbage bins back from the curb when I noticed an envelope taped to one of the lids. The outside of the envelope said MICKEY. It had to be another tip request, this time from our garbage collector. Unlike Raoul, Mickey hadn’t enclosed his own Christmas card from me. In a way, I appreciated the directness. \
46.The newspaper deliveryman put a blank card inside the envelope because______.(C)
A. he forgot to write a few words on it
B. he wanted the couple to send it back
C. he used it to ask for a Christmas tip
D. he was afraid of asking for a tip in person
47.From the passage, we learn that the author______.(A)
A. didn’ t like Raoul’ s way of delivering the paper
B. didn’ t realize why Raoul delivered the paper that way
C. didn’ t know that Raoul came very early in the morning
D. didn’ t feel it necessary to meet Raoul when he came
48.According to the passage, the author felt______to give Raoul a holiday tip.(D)
49.Which of the following is CORRECT about Mickey, the garbage collector?(B)
A. He wrote a letter to the couple afterwards.
B. He failed to collect the money from the bank.
C. He wanted the couple to send him a Christmas card.
D. He collected both the cheek and the garbage that day.
50.Ed’ s encounter with the recycling team shows that______.(A)
A. Ed was desperate to correct his mistake.
B. Ed only wanted to give money to Raoul.
C. Ed was unwilling to tip the truck driver.
D. Ed no longer wanted to give them money.
At 18, Ashanthi DeSilva of suburban Cleveland is a living symbol of one of the great intellectual achievements of the 20th century. Bom with an extremely rare and usually fatal disorder that left her without a functioning immune system(the \
51.The case of Ashanthi Desilva is mentioned in the text to______.(A)
A. show the promise of gene-therapy
B. give an example of modern treatment for fatal diseases
C. introduce the achievement of Anderson and his team
D. explain how gene-based treatment works
52.Anderson’ s early success has______.(B)
A. greatly speeded the development of medicine
B. brought no immediate progress in the research of gene-therapy
C. promised a cure to every disease
D. made him a national hero
解析：文章第二段一开头就说：“It’s not entirely clear why medicine has been so slow to build on Anderson’s early success．”从时间上来看，Anderson采用基因疗法的成功尝试已经是1990年的事情了，两相对照，可见他的成功没有让医学加速发展。因此正确答案为B。
53.Which of the following is true according to the text?(C)
A. Ashanthi needs to receive gene-therapy treatment constantly.
B. Despite the huge funding, gene researches have shown few promises.
C. Therapeutic genes are carried by harmless viruses.
D. Gene-doping is encouraged by world agencies to help athletes get better scores.
解析：文章第二段对于基因治疗的方式的解释是用于治疗的基因通过“viruses that don’t cause human disease”进入体内，就好像“特洛伊木马”一样，由此可见，这些病毒是无害的。因此正确答案为C。
54.The word \(D)
55.From the text we can see that the author seems______.(A)
解析：作者的态度从文章第一句话和最后一句话就可以明显判断出来。第一句话说基因疗法是20世纪的伟大成就之一，最后一句话说“Everybody recognizes that gene therapy is a very good idea”，由此可见作者对基因疗法持积极乐观的态度。因此正确答案为A。
Shortages of flu vaccine are nothing new in America, but this year’ s is a whopper. Until last week, it appeared that 100 million Americans would have access to flu shots this fall. Then British authorities, concerned about quality-control problems at a production plant in Liverpool, barred all further shipments by the Chiron Corp. Overnight, the U. S. vaccine supply dwindled by nearly half and federal health officials found themselves making an unusual plea. Instead of beseeching us all to get vaccinated, they’ re now urging most healthy people between the ages of 2 and 64 not to. \
56.Shortages of flue vaccine show that______.(D)
A. America relies too much on foreign suppliers
B. the demand of flu vaccines is high this year
C. quality problem is a serious problem in flu vaccine production
D. the supply of flu vaccines is rather weak and America has no back-up measures to make it up
解析：第一段最后一句话指出了疫苗短缺所暴露出来的问题。“This reemphasizes the fragility of our vaccine supply．”says Dr．Martin Myers of the National Network for Immunization Information．“and the lack of redundancy in our system．”“这再次凸显出我们疫苗供应的脆弱性，”全国免疫信息网的马丁·迈尔斯医生说，“此外，我们也没有必要的补救机制。”因此正确答案为D。
57.The word \(A)
解析：在第三段最后一句“…one culture-based product has been cleared for marketing in Europe．”里出现了“cleared”一词。根据下文中“marketing”和读者有关药品上市前应该得到批准的常识，可以判断出，该词在本句中的意思是“得到官方的批准”。因此正确答案为A。
58.Private companies have little interest in producing flu vaccines because of______.(A)
A. complicated process, high cost, low profit and high risk
B. shortages of fertilized chicken eggs
C. difficulty in growing live virus
D. fast changing of flu virus
解析：第二段第二句“Mainly because private companies have had little incentive to pursue it．”意思是说“私企生产流感疫苗的积极性不高”。接下来作者介绍了制作疫苗的复杂工序，由此可以推断出流感疫苗生产工艺复杂、成本高。第二段又明确指出了私企不愿意生产流感疫苗的其他原因：利润率低、需求不稳定，此外由于流感病毒每年都不同，因此生产数量不能过大，由此也可推断出生产的风险性大，如果生产多了就会损失很大。因此正确答案为A。
59.From the last paragraph we can infer that______.(B)
A. the government hopes to solve the problem by way of volunteer restrictions
B. more than 47 million Americans who are qualified to get flu vaccine shots can not get them this year
C. America has to deal with a limited supply of flu vaccines this year
D. normally only a small percentage of American population gets flu vaccine shots each year
解析：由第四段第二句“The government estimates that 95 million people still qualify for shots under the voluntary restrictions announced last week．”中可以知道大约有九千五百万人有资格注射疫苗。根据第四段第三句：“That’s nearly twice the number of doses that clinics will have on hand，but only 60 million Americans seek out shots in a normal year．”和前一句可以推断出美国现有大约四千七百万份流感疫苗库存，由此可推断出美国至少还有四千七百多万有资格注射疫苗的人无法得到注射。因此正确答案为B。
60.According to the passage, which of the following is TRUE?(B)
A. All Americans are persuaded not to get vaccinated this year.
B. The big problem in innovating flu vaccine producing technique is how to grow virus in a new way.
C. More flu vaccines can not be produced in a short time because private companies refuse to produce more.
D. Flu vaccines are easier than most vaccines to produce through cell cultures.
解析：由第一段的“Instead of beseeching us all to get vaccinated，they’re now urging most healthy people between the ages of 2 and 64 not to．”可以判断出美国之呼吁2至641岁的健康人不接种流感疫苗，而不是所有的美国人，因此答案A是错误的。从第二段最后一句话可以看出疫苗生产厂家无法临时增加疫苗生产不是由于他们不愿意，而是由于受精鸡蛋的生产已经预先计划好，无法提供更多的受精鸡蛋，由此可见答案C是错误的。从第三段第三行“Flu vaccines are harder than most to produce this way”可以判断出答案D是错误的，因为流感疫苗比别的疫苗更难用细菌培育的方式生产。而由第三段第2-3行“The main challenge is to shift production from eggs into cell cultures—a medium already used to make most other vaccines．”以及上一句可见，改造疫苗生产工艺的关键在于革新病毒培育技术。因此正确答案为B。
According to the American Academy of Dermatology, an estimated 10 to 50 million people in this country have an allergic reaction to poison ivy each year. Poison ivy is often very difficult to spot. It closely resembles several other common garden plants, and can also blend in with other plants and weeds. But if you come into contact with it, you’ 11 soon know by the itchy, blistery rash that forms on your skin. Poison ivy is a red, itchy rash caused by the plant that bears its name. Many people get it when they are hiking or working in their garden and accidentally come into direct contact with the plant’ s leaves, roots, or stems. The poison ivy rash often looks like red lines, and sometimes it forms blisters.
About 85 percent of people are allergic to the urushiol in poison ivy, according to the American Academy of Dermatology. Only a tiny amount of this chemical—1 billionth of a gram—is enough to cause a rash in many people. Some people may boast that they’ ve been exposed to poison ivy many times and have never gotten the rash, but that doesn’t necessarily mean they’ re not allergic. Sometimes the allergy doesn’ t emerge until you’ ve been exposed several times, and some people develop a rash after their very first exposure. It may take up to ten days for the rash to emerge the first time.
Here are some other ways to identify the poison ivy plant. It generally grows in a cluster of low, weed-like plants or a woody vine which can climb trees or fences. It is most often found in moist areas, such as riverbanks, woods, and pastures. The edges of the leaves are generally smooth or have tiny \
解析：接下来讲的是人体的免疫系统与毒藤之间的关系。毒藤会使人产牛什么样的反应，该空紧接的就是毒藤过敏反应是如何产生的。“Here’s how the poison ivy response occurs．”一句承上启下。所以本题应选C。
A = BOOK 1 B = BOOK 2 C = BOOK 3 D = BOOK 4
the climate affects the future sustainable agricultural development? 【P1】______
environmental control is related with the national revenues? 【P2】______
the environmental problems are not caused overnight? 【P3】______
a variety of species are on the decrease? 【P4】______
agriculture is also a factor for the degradation of environment? 【P5】______
pollution can be controlled by increasing the production cost of polluting goods? 【P6】______
pollution control needs the support of technology and techniques? 【P7】______
provides lessons for agriculture, trade, land use and tax policy from an economic perspective?
the degradation of environment causes the change of climate? 【P9】______
the approaches to research should be adjusted to the changing situation? 【P10】______
The book offers a comprehensive perspective on the consequences and possible policy solutions for climatic change as we move into the twenty-first century. It assesses the impact of potential feature global climate change on agriculture and the need to sustain agricultural growth for the economic development.
The book begins by examining the role of international research institutions in overcoming environmental constraints on sustainable agricultural growth and economic development. The authors then discuss how agricultural research systems may be restructured to respond to global environmental problems such as climate change and loss of genetic diversity. The discussion then extends to consider environmental accounting and indexing, to illustrate how environmental quality can be included formally in measures of national income, social welfare and sustainability. The third part of the book focuses on the effects of and policy responses to climate change. Chapters in this part examine the effect of climate change on production, trade, land use patterns and livelihoods. They consider impacts on the distribution of income between developed and developing countries remain a major economic activity. Authors take on an economy-wide perspective to draw lessons for agriculture, trade, land use and tax policy.
The ozone layer is threatened by chemical emissions; the climate is endangered from fossil and deforestation , and global biodiversity is being lost by reason of thousands of years of habitat conversions. Global environmental problems arise out of the accumulated impacts from many years’ and many countries’ economic development. In order to address these problems the states of the world must cooperate to manage their development processes together—this is what an international environmental agreement must do. But can the world’ s countries cooperate successfully to manage global development? How should they manage it? Who should pay for the process, as well as for the underlying problems?
This book presents an examination of both the problem and the process underlying international environmental lawmaking: the recognition of international interdependence, the negotiation of international agreements and the evolution of international resource management. It examines the general problem of global resource management by means of general principles and case studies and by looking at how and why specific negotiations and agreements have failed to achieve their targets.
The book is designed as an introductory text for those studying global environmental policy making and institution building. It will also be of interest to practitioners and policy makers and scholars in the areas of environmental economics and law.
Industrialization to achieve economic development has resulted in global environmental degradation. While the impacts of industrial activity on the natural environment are a major concern in developed countries, much less is known about these impacts in developing countries. This source book identifies and quantifies the environmental consequences of industrial growth, and provides policy advice, including the use of clean technologies and environmentally sound production techniques, with special reference to the developing world.
The developing world is often seen as having a high percentage of heavily polluting activities within its industrial sector. This, combined with a substantial agriculture sector, which contributes to deforestation, the erosion of the top soil and desertification, has led to extreme pressures on the environment and impoverishes the population by destroying its natural resource base. This crisis suggests that sound industrialization policies are of paramount importance in developing countries’ economic development, and calls for the management of natural resources and the adoption of low-waste of environmentally clean technologies.
The authors consider the industrial sector as a pollutant to other sectors of the economy, and then focus on some industrial-specific pollutants within the manufacturing sector and some process-specific industrial pollutants. They conclude by reviewing the economic implications of promoting environmentally sound industrial development, specially adressing the question of the conflict or complementarily which may exist between environmental goods and industrial production.
This is an important book which presents new concepts of the marginal cost of substituting non-pollutive for pollutive goods. Technically in its approach it complements the other literature in the field and will be a significant contribution to the understanding of microeconomic issues in pollution control. The book focuses on the three main concepts; substitutions in consumption, emission abatement and exposure avoidance. The first part considers the adjustment of the scope and combination of goods produced as a method for controlling pollution.
The author argues that pollution is controlled by increasing the relative price of the polluting goods in the production process, thereby reducing demand and subsequent production of the goods. In the second part, the discussion is extended to include the possibilities of preventing or abating emissions in relation to three models: first, pollution prevention when non-polluting inputs and processes are substituted for pollutants; second, when a proportion of the polluting output is recycled rather than being discarded; and finally end-of-pipe abatement where additional technology is used. In conclusion, the author assesses the extent to which pollution damage is controlled by avoidance of emissions, with avoidance being modeled as an add-on technology with its own returns to scale.
解析：由A中的第一段最后一句话“It assesses the impact of potential feature global climate change on agriculture and the need to sustain agricultural growth…”可知。
解析：由A中的第二段“…to illustrate how environmental quality can be included formally in measures of national income，social welfare and sustainability．”可知。
解析：由B中的第一段“Global environmental problems arise out of the accumulated impacts from many years’and many countries’economic development．”可知。
解析：由B中的第一段“…and global biodiversity is being lost by reason of thousands of years of habitat conversions．”司知。
解析：由C中的第二段“…a substantial agriculture sector，which contributes to deforestation，the erosion of the top soil and desertification．has led to extreme pressures on the environment and…”可知。
解析：由D中的第二段“The author argues that pollution is controlled by increasing the relative price of the polluting goods in the production process”可知。
解析：由C中的第一段最后一句话“This source book…and provides policy advice，including the use of clean technologies and environmentally sound production techniques，…．”司知。
解析：由A中的最后一句话“…take on an economy-wide perspective to draw lessons for agriculture，trade，land use and tax policy．”可知。
解析：由B中的第一段“The ozone layer is threatened by chemical emissions：the climate is endangered from fossil and deforestation…．”可知。
解析：由D中的第二段“In the second part，the discussion is extended to include the possibilities of preventing or abating emissions in relation to three models:…”可知。
76.Some people claim that television is good for children because it gets children cleverer by watching it, while others think that television is bad for children. Write an article to express your point of view on this topic. You should write no less than 250 words. Write your article on ANSWER SHEET 2.
People have different opinions on the effect of television on children. Some think that it is good for children to watch TV while others believe that television is bad for children. In my opinion, most of the effect TV has on children is bad.
By the time children reach school, they have spent up to one-third of their waking hours in front of the television. Because they just sit back and let things happen to them while watching TV, they become passive. As we all know, children are inventive and they have the ability to imagine a whole world of their own. But what happens when their imagination is not needed, when TV does all the imagination for them? Obviously, these kids are not going to grow up as inventive and imaginative as their parents, for they have been robbed of creative impulses by television watching.
On one hand, TV watching also forces kids into becoming consumers and then tricks them. They are surrounded by ads for dangerous toys, mindless games, and unhealthy foods. They force their parents to buy them, for the children themselves are not wise enough to detect the falsity of so much advertising. On the other hand, by watching too much TV, children are over exposed to violence. They watch programs like murders, fights and many other crimes for hours every week, with no adult around to tell them that life is not like that. The effect of the heavy dose of violence is to suggest kids that violence is an ordinary way of life, and that slugging, shooting and cheating are ways to succeed.
The total effect of TV on children is dangerous. It is time for parents to take charge and supervise their children’s play instead of parking them by the tube and hoping it will act as a baby-sitter. The influence of TV is so important that parents will have to be on their guard to make sure that their children are not being harmed by exposure to it.