国家公共英语(四级)笔试模拟试卷342含答案解析

国家公共英语(四级)笔试模拟试卷342

听力填空

1.

five

解析:

2.

16

解析:

3.

shock

解析:

4.

lease

解析:

高级听力填空

5.

to overcome

解析:

6.

show of self-confidence

解析:

7.

a big city

解析:

8.

exciting and fulfilling

解析:

听力长对话(含3小题)

What kind of food is most likely to cause dental decay?

9.(B)

A. 13.

B. None.

C. 1

D. A few.

解析:

10.(C)

A. Brush your teeth in the morning.

B. Brush your teeth in the evening.

C. Clean your teeth shortly after eating.

D. Have your teeth X-rayed.

解析:

Marco Polo came to China

11.(A)

A. 20 years.

B. 12 years.

C. 7 years.

D. 3 years.

解析:

12.(C)

A. 5.

B. 3.

C. 2

D. 1

解析:

听力长对话(含4小题)

Why did Jane want to go back to work?

13.(C)

A. Watching TV.

B. Taking good care of her husband.

C. Doing housework.

D. Reading newspaper.

解析:

14.(B)

A. Jane and the children.

B. Jane and Bill.

C. Bill and the children.

D. Jane and the neighbour.

解析:

15.(B)

A. Parents should take good care of their children.

B. Man and wife should share household duties.

C. Women should never have their own careers.

D. Women should do all the housework.

解析:

听力大题型

Pay and productivity, it is generally assumed, should be related. But the relationship seems to weaken【C1】______people get older.

Mental ability declines with age. That is the same for the brainy and the dim—and not 【C2】______for humans: it is measurable even for fruit flies.【C3】______minds that keep lively will suffer less than the lazy. In general, the more education you have, the more productive your old【C4】______will be.

Some【C5】______decline faster than others. According to most studies, people’ s numerical and reasoning abilities are at their best in their 20 s and early 30 s.【C6】______abilities—those that depend on knowledge—may improve with age.

For most workers, decreased abilities will【C7】______to lower productivity; only a minority will find know-how and knowledge outweighs their failing powers. Even those employees who remain highly productive will be likely to shine only in a narrow【C8】______.

Academics notice this. It is less clear that employers do. Studies of supervisors-ratings show no clear correlation【C9】______age and perceived productivity. When other employees-views are【C10】______into account though, the picture changes: these ratings suggest that workers in their 30s are the【C11】______productive and hardworking, with scores falling thereafter.

That is【C12】______up by studies of work samples, which find lower productivity among the oldest employees. A study for America’ s Department of Labor showed job performance peaking at 35, and【C13】______declining. It varied by industry: the fall was slower in footwear, but faster in furniture.

Intellectual occupations are harder to measure, but the picture is the same. Academics seem to publish【C14】______ as they age. Painters, musicians and writers show the same tendency. Their output peaks in their 30s and 40s. The only【C15】______is female writers, who are most productive in their 50 s.

16.【C1】

as

解析:此空上一句意为:“人们普遍认为工资和生产率应该是相关的。”下一句意为:“但是这种关系在减弱…人们在变老。”可知缺少连词,引导时间状语从句,主句和从句动作同时发生,应填as,意为“随着…”。

17.【C2】

only

解析:该句话句意为:“不管是大脑聪明的人还是愚笨的人这都是一样的”。“这不…是对于人类来说,即使是对果蝇来说也是一样”。由整句话可以推测出缺少“仅仅”一词,因此可以填出only一词。

18.【C3】

But

解析:该句话意为:“…活跃的大脑会比懒散的大脑受到的影响要小。在一般情况下,你受到的教育越多,年老时你就会越富有。”可知此处需要填写一个关联词,与上一句话承接起来。联系上下句可知此处并非并列与递进而是转折。故填But。

19.【C4】

age

解析:该句句意为:“在一般情况下,你受到的教育越多,…时你就会越富有。”此处用了“the more…the more…”的比较结构。意思是说年轻时受教育程度越高,年老时收获就会越多。可以推测出填age一词。

20.【C5】

abilities

解析:该段段意为:“有些…下降比其他的要快。根据多数研究,人们的数字和推理能力表现最好的时候是…他们二三十岁左右。那些依赖于知识的…能力,可能随着年龄增长而提高。”可知此段说的是人的某些能力。不难推测出应填abilities。

21.【C6】

Other

解析:参考上题的解析。some…and other…经常连用。联系上面的内容可知,此处说的是其他的能力。

22.【C7】

lead

解析:该句句意为“对于大多数的工人来说,能力下降会…生产力下降”。可知此处表示缺少表示“导致,引起”类的词。并且此空后面的to也能给予一定的提示,因此填lead。

23.【C8】

field

解析:该句句意为“即使是那些保持高生产力的员工有可能只在一个狭窄的…里发光。”根据句意可以推测得知应填“领域”一词。故填filed。表示在一个狭隘的领域里能有一些作为。

24.【C9】

between

解析:该句句意为“关于主管评级的研究表明年龄和认知生产率…没有明显的相关性。”between…and…,理解句意的基础上不难填出between一词。表示在年龄和生产力之间。

25.【C10】

taken

解析:take sth.into account是一个固定搭配。把…考虑进来。该句句意为:“当其他员工的意见都被考虑到时…”。此处需要用被动,故填taken。

26.【C11】

most

解析:该句句意为:“这些评级表明,工人在30多岁时生产效率…并工作最努力,之后其分数会随之下降。”可知此空要填一个最高级。故填most。

27.【C12】

backed

解析:该句句意为“对工作样本的研究发现老员工生产率低。这一研究支持了…”。该空相对较难。back up是短语,意为“支持”。

28.【C13】

then

解析:该句句意为“美国劳工部门研究显示工作绩效峰值为35岁,…开始下降。”此处应该填表示递进关系的词“然后”。故填then。

29.【C14】

less

解析:该句句意为:“在一些智力要求很高的职业中,是难以测量的,是因为他们…公布自己的年龄。”可知由于很少公布才会使得测量变难,应填less一词。

30.【C15】

exception

解析:该句句意为“画家、音乐家和作家也表现出同样的趋势。他们的输出峰值也出现在30多岁和40多岁。唯一的…是女性作家,其输出峰值出现在50多岁时。”根据句意这里是说唯一的例外是女性作家。可以填出exception一词。

阅读理解填空

[A] No disciplines have seized on professionalism with as much enthusiasm as the humanities. You can, Mr Menand points out, became a lawyer in three years and a medical doctor in four. But the regular time it takes to get a doctoral degree in the humanities is nine years. Not surprisingly, up to half of all doctoral students in English drop out before getting their degrees.

[B] His concern is mainly with the humanities: Literature, languages, philosophy and so on. These are disciplines that are going out of style: 22% of American college graduates now major in business compared with only 2% in history and 4% in English. However, many leading American universities want their undergraduates to have a grounding in the basic canon of ideas that every educated person should posses. But most find it difficult to agree on what a \

31.

B

解析:浏览备选项,从给出的开头段落G,可以看出这是一篇介绍路易斯-门纳德的书《思想市场:美国大学的改革和复兴》和他的观点的文章,紧接着下面就应该讲他书中阐释的问题和他的观点。B选项开头一句提到他的主要关注点,暗示提出问题,指出美国大学存在的主要问题。从结构上来看,B选项内容能够合理地与G选项衔接,故答案为B选项。

32.

D

解析:文章的主题是关于“人文科学”,上一段提出大学人文学科正走向没落,所以下面就紧接着应该解释出现这种现象的原因,答案即D或者E,但因为E在后一项给出,且有连接词“besides”。此外,D选项中首句出现的separate一词,与E选项中“this separation”正好构成关联。

33.

A

解析:A选项指出,没有哪门专业化学科像人文学科这样,需要倾注如此多的热情,之后提到获得人文学科的博士学位需要9年的时间,这一信息可对应E选项中的“the acquisition of a doctoral”,从结构和内容构成了合理的衔接。

34.

C

解析:依据上题的选项A,说人文学科获得博士学位的时间长,需要倾注很大的热情,所以高达一半的英语博士生在获得学位之前辍学就毫不奇怪了。从剩下的选项中,首先排除F,因为F的“conclude”可知F项应为全文的总结。从C的“同样不让人惊讶的就是只有差不多半数的人最终职业与他们研究生的专业一样。”可知,C是紧接着A,所以答案为C选项。

35.

F

解析:由F选项内容可知,该段进行总结说明,往往也出现在文章末尾,应将F选项放在文章末段。

阅读(常规阅读理解)

The demoralizing environment, decrepit(老朽的)building and minimal materials make the high school experience for these children an uphill battle. Merely graduating from such a high school is difficult, much less becoming a high-caliber science or engineering student. Schools with students from a higher socioeconomic level would not tolerate the obstacles I encountered daily. Improvements need to be made efficiently and made soon, or the divisions among people in this country will only become more extreme.

Of course, there are things that concerned citizens can do to help. Get involved with a school, especially one in a poor area. Volunteer to give a presentation or just to spend time with the children. My students were excited to talk to an insurance salesperson who came to give a career exploration lecture. They not only were genuinely interested in the opportunities he described but also were amazed that such a man would donate an afternoon to them.

Although those measures can help, they are not enough. For teaching to be effective, the entire environment of the inner city needs to be changed. Teaching someone the difference between velocity and acceleration is irrelevant if the person is hungry and scared. Programs that educate parents in child-rearing, organize low-income groups into cooperative units, fight drug trafficking and help to clean up the ghettos physically will improve the life in the community.

The small alterations and \

36.By saying \(A)

A. a tough task

B. a easy job

C. an upgrade class

D. climbing a hill

解析:uphill=tough“艰难的”。

37.We can learn from the text that______.(B)

A. the political circle will offer the help to the high schools

B. giving a presentation is beneficial to students

C. teaching methods have to be changed

D. students are afraid to talk to strangers

解析:从文中可知:选项A:政治圈会给学校提供帮助。文章没有提过,只是在第二段第一行提到了citizens市民。选项B:开一个见面会对学生有好处。正确,文章提到了推销员。选项C:教学方法必须改革。文章说整个平民区的环境必须改变,没有涉及教学方法。选项D:学生害怕和陌生人谈话。错误。

38.The author believes that______.(D)

A. the divisions among people result from their property

B. a high-caliber science student graduates from a ordinary high school

C. the small alterations should be done immediately

D. the society’s help to inner-city schools is inadequate

解析:作者认为:选项A:人以财产分类。错误,文章没有体现。选项B:高才理工类学生毕业于普通高中。文章第一段说学生从那样的高中毕业都很困难,更别提要成为高才理工或工程类学生。选项C:应该立刻进行小的改变。文章没提到,只是在最后一段的第一句说现在报纸上充斥的这些关于小改变新建议的提法不足以改变这种多年涣散、颓废、消沉的学校结构体系。选项D:社会对贫民区学校的帮助是不足的。正确,第==三段第·句说了:Althoughthose measures can help,they are not enough。

39.It is the author’s opinion that______will improve the life of inner city people.(B)

A. offering more education programs to students

B. helping to clean up the ghettos physically

C. taking measures to help extreme poor students

D. bringing up more engineering students

解析:亲自帮助清理贫民区。第三段最后一句话:Programs thateducate parents m child—rearing.organize low—income groups intocooperative units,fight drug trafficking and help to clean up theghettos physically will improve the life in the community。

40.It can be concluded from the author’s remarks that______.(B)

A. we should educate more high schools students

B. the obstacles in teachers’ way should be moved away

C. the decaying school buildings should be reconstructed

D. we should build up more high schools in our city

解析:应该清除教学障碍。文章最后一段:I entered the teachingprofession eager to investigate change and found many institutional—ized obstacles in my way.尤其最后一句:It should not be so diffi—cult to make a difference.做一下改变不应该那么难吧。表明了作者的意图。

Many phrases used to describe monetary policy, such as \

41.According to the text, making monetary policy changes______.(C)

A. is comparable to driving a car

B. is similar to carrying out scientific work

C. will not influence the economy immediately

D. will have an immediate impact on the inflation rate

解析:文章第一段提到了:And there are long,variable lags before policy changes have any effect on the economy.政策对经济的影响有一个长期的间隔期。即政策的变化不会立刻影响经济。

42.From the text we learn that______.(D)

A. there is a clear relationship between inflation and interest rates

B. the economy always follows particular trends

C. the current economic problems are entirely predictable

D. the present economic situation is better than expected

解析:从文章可知:选项A:通货膨胀和银行存款利率之间关系明确。错误,文章说:The relation between interest rates and inflation is uncertain。选项B:经济总是跟随某种潮流。错误,文章没提到。选项C:当前的经济问题完全被预测到了。错误,当前的经济形式比预测的要好。选项D:目前的经济形式比预料的要好。

43.The text suggests that______.(B)

A. the previous economic models are still applicable

B. an extremely low jobless rate will lead to inflation

C. a high unemployment rate will result from inflation

D. interest rates have an immediate effect on the economy

解析:文章表明:选项A:先前的经济模式仍然适用。错误,与文章最后一段意思相反。选项B:极端的低失业率导致通货膨胀。正确,由第四段最后一句话可知,极低的失业率会导致通货膨胀。选项c:通货膨胀导致高失业率。错误。选项D:银行利率对经济有直接影响。错误,没涉及。

44.By saying \(A)

A. the low inflation rate will continue

B. the inflation rate will rise again

C. inflation will disappear entirely

D. there is no inflation at present

解析:no flash in the pan“昙花一现”。这种低通货膨胀不是昙花一现,即低通货膨胀还会继续。

45.How does the author feel about the present situation?(D)

A. Tolerant.

B. Indifferent.

C. Disappointed.

D. Surprised.

解析:吃惊,因为形势比预测的要好。

Proper arrangement of classroom space is important to encouraging interaction. Most of us have noticed how important physical setting is to efficiency and comfort when we work. Today’ s corporations hire human engineering specialists and spend a great deal of time and money to make sure that the physical environments of buildings are fit to the activities of their inhabitants.

Similarly, college classroom space should be designed to encourage the activity of critical thinking. We will move into the twenty-first century, but step into almost any college classroom and you will step back in time at least a hundred years. Desks are normally in straight rows, so students can clearly see the teacher but not all their classmates. The assumption behind such an arrangement is obvious: everything important comes from the teacher.

With a little imagination and effort, unless desks are fixed to the floor, the teacher can correct this situation and create space that encourages interchanges among students. In small or standard-sized classes, chairs, desks and tables can be arranged in different ways: circles, U-shapes, or semicircles. The primary goal should be for everyone to be able to see everyone else. Larger classes, particularly those held in lecture halls, unfortunately, allow much less flexibility.

Arrangement of the classroom should also make it easy to divide students into small groups for discussion or problem-solving exercises. Small classes with moveable desks and tables present no problem. Even in large lecture halls, it is possible for students to turn around and form groups of four to six. Breaking a class into small groups provides more opportunities for students to interact with each other, think out hard, and see how other students’ thinking processes operate — all these are the most important elements in developing new modes of critical thinking.

In courses that regularly use a small group format, students might be asked to stay in the same small groups throughout the course. A colleague of mine allows students to move around during the first two weeks, until they find a group they are comfortable with. He then asks them to stay in the same seat, with the same group, from then on. This not only creates a comfortable setting for interaction but helps him learn students’ names and faces.

46.The expression \(D)

A. college classrooms often remind people of their college life

B. critical thinking was encouraged even a century ago

C. a hundred years ago, desk arrangement in a classroom was quite different

D. there is not much change in the college educational idea over the past hundred years

解析:从文章语义推知,过去的100年内,大学教育的方式没有多少改变。

47.The primary purpose of desk rearrangement is______.(B)

A. for the teacher to divide students into small groups

B. to make it possible for students to interact with each other

C. for the teacher to find out how students think

D. to give students more opportunities to practice speaking

解析:第二段第一句:the teacher can cotrect this situation and create space that encourages interchanges among students。

48.The greatest advantage in allowing each student to find his own group might be that______.(B)

A. the teacher saves the trouble in doing that

B. learning is made comfortable in this way

C. the teacher can easily remember students’ names and faces

D. brighter students can help slower ones

解析:让学生自己随意找小组可以使学习更舒服点。

49.Which of the following is NOT true according to the passage?(A)

A. New kind of desks and chairs should be made.

B. Many companies are trying to improve the working settings for their employees.

C. Classroom interaction between students is essential to the training of critical thinking.

D. A comfortable environment leads to higher working efficiency.

解析:必须重新做新桌椅,文章只足说重新安排桌椅。

50.Which of the following arrangements of the classroom can bring about the best teaching effect?(B)

A. Arranging the desks in straight rows and providing every minute for the students to listen to the teacher.

B. Breaking a class into small groups and letting the students find the group they prefer to stay in.

C. Putting the students in larger classes and allowing them to discuss.

D. Breaking a class into small groups and asking the students to stay in the fixed groups as the teacher arranges.

解析:从文章最后一段可知。

阅读理解排序

阅读(翻译句子)

Some years ago, Pioneer Hi-bred International, where I was employed, purchased Norand Corporation. Pioneer’ s sales representatives used Norand hand-held terminals to upload daily sales information and download new price and sales incentive information. Pioneer bought so many of these hand-held terminals, the economics made the purchase of Norand look interesting. 【T1】Owning Norand also allowed Pioneer to explore high-technology markets outside agriculture.

But after several years, the emerging laptop PC technology made the hand-held units out-of-date. Pioneer sold Norand at a loss. 【T2】Pioneer always took a given percent of the annual profits to divide equally among all employees, so our profit-sharing checks were lower than if Pioneer had not purchased Norand. Additionally, my Pioneer stock was lower than it had been before the purchase of Norand. I was not pleased.

【T3】The CEO of Pioneer, Tom Urban, made annual formal visits to each of the Pioneer divisions to talk about the state of the business and to listen to employees’ concerns. When he went into the meeting room for his first visit after the sale of Norand, he acknowledged the group, removed his jacket and neatly folded it across the back of the chair. He loosened his tie, undid his collar and rolled up his sleeves. What he said next was the last thing I ever expected to hear a CEO say.

He said, \

51.【T1】

有了诺兰德,先锋国际就可以发展农业之外的高科技市场了。

解析:owning Norand“拥有诺兰德”,动名词做主语。explore market“开发市场”。

52.【T2】

先锋国际的老规矩是拿出一定比例的年利润平均分配给所有雇员,所以我们分得的利润比收购诺兰德之前减少了。此外,先锋国际的股票也比收购前下跌了。我很不高兴。

解析:annual profits“年利润”;additionally“另外”。

53.【T3】

先锋国际的首席执行官汤姆·厄本每年都到各个分公司进行正式视察,和员工谈谈业务状况,听听员工们所关心的事情。

解析:division“部门,全部”;state of business“业务状况”;concern“关注的事情”。

54.【T4】

当我坐在那里听他讲话的时候,我知道我能够信任他,我知道他值得我为他和先锋国际奉献自己的忠诚。

解析:loyalty“忠诚”。

55.【T5】

在提问开始之前那一瞬间的沉默中,我重新坚定了自己的信念:我将跟随他在每一次战役中冲锋陷阵。

解析:brief moment“一瞬”;recall doing sth.“回想做某事”。

阅读理解大题型

56.Read the following text(s) and write an essay to

1) summarize the main points of the text(s) ,

2) make clear your own viewpoints, and 3) justify your stand.

In your essay, make full use of the information provided in the text(s). If you use more than three consecutive words from the text(s), use quotation marks (\

Credit cards represent a modern living style. It allows us to overdraw our salary in advance, which is much convenient when we are in emergency or temporarily poor financial situation. But it may also lure us to spend more money without our realization. Thus, it is very important for us to use credit cards in a proper way.

As far as I am concerned, we should develop a good habit of using credit card. First of all, it is advisable to make clear the rules of using the particular credit card issued by the certain company. Secondly, we can make full use of the preferential policies of credit card companies. Some of them may give bonus points every time we use their credit card to pay, and when the points are accumulated to some extent, we can exchange them for some presents. Last but not least, we’ d better control our impulse of buying things. This may need some self-discipline.

All in all, credit cards can help us go through financial difficulty and e-ven bring us some benefits. The condition is that we should learn to use them in a wise and proper way.

解析:

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