国家公共英语(四级)笔试模拟试卷341含答案解析

国家公共英语(四级)笔试模拟试卷341

听力填空

1.

therapist

解析:

2.

failure

解析:

3.

15%

解析:

4.

2

解析:

高级听力填空

5.

Susan Carter

解析:

6.

A training consultancy

解析:

7.

Word processor

解析:

8.

1,050 pounds

解析:

听力长对话(含3小题)

How many people applied but didn’t run the race?

9.(C)

A. Most competitors did not finish the race within two hours.

B. Most competitors were interested in the race.

C. Most competitors were trying to run as fast as they could

D. Most competitors wanted to know if they could run 26 miles.

解析:

10.(A)

A. 50 meters from the end.

B. 15 meters from the end.

C. 10 meters from the end.

D. 5 meters from the end.

解析:

Which of the following is covered in BCD International programs?

11.(D)

A. The History of Pop.

B. The Road to Music.

C. Pop Words.

D. About the Big Hits.

解析:

12.(C)

A. effortless.

B. impossible.

C. difficult.

D. unnecessary.

解析:

听力长对话(含4小题)

What is Einstein’ s greatest contribution to human beings?

13.(A)

A. When he was 2 years old.

B. When he was 14 years old.

C. When he finished his study.

D. When he became a teacher.

解析:

14.(A)

A. In 1901.

B. In 1902.

C. In 1910.

D. In 1879.

解析:

15.(D)

A. Patiently.

B. Intelligently.

C. Indifferently.

D. Vividly.

解析:

听力大题型

Among the raft of books, articles, jokes, romantic comedies, self-help guides and other writings discussing marriage, some familiar ideas often crop up. Few appear more often than the 【C1】______that many old couples look alike. You have probably seen it before—two elderly people walking hand-in-hand down the street or sitting at a cafe,【C2】______each other so strongly that they could be siblings. Do these couples actually look alike, and if【C3】______what has caused them to develop this way?

A study published in the March 2006 issue of Personality and Individual Differences may have the【C4】______. Twenty-two people, divided equally between male and female, participated in the study. They were asked to judge the looks, personalities and ages of 160 married couples. The participants viewed photographs of men and women separately and were【C5】______told who was married to whom. The subjects consistently judged people who were married【C6】______being similar【C7】______appearance and personality. The researchers also found that couples who had been together longer appeared more similar.

This result【C8】______itself may not seem surprising, but the study also offered some answers on【C9】______ couples may look alike. To start, consider that life experiences can end up being reflected physically. Someone【C10】______is happy and smiles more will develop the facial muscles and wrinkles related to smiling. The years of experience of an elderly couple’ s marriage, happy【C11】______not, would then be reflected in their【C12】______.

Genetic influences are【C13】______ factor. A past study showed that genetically similar people have better marriages. Such families have【C14】______incidents of child abuse and a lower rate of miscarriages. People also appear to be more selfless【C15】______involved with genetically similar partners.

16.【C1】

idea

解析:上文有提示some familiar ideas often crop up,所以此空应填idea。

17.【C2】

resembling

解析:文章欲要表达很相像的意思,所以应填resemble,根据前后一致原则应变为resembling。

18.【C3】

so

解析:联系下文可知道表达“如果这样”的意思,所以填so。

19.【C4】

answer

解析:《个性与个体差异》的课题研究给出了答案,易填出answer。

20.【C5】

not

解析:参与者是在不被告诉谁与谁结婚的情况下看的照片,故填not。

21.【C6】

as

解析:本句意为根据个性和长相判断所以填as,as有依照之意。

22.【C7】

in

解析:固定短语be similar in意为“在…方面相似”,故填in。

23.【C8】

in

解析:in itself表示“以其本身而言,本质上”的意思,故填in。

24.【C9】

why

解析:联系上下文以得出这里是说“研究也为夫妻为何相像提供了一些答案”,表示为何,这里只能用why。

25.【C10】

who

解析:定语从句。先行词为someone,故填who。

26.【C11】

or

解析:happy or not,表无论开心与否。

27.【C12】

faces

解析:由上文develop the facial muscles可得出答案为face,又因为此空前面的their,所以这里要用复数faces。

28.【C13】

another

解析:联系上文可知life experiences是一个因素,那么基因的影响是另一个因素,故填another。

29.【C14】

fewer

解析:本句意为基因相近的人结婚会较少发生虐待儿童的现象,由lower可知应填比较级,故填fewer。

30.【C15】

when

解析:本句意思为当与有相似基因的伴侣在一块时,故填when。

阅读理解填空

The social sciences are flourishing. As of 2005, there were almost half a million professional social scientists from all fields in the world, working both inside and outside academia. According to the World Social Science Report 2010, the number of social-science students worldwide has swollen by about 11% every year since 2000.

Yet this enormous resource in not contributing enough to today’ s global challenges including climate change, security, sustainable development and health.

【R1】______ Humanity has the necessary agro-technological tools to eradicate hunger, from genetically engineered crops to artificial fertilizers. Here, too, the problems are social: the organization and distribution of food, wealth and prosperity.

【R2】______ This is a shame—the community should be grasping the opportunity to raise its influence in the real world. To paraphrase the great social scientist Joseph Schumpeter: there is no radical innovation without creative destruction.

Today, the social sciences are largely focused on disciplinary problems and internal scholarly debates, rather than on topics with external impact.

Analyses reveal that the number of papers including the keywords \

31.【R1】

E

解析:本题是顺接关系题。该空格位于第二段中间。空格之前为“这么巨大的资源却不够应对今天全球面临的诸如气候变化、安全、可持续发展以及健康等挑战。”空格之后则谈到了“人类要借助从基因工程作物到人工化肥等必要的农业科技工具来消除饥饿。”可见空格处所填入的句子应该起到承上启下的作用,即既谈到全球问题,又涉及解决这些问题,浏览所有选项,只有E项既提到了“these issues”,即上文所列举的那些全球问题,又谈到了应对气候变化的例子,也即解决这些问题的实践。

32.【R2】

F

解析:本题是转折关系题。该空格位于第三段段首。第二段段末作者提到目前全球面临的问题一定程度上也是社会性的,因此也应该是社会科学研究的范畴。而空格之后出现“这是个耻辱——社会科学界本应该抓住机遇提升自己在真实世界中的影响”,由此可以推断意义出现转折,空格处应该表达社会科学家没能应对全球问题,提升社会科学在真实世界中影响的意思,F项提到有很多的问题需要社会科学的研究,但许多社会科学家却不愿意处理这些问题,这正是社会学家没能为解决真实世界中的问题做出贡献的实例。

33.【R3】

B

解析:本题是转折关系题。该空格位于第五段段末。空格所在段给出了明确的线索词“the number of papers”以及“keywords”,浏览各选项可以明显发现B选项中几个关键词全部出现,同时B项表明社会科学研究论文的总量仍然很小,这与前文指出的“社会科学研究论文增长速度很快”构成对比,说明社会科学研究仍然有着很大的提升空间,符合本文论调。

34.【R4】

G

解析:本题是顺接关系题。该句位于第七段中间。空格之前同样出现了明显的线索“the amount of available funding”,同时结合空格之后“只要用对地方,这些资金足够了”,可以推知空格处所填入的句子主要讨论资金的数量。浏览各选项,发现只有G项出现了关键词fund,同时该句话也确实在讨论社会科学研究的资金数量问题。

35.【R5】

C

解析:本题是顺接关系题。该句位于第八段中间。空格之前提到欧洲联盟框架资助项目“2014年将开始实行一个全新的项目:地平线2020,这个项目将不再设有这项专项基金。这个决定导致了社会科学家的抗议。但是,这个决定的意图并非忽视社会科学;相反,是想要推动社会科学”,由此可以推测下文即将解释为什么这个决定将要推动社会科学的发展。空格之后韵部分则提到“让社会科学更多地与其他领域合作”,暗示加强学科间合作是其中一个原因。浏览各个选项发现,C项中force social science to integrate their work with other categories正是对空格之后collaborative endeavors的同义复现,同时该句也解释了为什么这个决定将要推动社会科学的发展。

阅读(常规阅读理解)

The core of Greece’ s troubles is too much spending, too little tax-collecting and book-cooking. Spain and Ireland are in trouble even if the percentage of their public debt in gross domestic product is much smaller than that of Germany. Italy, also in the financial markets’ crosshairs, has high public debt but a lower deficit than the eurozone’ s average.

The root of these countries’ problems is that their prices and wages have risen much faster than those of other eurozone members.

There are two ways to mitigate the pain. First, to adopt temporarily more expansionary fiscal policies for a while. Or, more powerfully, the wider euro area could adopt more expansionary monetary policies for several years. As to the second option, the \

36.In the author’ s opinion, the second way to mitigate the pain is______.(D)

A. cutting the spending

B. controlling inflation within two percent

C. ultra-low inflation

D. moderate inflation

解析:作者并没有直接指出第二种方法,所以这道题要求考生在通读全文的基础上进行判断。选项A在文中没有提到。选项B和c是通胀原教旨主义的观点,由第五段可知,作者并不认同这种观点。由第四段最后一句话“A slightly higher level ofinflation allows for this painful adjustment with a lower level of po—litical conflict.(通胀水平略有上升,有助于减轻这一痛苦调整所带来的政治冲突。)”可知,作者认同温和的通胀。所以,本题选择D。

37.Which of the following inflation might be accepted by the author?(C)

A. 2%.

B. 1%.

C. 4%.

D. 8%.

解析:由第四段可知,作者的观点和通胀原教旨主义者的观点相冲突,通胀原教旨主义者认为,通胀超过2%就是不能接受的,所以,选项A和B是通胀原教旨主义者的观点。由第四段最后一句话“A slightly higher level of inflation allows for this painfuladjustment with a lower level of political conflict.(通胀水平略有上升,有助于减轻这一痛苦调整所带来的政治冲突。)”可知,作者认同温和的通胀。8%太高了,作者可能不会接受。所以,本题选择C。

38.We can learn from the fourth paragraph that______.(D)

A. moderate inflation hurts growth

B. it is unnecessary to cut actual wages

C. the author opposes moderate inflation

D. the author opposes inflation fundamentalism

解析:由第四段第四句“There is little if any empirical evidencethat moderate inflation hurts growth.(几乎没有任何经验证据表明,温和的通胀会损害增长。)”可知选项A不正确。由第六句“But,to regain competitiveness and balance the books.real wageadjustments are sometimes inevitable.(然而有些时候,要重新获得竞争力并实现收支平衡,调整实际工资是势在必行的。)”可知,选项B不正确。由第四句可知,作者并不反对温和的通胀,所以选项C不正确。由第三句“But inflation fundamentalism can alsohurt.(但是,通胀原教旨主义也可能带来危害。)”可知,作者反对通胀原教旨主义者的观点。所以,本题选择D。

39.The word \(B)

A. tickets

B. accounts

C. works

D. stamps

解析:tickets“票券”;accounts“账目”;works“著作”;stamps“邮票”。在文中,“balance the books”意为“持平账目”,所以本题选择B。

40.What is the text mainly about?(D)

A. The core of Greece’ s trouble.

B. Two ways to solve the problems of Greece, Spain, Ireland and Italy.

C. The merits of inflation fundamentalism.

D. The shortcomings of inflation fundamentalism.

解析:这道题要求考生在通读全文的基础上进行判断。文章开始提到选项A,但是“希腊问题的本质”并不是文章讨论的主要内容,只是引出作者观点的一个引子。考生由第三段可知,作者提到了两种缓解这些国家痛苦的办法,但是整篇文章主要谈论的是第二点,所以选项B也不正确。由第四段的第三句“But infla—tion fundamentalism can also hurt.(但是,通胀原教旨主义也可能带来危害。)”可知,本文主要谈论的是通胀原教旨主义的危害。所以,本题选择D。

Slavery has played a significant role in the history of the U. S. It existed in all the English mainland colonies and most of the Founding Fathers also had slaves, as did eight of the first 12 presidents.

Dutch traders brought 20 Africans to Jamestown, Virginia, as early as 1619, however, throughout the 17th century the number of Africans in the English mainland colonies grew very slowly. At that time, colonists used two other sources of unfree labor: Native American slaves and European indentured servants.

During those years, every colony had some Native American slaves, but their number was limited. Indian men avoided performing agricultural labor, because they viewed it as women’ s work, and colonists complained that they were too \

41.Which of the following was true of the slavery in America?(C)

A. The colonists sold African Americans to planters in the Caribbean.

B. Native American slaves performed agricultural labor.

C. During the 17th century, the white indentured servitude was the main labor in the Southern colonies.

D. It was at the end of the 17th century that African people began to be brought to A-merica.

解析:由第三段第三句“The more important was that the settlersfound it more convenient to sell Native Americans captured in war toplanters in the Caribbean than to turn them into slaves.because theyoften resisted and it was not hard for the slaves to escape.(更重要的是,殖民者发现把在战争中俘获的印第安人卖给加勒比地区的种植园主,而不是把他们变成奴隶,这样做更方便,因为他们往往进行反抗,也很容易逃走。)”可知,选项A不正确。由第三段第二句“Indian men avoided performing agricultural labor,becausethey viewed it as women’s work.and colonists complained thatthey were too‘haughty’.”(印第安男子不从事农业劳动,因为他们认为那是妇女的工作,殖民者也抱怨说他们太“傲慢”。)可知,选项B不正确。由第二段第一句“Dutch traders brought 20 Africans to Jamestown,Virginia,as early as 1619(早在1619年,荷兰商人就把20个非洲人带到了弗吉尼亚州的詹姆斯敦)”可知,选项D不正确。由第四段最后一句“During the 17th century,theyperformed most of heavy labor in the Southern colonies(在17世纪的南方殖民地,大多数的重活都是由他们干)”可知,选项C正确。所以,本题选择C。

42.We can infer from the sentence \(D)

A. many Indians were killed by White settlers

B. many Indians were drove away from white settlements

C. the Indians were slaves in a wide-spread way

D. white settlers must have to find other source of labor

解析:本句的意思是“后来,杀害印第安人或驱逐他们远离白人定居点的政策被提了出来,这种政策与广泛使用印第安人当奴隶相冲突。”我们可以从中直接看出选项A,B,和C,不需要推断。另外,第四段谈论的是由白人组成的契约奴隶,所以,我们可以推断出,因为殖民者对于印第安人的新政策,使印第安人不能再当白人殖民者的奴隶,殖民者需要寻找其他的劳动力来源。所以,本题选择D。

43.In the third paragraph, the author mainly argues that______.(C)

A. the number of Native American slaves was very small

B. the colonists thought that the Native American slaves were very haughty

C. the Native American slaves had been treated cruelly

D. the Native American slaves always resisted

解析:由“The more important was that the settlers found it moreconvenient to sell Native Americans captured in war to planters inthe Caribbean than to turn them into slaves(更重要的是,殖民者发现把在战争中俘获的印第安人卖给加勒比地区的种植园主,而不是把他们变成奴隶,这样做更方便)”以及“the policy of killingIndians or driving them away from white settlements(杀害印第安人或驱逐他们远离白人定居点的政策)”可知,作者在第三段主要谈论的是美洲土著人遭受白人殖民者的残酷迫害。选项A,B,和D在文中也有所体现,但不是本段主要谈论的内容。所以,本题选择C。

44.Which of the following wasn’ t the opinion of the colonists towards the Native American slaves?(B)

A. The Native American slaves were very haughty.

B. The Native American slaves were very lazy.

C. The Native American slaves were hard to control.

D. The Native American slaves always found ways to escape.

解析:本题要求考生在通读第三段的基础上进行判断。由第三段第三句“…because they often resisted and it was not hard forthe slaves to escape.(…因为他们往往进行反抗,也很容易逃走。)”可知,选项C和D是殖民者对美洲土著奴隶的看法。由第三段第二句“…colonists complained that they were too‘haughty’(…殖民者也抱怨说他们太‘傲慢’)”可知,选项A也是殖民者对美洲土著奴隶的看法。选项B在文中没有出现。所以,本题选择B。

45.The relation between the second paragraph and the next following two paragraphs is that in the next following two paragraphs the author______.(A)

A. further elaborates the issue discussed in the second paragraph

B. modifies the point of view in the second paragraph

C. changes the view expressed in the second paragraph

D. offers the reason to support the viewpoint in the second paragraph

解析:本题考察的是考生对整篇文章结构的把握。作者在第二段提出,在整个17世纪,非洲人在美洲的数量很少,当时,美洲的白人殖民者主要的劳动力来源是美洲土著奴隶和欧洲契约奴隶。在接下来的两段,作者分别介绍了美洲土著奴隶和欧洲契约奴隶的情况,进一步阐述了在第二段提出的观点。选项B,C和D对这两者的逻辑关系描述的均不正确。所以,本题选择A。

U. S. health officials are increasing surveillance measures at doctors’ offices and international borders to guard against the spread of swine flu. Washington also has begun dispersing medicine from a federal stockpile.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says there have been only mild cases of swine flu in the United States, but experts remain on guard.

Acting agency director, Richard Besser, says the epidemic in Mexico prompted U. S. doctors to begin monitoring actively for possible infections.

\

46.What promotes American doctors to begin monitoring actively for possible infections?(C)

A. There have been serious cases of swine flu in the United States.

B. U. S. health officials are increasing surveillance measures at doctors’ offices.

C. The epidemic happened in Mexico.

D. Experts remained on guard.

解析:本题依据第三段。A说法错误,猪流感在美国爆发温和,并不严重。B和D都不是促使美国开始检测流感的原因。因为墨西哥与美国相邻,所以美国不得不检测流感。所以本题答案选C。

47.When someone has flu-like illness, why will a swab be taken in the nose and sent to the lab?(B)

A. To find more infections than under normal circumstances.

B. To examine if it is influenza or swine flu.

C. To see if the illness is serious.

D. To stop the illness spread to other areas.

解析:本题依据第四段最后一句话,“…so we can see:is it in—fluenza,is it this type”,以便查明:到底是流感,还是猪流感?A、C、D均不符合题干要求,没有依据。所以本题答案选B。

48.Why are people advised not to travel to Mexico?(A)

A. Because it is the most serious area for the outbreak of swine flu.

B. Because a travel ban to the country has been ordered.

C. Because more than 100 cases of swine flu have been reported.

D. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention forbids doing so.

解析:本题依据第六段第一句话,“…Mexico,where the outbreakof swine flu is centered and more than 100 deaths have been reported.”,墨西哥是猪流感疫情爆发的中心,已报告的死亡病例超过100人。因此A正确。B项错误,禁令还没有下达。C项错误,100例死亡病例而非感染病例。D项错误,该中心建议而非禁止。所以本题选A。

49.What is one of the precautions that Japan has taken?(B)

A. They make sure that they are asking flight passengers if they are sick.

B. They are taking a temperature of every passenger when they get off the airplane.

C. They are screening passengers on flights from Mexico.

D. They are forbidding people travelling to Mexico.

解析:本题依据倒数第三段第三句话,“What Japan is doing isthey are making everyone take a temperature When they get off theairplane”,日本的做法是,他们让所有下飞机的乘客量体温。其他几项均与日本无关。故本题选B。

50.Which statement is not true according to the passage?(C)

A. U. S. health officials are increasing surveillance measures at doctors’ offices.

B. So far, the cases of swine flu in the United States are not very serious.

C. U. S. officials are determined to take more aggressive actions against swine flu.

D. Besser says the number of infections will probably rise.

解析:A出自第一段第一句话“U.S.health officials are increas—ing surveillance measures at doctors’offices and international bor—ders to guard against the spread of swine flu”,美国卫生官员加强在医生诊所和国际边界的监测措施,防止猪流感的蔓延。B依据第二段“The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says therehave been only mild cases of swine flu in the United States”由mild可知情况并不严重。根据倒数第二段,美国官方尚不准备采取强有力的措施,所以,C错误。D依据第五段第二句话“He also says he expects the number of infections will rise and the illness will spread to other U.S.Regions”他预计感染的数量将上升。故本题选C。

阅读理解排序

阅读(翻译句子)

As part of more comprehensive compliance and ethics programs, many companies have formulated internal policies pertaining to the ethical conduct of employees. These policies can be simple exhortations in broad, highly-generalized language(typically called a corporate ethics statement), or they can be more detailed policies, containing specific behavioral requirements(typically called corporate ethics codes). 【T1】They are generally meant to identify the company’ s expectations of workers and to offer guidance on handling some of the more common ethical problems that might a-rise in the course of doing business. 【T2】It is hoped that having such a policy will lead to greater ethical awareness, consistency in application, and the avoidance of ethical disasters.

【T3】An increasing number of companies also requires employees to attend seminars regarding business conduct, which often include discussion of the company’ s policies, specific case studies, and legal requirements. Some companies even require their employees to sign agreements stating that they will abide by the company’ s rules of conduct.

Many companies are assessing the environmental factors that can lead employees to engage in unethical conduct. A competitive business environment may call for unethical behavior. Lying has become expected in fields such as trading. An example of this are the issues surrounding the unethical actions of the Saloman Brothers.

Not everyone supports corporate policies that govern ethical conduct. Some claim that ethical problems are better dealt with by depending upon employees to use their own judgment.

Others believe that corporate ethics policies are primarily rooted in utilitarian concerns, and that they are mainly to limit the company’ s legal liability, or to curry public favor by giving the appearance of being a good corporate citizen. Ideally, the company will avoid a lawsuit because its employees will follow the rules. 【T4】Should a lawsuit occur, the company can claim that the problem would not have arisen if the employee had only followed the code properly.

Sometimes there is disconnection between the company’ s code of ethics and the company’ s actual practices. 【T5】Thus, whether or not such conduct is explicitly sanctioned by management, at worst, this makes the policy duplicitous(搞两面派的), and, at best, it is merely a marketing tool.

51.【T1】

它们的目的是,在处理一些在做业务过程中可能出现的更普遍的伦理问题时,确定公司对员工的预期并提供指导。

解析:该句是带有定语从句的动词不定式作状语句子,ethical prob—lems后是修饰其的定语从句。be meant to意为目的,打算。

52.【T2】

希望拥有这样的政策将带来更强的道德意识、运用的连贯性及道德灾难的避免。

解析:本句带有主语从句,that后引出的是主语从句,由于主句为被动语态,翻译时可进行句型转换,译为主动语态。

53.【T3】

越来越多的公司也要求员工参加与商业行为有关的研讨会,这些会议通常包含公司政策、具体的案例分析及法律要求。

解析:本句带有非限定性定语从句,which后引出定语从句,修饰seminars,翻译时为避免定语过长,可重复被修饰的成分。

54.【T4】

如果发生诉讼,公司将宣称,假如员工完全遵守了条例,就不会发生问题。

解析:本句两处带有虚拟语气,有should引出的虚拟句表示发生的概率很小,由if引出的虚拟句表示对过去的假设,如果…,将会…

55.【T5】

因此,无论这种行为是否由管理层明确批准,最坏的结果是,它将使政策变得模棱两可,最好的结果是,它仅仅是一个营销工具。

解析:本题含由whether引出的状语从句,意为无论是否,at worst表示最坏的结果是,at best表示最好的结果是。

阅读理解大题型

56.Read the following text(s) and write an essay to

1) summarize the main points of the text(s),

2)make clear your own viewpoints, and

3) justify your stand.

In your essay, make full use of the information provided in the text(s). If you use more than three consecutive words from the text(s), use quotation marks(\

According to the article, artificial beauty created through plastic surgeries is losing ground to natural authenticity in Hollywood, a film industry used to prefer the image of charming and sexy ladies with large breasts, even though they were fake ones. That’ s a good news to hear because less young women will be misled to make unnecessary changes to their own bodies.

Females in the movie or on TV often have slender figures, large breasts, white teeth and charming smiles. Compared with them, many ordinary young women become unsatisfied with their own appearance, thus hoping to be more beautiful by receiving plastic surgeries. However, there are lots of risks by receiving plastic surgeries. Some may even suffer from adverse impacts brought by botched procedures.

As the old saying goes, everyone longs for beauty. We all desire to look good and leave a great impression on others. But too much emphasis on external appearance will do no good to a person’ s future development. One may even lost himself in the process of blindly pursuing the beauty standard set by others.

解析:

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