A New Study on Elephants
A recent study of ancient and modern elephants has come up with the unexpected conclusion that the African elephant is divided into two distinct (不同的) species.
The discovery was made by researchers at York and Harvard universities when they were examining the genetic (基因的) relationship between the ancient woolly mammoth and mastodon to modern elephants—the Asian elephant, African forest elephant and African savanna (热带草原) elephant.
Once they obtained DNA sequences from two fossils (化石) , mammoths and mastodons. The team compared them with DNA from modern elephants. They found to their amazement that modern forest and savanna elephants are as distinct from each other as Asian elephants and mammoths.
The scientists used detailed genetic analysis to prove that the African savanna elephants and the African forest elephants have been distinct species for several million years. The divergence (分离)of the two species took place around the time of the divergence of Asian elephants and woolly mammoths. This result amazed all the scientists.
There has long been debate in the scientific community that the two might be separate species but this is the most convincing scientific evidence so far that they are indeed different species.
Previously, many naturalists believed that African savanna elephants and African forest elephants were two populations of the same species despite the elephants’ significant size differences. The savanna elephant has an average shoulder height of 3. 5 metres while the forest elephant has an average shoulder height of 2. 5metres. The savanna elephant weighs between six and seven tons, roughly double the weight of the forest elephant. But the fact that they look so different does not necessarily mean they are different species. However, the proof lay in the analysis of the DNA.
Alfred Roca, assistant professor in the department of Animal Sciences at the University of Minois, said, \
1.A recent study shows that the African elephants have two different and distinct species.(A)
C. Not Given
解析：题干要求判断最近的研究是否表明非洲大象有两个不同的种群。第一段话就提到了这项研究，而且最近的研究表明“the African elephant is divided into two distinct species”，所以题干表述是正确的。
2.Researchers at York and Harvard universities examined only the genes of the ancient woolly mammoth and mastodon.(B)
C. Not Given
解析：题干要求判断约克大学和哈佛大学的研究人员是否仅仅检测了古代长毛猛犸象和乳齿象的基因。第二段提到“they were examining the genetic relationship between the ancient woolly mammoth and mastodon to modern elephants”，意思是“他们检测了古代长毛猛犸象和乳齿象与现代大象之间的基因关系”，并非只检测了古代长毛猛犸象和乳齿象的基因，所以题干表述是错误的。
3.The modern elephants have three species, the Asian elephant, African forest elephant and African savanna elephant.(A)
C. Not Given
解析：题干要求判断现代大象是否有三个分支，即亚洲大象、非洲森林大象和非洲热带草原大象。第二段最后一句话提到“the Asian elephant，African forest elephant and African savanna elephant”，这三类大象是“modern elephants”的三个分支，所以题干表述是正确的。
4.Those scientists are surprised to find that modern forest and savanna elephants don’ t have the same progenitor (祖先).(C)
C. Not Given
解析：题干要求判断科学家是否对现代森林大象和热带草原大象没有共同祖先的发现感到惊讶。第三段仅仅提到了科学家吃惊地发现“modern forest and savanna elephants are as distinct from each other”，意思是“现代森林大象和热带草原大象是彼此不同的两个物种”，但是并没有告诉我们它们是否没有共同的祖先，所以无法判断题干是否正确。
5.Asian elephants and mammoths are distinct from each other.(A)
C. Not Given
解析：题干要求判断亚洲大象和猛犸象是否是彼此不同的种群。第三段讲到“modern forest and savanna elephants are as distinct from each other as Asian elephants and mammoths”，意思是“现代森林大象和热带草原大象是彼此不同的两个物种，就像亚洲象和猛犸象一样”，所以题干表述是正确的。
6.The divergence of the African savanna elephants and the African forest elephants took place long before the time of the divergence of Asian elephants and woolly mammoths.(B)
C. Not Given
解析：题干要求判断非洲热带草原大象和非洲森林大象的分离是否比亚洲大象和长毛猛犸象分离的时间要早很多。文中第四段涉及了这个细节，“The divergence of the two species took place around the time of the divergence of Asian elephants and wooly mammoths”，分离发生的时间与亚洲大象和长毛猛犸象分离的时间大致一致，所以题干表述是错误的。
7.There are convincing evidences to prove that the African savanna elephants and the African forest elephants are indeed different species.(A)
C. Not Given
解析：题干要求判断是否有证据证明非洲热带草原大象和非洲森林大象确实是不同的物种。文中第五段明确提到了“this is the most convincing scientific evidence so far that they are indeed different species”，这里的“this”指的就是这次研究以及不同种群大象DNA的对比，所以题干表述是正确的。
8.African savanna elephants and African forest elephants are different in size because their food is different.(C)
C. Not Given
解析：题干要求判断非洲热带草原大象和非洲森林大象在体型上不同是否是因为他们吃的食物不同。文中第六段提到了非洲热带草原大象和非洲森林大象在身高和体重上都差别很大，“of the same species despite the elephants’significant size differences”，但是没有告诉我们是不是因为他们吃的食物不同才造成的，所以无法判断题干是否正确。
9.The savanna elephant weighs roughly three times the weight of the forest elephant.(B)
C. Not Given
解析：题干要求判断热带草原大象的体重是否大约是森林大象体重的三倍。文中第六段提到了具体的信息“The savanna elephant weighs between six and seven tons roughly double the weight of the forest elephant”，热带草原大象的体重是森林大象的两倍，不是三倍，所以题干表述是错误的。
10.We should give the priority to conserve the African savanna elephants.(B)
C. Not Given
解析：题干要求判断我们是否应该优先保护非洲热带草原大象。最后一段提到了保护大象的情况，“the forest elephant should become a bigger priority(优先)for conservation purpose”，也就是说“森林大象应该优先受到保护”，所以题干是错误的。
Is Beauty a Good Thing?
Beauty has always been regarded as something praiseworthy (值得称赞的). Almost everyone thinks attractive people are happier and healthier, have better marriages and have more respectable jobs. Personal advisors give them better advice for finding jobs. Even judges are softer on attractive defendants. But in the executive (主管的) circle, beauty can become a liability.
While attractiveness is a positive factor for a man on his way up the executive ladder, it is harmful to a woman.
Handsome male executives were considered having more honesty than plainer men; effort and ability were thought to lead to their success.
Attractive female executives were considered to have less honesty than unattractive ones; their success was connected not with ability but with factors such as luck.
All unattractive women executives were thought to have more honesty and to be more capable than the attractive female executives. Interestingly, though, the rise of the attractive overnight successes was connected more to personal relationships and less to ability than that of the unattractive overnight successes.
Why are attractive women not thought to be able? An attractive woman considered to be more feminine(有女性气质的)has an advantage in traditionally female jobs, but an attractive woman in a traditionally manly position appears to lack the \
11.The underlined word \(A)
12.In traditional female jobs, attractiveness______.(A)
A. enhances the womanly qualities required
B. makes women look more honest and capable
C. is of primary importance to women
D. often enables women to succeed quickly
13.Bowman’ s experiment shows that when it comes to politics, attractiveness______.(B)
A. turns out to be a disadvantage to men
B. is more of a disadvantage than an advantage to women
C. has as little effect on men as on women
D. affects men and women alike
14.It can be inferred from the passage that people’ s views on beauty are often______.(D)
15.The author writes this passage to______.(B)
A. give advice to job-seekers who are attractive
B. discuss the disadvantages of being attractive
C. demand equal rights for women
D. state the importance of appearance
① Working out a timetable will not turn you into a perfectly efficient person, but having a plan and sticking to it for a few weeks can help you to form better study habits and actually to save time , so that in the end you have more free time than before. Here is a way to plan your time which is flexible and practical.
② Make out a master timetable for the term, marking your fixed commitments only: classes, society meetings, sport, etc. Make it clear and attractive, as you will have to look at it for a long time.
③ Draw up a weekly work program based on your present work assignments and study commitments ; take a blank postcard or file card and divide it up, and then list;
a. Your work assignments and study commitments for the week;
b. estimated amount of time needed for each of these;
c. dates when the work is due or when it is to be done, include routine reading and revising as well as setting work.
Put it in a prominent, or noticeable place in your room, or carry it with you. A good time to prepare this might be Sunday evening as you plan the week ahead.
④ Make a daily \
A. save time
B. put into a pocket
C. a daily \
21.Having a time plan and sticking to it can help you to form better study habits and to______.
22.You will have to look at______for a long time.
23.Draw up a weekly work program based on your______and study commitments.
24.Use a small card which can be______where it is easily found.
25.If you give study hours______, the remaining hours will be really free.
Help Children to Build up Self-Confidence
Self-confidence is important to achieve success. Children are sensitive and need encouragement to learn. They need the support from parents and adults to grow up well-balanced.
Confidence in children comes from positive support in adults.【B1】______A positive image means that they are self-confident, that they know their own limits and trust their own abilities. People who have a positive image enjoy their lives and can handle themselves in tough situations. So, it is the same situation for children.
【B2】______This feeling is not born. It’ s created in the child’ s environment. Verbal and non-verbal hints are important to convey a message of confidence. Confidence from adults gives the child the ability to handle new challenges and activities.
Accept children for who they are. Whatever the child does right, we should praise them and encourage them. If a child does something inappropriate, then we have to correct them (without yelling at them).【B3】______Children learn a lot more by trying for themselves though it will take longer and probably be more messy. Patience and confidence can do a lot.【B4】______Provide them with help, if they need it. Be proud of them, whether or not they succeed. Children with self-confidence are not frightened by new experiences or learning situations.
Act as a role model. Children learn the most from your behavior. Children always imitate adult behavior, good and bad. They want to be adults themselves. If they see you cussing(骂人) , they will cuss.【B5】______Abused (受虐的) children will become child abusers. Building confidence in children will help them achieve success as adults.
A. If they see you helping others, they will try to help.
B. They need to know that without making mistakes, there can be no wisdom.
C. It is important that children develop a positive image of their own.
D. Give children the time and space to try something new and learn from their mistakes.
E. Self-confidence is the most important factor in success.
F. In order to build self-confidence, parents need to show confidence in their children.
解析：第四段空格前的内容主要论述父母要接受自己的孩子这一观点。作者认为父母看到孩子做对了事情，要给予赞扬和鼓励；对于他们做得不好的事情，要帮助他们改正。那么空格处的内容应与“If a child does something inappropriate…”相衔接。选项B中的“making mistakes”与前面的“does something inappropriate”在语义上相呼应，因此符合题意。
解析：空格前讲到“耐心和信心具有很大作用”，而空格后建议父母要给予孩子帮助，因此应填句子的内容应该与前后信息一致或相关联。通过分析剩余选项，D选项“Give children the time and space to try something new and learn from their mistakes”在结构和内容上与上下文衔接，为应填句子。
解析：最后一段作者建议父母要为孩子树立榜样，并举例说明。空格前后分别是两个孩子模仿成年人的例子，考生可以判断应填句子应该与这两个例子相关或相似。在剩余的两个选项中，A选项的“If…，they will…”与空格前的“If they see you cussing，they will cuss”句型一致，而且是一个正面的例子，在结构和内容上都符合题意。
Factors for America’ s Inventiveness
What accounts for the great outburst of major【W1】______in early America—breakthroughs such as the telegraph, the steamboat and the weaving machine?
Among the many shaping factors, I would【W2】______out the country’ s excellent elementary schools; a labor force that welcomed the new technology; the practice of【W3】______premiums to inventors; and above all the American genius for nonverbal, \
解析：此处需要现在分词。giving premiums to inventors给发明者提供酬金。
解析：此处需要名词。in some aspects在某些方面。
解析：此处需要名词。adaptiveness and inventiveness适应性和发明才能。
解析：此处需要动词。前面提到新机器，所以这里用renew。renew their faith更新他们的信念。
解析：此处需要动词的过去分词。be reduced to简化为……
解析：此处需要形容词。word implies mere imitation这个词暗指的仅仅是模仿。
How to Improve a Child’ s Appetite
Most children with【C1】______(health) appetites are ready to eat almost anything that is offered them. A child rarely dislikes food unless it is【C2】______(bad) cooked.
The way a meal is cooked and【C3】______(service) is most important and an【C4】______(attractive) served meal will often improve a child’ s appetite. Never ask a child whether he likes or dislikes a food and never【C5】______(discussion) likes and dislikes in front of him or allow anybody else to do so. If the father says he hates fat meat or the mother refuses vegetables in the child’ s【C6】______(hear) he is likely to copy this【C7】______(procedural). Take it for granted that he likes everything and he probably will. Nothing【C8】______(health) should be omitted from the meal because of a【C9】______(suppose) dislike. At meal times it is a good idea to give a child a small portion and let him come back for a second helping rather than give him as much as he is【C10】______(like) to eat all at once. Do not talk too much to the child during meal times, but let him get on with his food; and do not allow him to leave the table immediately after a meal or he will soon learn to swallow his food so he can hurry back to his toys. Under no circumstances must a child be coaxed (哄骗) or forced to eat.
解析：此处需填一个副词。科学的方法是一次不给孩子盛太多食物，而是应该少量多次地给予。be likely to do sth．意为“很可能做某事”，所以填likely。
I remember all the time that your birthday is around the corner. I am sure all the friends and relatives are planning a big birthday party for you. May I join them in wishing you a happy birthday?
How I wish I could stretch out my hand to shake with you, but you are so far away on the other side of the globe. Do you know how much I cherish our friendship during the past ten years, and how much I anticipate maintaining it for the years to come?
I write this letter to send my heartiest congratulations. I am sure that your birthday party will be a great success and I wish you many happy returns.