Ask just about any high school senior or junior in America—or their parents—and they’ll tell you that getting into a selective college is harder than it used to be. They’re right about that. But the reasons for the newfound difficulty are not well understood.
Population growth plays a role, but the number of teenagers is not too much higher than it was 30 years ago, when the youngest baby boomers were still applying to college. And while many more Americans attend college than in the past, most of the growth has occurred at colleges with relatively few resources and high dropout rates, which bear little resemblance to the elites.
So what else is going on? One overlooked factor is that top colleges are admitting fewer American students than they did a generation ago. Colleges have globalized over that time, deliberately increasing the share of their student bodies that come from overseas and leaving fewer slots for applicants from the United States.
For American teenagers, it really is harder to get into Harvard— or Yale, Stanford, Brown, Boston College or many other elite colleges— than it was when today’s 40-year-olds or 50-year-olds were applying. The number of spots filled by American students at Harvard, after adjusting for the size of the teenage population nationwide, has dropped 27 percent since 1994. At Yale and Dartmouth, the decline has been 24 percent. At Carleton, it’s 22 percent. At Notre Dame and Princeton, it is 14 percent.
This globalization obviously brings some big benefits. It has exposed American students to perspectives that our proudly parochial country often does not provide in childhood.
Yet the way in which American colleges have globalized comes with costs, too. For one thing, the rise in foreign students has complicated the colleges’ stated efforts to make their classes more economically diverse. Foreign students often receive insufficient financial aid and tend to be from well-off families. For another thing, the country’s most selective colleges have effectively shrunk as far as American students are concerned, during the same span that many students and their parents are spending more time obsessing over getting into one.
Either way, the research emphasizes a problem with the way colleges have globalized. With only a handful of exceptions (including Harvard, Amherst, M.I.T. and Yale), colleges have not tried hard to recruit an economically diverse group of foreign students. The students instead have become a revenue source.
1.It is suggested in Paragraph 2 that in America______.(C)
A. the first baby boomers make it greatly hard to get into a college
B. it is easy for students to attend selective colleges today
C. more students have access to common colleges than before
D. colleges today suffer from higher dropout rates
2.The word \(A)
解析：含义题。根据题干关键词定位到第三段第三句。由句中的increasing the share of以及后面的and leaving fewer可知，前后是并列关系，但表示相反的内容，故A项“配额”是share的同义改写，符合题意，为正确答案。
3.The percentages in Paragraph 4 are used to indicate that______.(C)
A. colleges have different acceptance rates
B. Harvard’s acceptance rate has declined the most
C. famous colleges are offering more chances for overseas students
D. an increasing number of overseas students like to study in America
4.What can be learned from the last paragraph?(D)
A. Harvard, Amherst, M.I.T. and Yale attempt to increase their income.
B. Colleges in America need financial aid from the federal government.
C. American colleges try to make curriculums diversified.
D. Many American colleges regard overseas students as a money-earning tool.
解析：细节题。根据题干关键词定位到最后一段。由only a handful of exceptions(除了少数例外)及最后一句可知，D项符合题意，为正确答案，选项中的money-earning是对原文中revenue的同义改写。
5.The author’s attitude toward American colleges’ increasing overseas share is______.(D)
Imagine browsing a website when an attractive ad for lingerie catches your eye. You don’t click on it, merely smile and go to another page. Yet it follows you, putting up more racy pictures, perhaps even the offer of a discount. Finally, annoyed by its persistence, you frown. \
6.The imagined situation in Paragraph 1 introduces______.(D)
A. an effective way of displaying advertisements
B. a method of getting rid of annoying commercials
C. an image-processing software used in promotion
D. an innovative technology tracking people’s emotions
7.According to Paragraph 2, the study of people’s emotional responses to ads______.(B)
A. contributes to the wide use of interactive ads in various fields
B. helps to improve the way in which online ads are displayed
C. classifies the different emotions of the subjects in real life
D. opens a door to a better acceptance of online advertisements
解析：细节题。由题干中的关键词Paragraph 2可迅速锁定信息至文章第二段。该段第三至五句话介绍了人们对广告的情绪反应的研究：广告公司录制了在模拟场景中(in an artificial setting)人们对于广告的不同反应，并对参与者表达积极或消极情绪时的面目表情进行了研究。结合第一段中的信息(根据人的情绪做出反应的广告)，可推知，广告商是想通过研究人的情绪开发出这种广告，以便获得更好的广告效果。B项符合文意，故为正确答案。
8.The emotional analysis by Realeyes company mainly focuses on______.(C)
A. eye movements
B. psychological disorders
C. facial expressions
D. quantitative data
解析：细节题。根据题干中Realeyes company这一关键词，可迅速将信息锁定至文章第三段。该段介绍了Realeyes公司所开发的一个新系统。首句指出，该公司一直在研发一种将眼球监测网络摄像头与情绪分析相结合的系统。接下来第二句具体指出该系统所具有的功能，能够通过标示眉毛、嘴和鼻孔等面部位置，并运用智能程序识别其位置的变化来识别人的情绪(detect a person’s mood by plotting the position of facial features)，故可推断出该公司对情绪的分析主要是通过标示人的面部特征来进行的，C项符合文意，为正确答案。
9.Interactive ads are featured by(A)
A. smart responses
B. identification of attention
C. recognition of emotions
D. acute observation
解析：推断题。根据题干的关键词Interactive ads(互动式广告)可迅速将信息定位至文章第四段。该段第一、二句指出，目前该系统正被用于各种为特定目的而建立的网站，而下一步就是要制作互动式广告。接着第三句对互动式广告进行了说明：由于这类广告能捕捉到人们的视觉关注以及浏览者的情绪状态，因此它们可以做出相应的反应(these ads could change their responses)。由此可推知，捕捉到浏览者对其的视觉关注和情绪是互动式广告作出相应反应的两个前提条件，同时也是互动式广告的特殊之处，故A项正确。
10.As for the new technology, use of webcams would be forbidden when______.(B)
A. intellectual property is concerned
B. Internet users do not permit it
C. the technology becomes popular
D. no discounts or other services are provided
解析：细节题。根据题干中的关键词，可迅速将信息定位至文章最后一段。该段首句指出，随着此类技术的广泛使用，对于个人的隐私将倍受关注。接着第二句指出Jaatma先生也表示，以这种方式使用网络摄像头必须得到当事人的同意(People would need to give consent to their webcams being used in this way)，由此可知，如果当事人不同意，这种网络摄像头则会被禁用，B项符合此意，故为正确答案。
It is no longer particularly rare for women to be the main breadwinner—in the US a quarter of wives now earn more than their husbands—but what is rarer is for such a relationship to work. A book published last week by the journalist Farnoosh Torabi draws together data showing just how hard it is: high-earning women have difficulty finding a husband, and when they do, he is five times as likely to be unfaithful as other husbands. The woman will probably do more than her share of chores; though in the unusual event that he starts ironing and cooking, he is likely to end his marriage. Either way, divorce beckons.
The majority of people, even very young couples, still seem to be in relationships where the man makes more. One fiercely clever young man says his equally clever feminist girlfriend has told him she could never marry a man who earned less as she didn’t fancy a life spent propping up his ego.
One male colleague says his wife’s habit of making a lot was a godsend for him as he loves money but is too lazy to make much himself. More commonly it comes when the man’s professional ego is not measured in money. Various men at the FT (Financial Times) have wives earning a fortune in the city, freeing them to be relatively poorly paid hacks. Within the marriage there is the understanding that his career matters as much— if not more—than hers. In the same way, some female journalists support men who are musicians and designers, who love what they do, and (in the best cases) are also happy to take the lead in bringing up the children.
The most interesting cases are when both started together in a similar industry but over the years the woman has overtaken the man. Most of these seem to end badly. But one successful male journalist explained how he had overcome the problem of having an even more successful wife. \
11.Which of the following is NOT true according to Paragraph 1?(C)
A. Today, it’s common for a woman to be the main breadwinner.
B. The husband of high-earning woman is more likely to be unfaithful.
C. In the US, half of wives earn more than their husbands.
D. Many men are difficult to live with a successful wife.
解析：细节题。根据题干关键词定位到第一段。C项“在美国，有一半人的妻子赚的比丈夫多”，与in the US a quarter of wives now eam more than their husbands不符，故C项符合题意，为正确答案。
12.Women are unwilling to marry a man who earns less than her because such a man______.(C)
A. can’t support her
B. has nothing in common with her
C. is easy to be hurt
D. tends to be more conservative
解析：细节题。据题干关键词定位到第二段第二句：One fiercely clever young man says his equally clever feminist girlfriend has told him she could never marry a man who earned less as she didn’t fancy a life spent propping up his ego。此句意为“一位极其聪明的年轻男士说，他同样聪明的女权主义女友曾经告诉他，她绝不可能跟一个挣得比自己少的男人结婚，因为她不愿把一辈子花在维护他的自尊心上”。故C项“更容易受伤”符合题意，为正确答案。
13.The case of\(A)
A. some men wish to marry a rich woman
B. some men are enjoyable to do housework
C. a successful wife is more helpful to her husband
D. a successful wife is more tolerate
解析：细节题。根据题干关键词定位到第三段第一句：One male colleague says his wife’s habit of making a lot was a godsend for him as he loves money but is too lazy to make much himself。此句意为“一位男同事表示，妻子能赚大钱的本事对他而言简直是上天的恩赐，因为他虽然爱财，但过于懒惰，并不想自己去挣”。故A项“有些男士希望娶一位有钱的女士”符合题意，为正确答案。
14.According to the journalist, how should a man face the more successful wife?(B)
A. He should try his best to maintain the equality between couples.
B. He should learn to appreciate his succesful wife.
C. He should keep the balance between work and life.
D. He should learn to express his dissatisfaction in right way.
解析：推断题。根据题干关键词定位到最后一段的“It’s the Piketty debate，isn’t it?what matters most–inequality,or overall living standards?”In the interests of the latter,he has wisely refused to feel any resentment and instead declares himself utterly proud of his wife。意思是“这就好比是皮凯蒂之辩，不是吗?什么最重要——夫妻间的不平等，还是整体生活水平?”为了后一项利益，他明智地拒绝产生任何怨愤的感觉，而是宣称自己为妻子感到无比骄傲。故B项“他应该学会欣赏他成功的妻子”符合题意，为正确答案。
15.It can be inferred from the passage that______.(A)
A. today it’s still hard for a man to accept a successful wife
B. today the equality between couples is still important
C. women are more open-minded in the marriage bonds
D. the ego of men is stronger than women’s
Does a bill that does nothing actually do something? This is not a Zen koan, but a legislative one, being tested this month in Tennessee. The bill in question required the state’s education system to encourage students to \
16.According to Paragraph 1, which of the following statements about Tennessee’s bill is NOT true?(C)
A. It encouraged students to explore scientific questions.
B. It respected students’ different opinions about scientific subjects.
C. It protected teachers from punishment for criticizing existing scientific theories.
D. It won the support of big majorities in both chambers and took effect.
解析：细节题。根据题干定位到第一段。原文提到It also protected teachers against punishment for“helping students understand，analyse，critique and review in an objective manner the scientific strengths and scientific weaknesses of existing scientific theories．”(教师还能“帮助学生以客观的方式理解、分析、评论及考察现存科学理论中的优缺点”而不受处罚)，C项漏掉了in an objective manller这一重要前提，因此错误。故选C项。
17.Tennessee’s bill is at issue because it may______.(A)
A. allow the introduction of creationism into science classrooms
B. support arguments against evolution in science classrooms
C. weaken science education in the state
D. change Tennessee’s science curriculum
解析：细节题。根据关键词at issue定位到第二段第一句At issue is whether this innocuous-sounding measure is actually a back door that would allow teachers to introduce creationism and intelligent design into science classrooms(目前有争议的是，这份听似无伤大雅的法案是否真的为教师在科学课堂上向学生介绍创世说和智慧设计论开了后门)，因此A项“允许在科学课堂上介绍创世说”正确。
18.It cannot be inferred from the text that in American public schools______.(C)
A. it is illegal to teach creationism and intelligent design
B. teachers are not allowed to introduce arguments against evolution
C. evolution is the only legal scientific theory that can be taught
D. students may not hear the full range of scientific views about evolution
19.It can be inferred from the text that Tennessee’s bill______.(D)
A. will change Tennessee’s science curriculum
B. will clearly lobby for creationism and intelligent design
C. may have evident effects as expected
D. is in fact in favor of evolution sceptics
20.The author’s attitude towards Tennessee’s bill is probably______.(B)
解析：态度题。此题考查作者的态度，需结合全文推断，尤其要注意每段的第一句、最后一句。第一段以Does a bill that does nothing actually do something?引出要介绍的Tennessee’s bill的主要内容。第二段开头At issue is whether this innocuous-sounding measure is actually a back door that…以下讲述该法案引起的争议。第三段Supporters…say this is alarmist nonsense介绍了法案支持者的观点。第四段最后提到They let evolution sceptics express themselves in the right place：within the law and outside the classroom(它们让进化论怀疑者在恰当的场所表达了自己的意见。所谓恰当，即法律之内，课堂之外)。这都是客观的表述，并没有掺杂作者个人的观点。所以作者的态度是objective(客观的)，B项正确。